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Thursday, 16 December 2010

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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Mozart circa 1780, by Johann Nepomuk della Croce Mozart sekitar tahun 1780, oleh Johann Nepomuk della Croce
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart signature.svg
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( German: [ˈvɔlfɡɑŋ amaˈdeus ˈmoːtsaʁt] , English see fn. [ 1 ] ), baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart [ 2 ] (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Jerman: [vɔlfɡɑŋ tsaʁt Amadeus mo ː] Bahasa Inggris lihat fn., [1] ), nama baptis Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart [2] (27 Januari 1756 - 5 Desember 1791), adalah seorang produktif dan berpengaruh komposer dari Klasik era . He composed over 600 works , many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic , concertante , chamber , piano , operatic , and choral music . Dia terdiri lebih dari 600 karya , banyak diakui sebagai puncaknya dari simfoni , concertante , ruang , piano , opera , dan paduan suara musik . He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers. Dia adalah salah satu yang paling enduringly populer klasik komposer.
Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood in Salzburg . Mozart menunjukkan kemampuan luar biasa dari awal masa kecilnya di Salzburg . Already competent on keyboard and violin , he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. Sudah kompeten pada keyboard dan biola , ia terdiri dari usia lima tahun dan dilakukan sebelum royalti Eropa. At 17 he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always composing abundantly. Pada 17 ia terlibat sebagai musisi pengadilan di Salzburg, tetapi tumbuh gelisah dan bepergian untuk mencari posisi yang lebih baik, selalu menulis berlimpah. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. Ketika mengunjungi Wina pada 1781, ia diberhentikan dari posisi Salzburg nya. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. Dia memilih untuk tinggal di ibukota, di mana ia mencapai ketenaran tetapi keamanan finansial sedikit. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem , which was largely unfinished at the time of Mozart's death. Selama tahun-tahun terakhirnya di Wina, ia banyak terdiri dari paling terkenal nya simfoni, concerto, dan opera, dan bagian dari Requiem , yang sebagian besar belum selesai pada saat kematian Mozart. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. Keadaan kematian awal telah banyak mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons. Dia meninggalkan istrinya Constanze dan dua anak.
Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and maturity of style that encompassed the light and graceful along with the dark and passionate. Mozart lahap belajar dari orang lain, dan mengembangkan kecerdasan dan kematangan gaya bahasa yang mencakup cahaya dan anggun bersama dengan gelap dan penuh gairah. His influence on subsequent Western art music is profound. Beethoven wrote his own early compositions in the shadow of Mozart, of whom Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years." [ 3 ] Pengaruhnya pada berikutnya Barat seni musik yang mendalam. Beethoven menulis awal komposisinya sendiri dalam bayangan Mozart, di antaranya Joseph Haydn menulis bahwa "keturunannya tidak akan melihat seperti bakat lagi dalam 100 tahun." [3]

Contents Isi

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Biography Biografi

Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria Tempat kelahiran Mozart di Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria

Family and early years Keluarga dan tahun-tahun awal

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg , capital of the sovereign Archbishopric of Salzburg , in what is now Austria but, at the time, was part of the Bavarian Circle in the Holy Roman Empire . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart lahir Leopold dan Anna Maria Pertl Mozart di 9 Getreidegasse di Salzburg , ibukota berdaulat Keuskupan Agung Salzburg , di tempat yang sekarang Austria tetapi, pada saat itu, merupakan bagian dari Lingkaran Bavaria dalam Kekaisaran Romawi Suci . His only sibling to survive past birth was Maria Anna (1751–1829), called "Nannerl". Nya hanya saudara untuk bertahan hidup lahir terakhir adalah Maria Anna (1751-1829), yang disebut "Nannerl". Wolfgang was baptized the day after his birth at St. Wolfgang adalah dibaptis hari setelah lahir di St Rupert's Cathedral . Rupert's Cathedral . The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart . Catatan pembaptisan memberikan namanya dalam bentuk Latin sebagai Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He generally called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" [ 4 ] as an adult, but there were many variants . Dia umumnya menyebut dirinya "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" [4] sebagai orang dewasa, tapi ada banyak varian .
His father Leopold (1719–1787) was from Augsburg . Ayahnya Leopold (1719-1787) berasal dari Augsburg . He was deputy Kapellmeister to the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg, a minor composer, and an experienced teacher. Dia deputi dirigen untuk orkestra pengadilan Uskup Agung Salzburg, seorang komposer kecil, dan seorang guru berpengalaman. In the year of Mozart's birth, his father published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule , which achieved success. Pada tahun itu kelahiran Mozart, ayahnya menerbitkan sebuah buku pelajaran biola, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule , yang mencapai sukses.
Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni ; painted in 1763 on commission from Leopold Anonymous potret anak Mozart, kemungkinan oleh Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni , dilukis pada tahun 1763 pada komisi dari Leopold
When Nannerl was seven, she began keyboard lessons with her father; and her three-year-old brother would look on, evidently fascinated. Ketika Nannerl berusia tujuh tahun, ia mulai pelajaran keyboard dengan ayahnya, dan adiknya tiga tahun akan terlihat pada, ternyata terpesona. Years later, after his death, she reminisced: Bertahun-tahun kemudian, setelah kematiannya, ia kenang:
He often spent much time at the clavier , picking out thirds, which he was always striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good. Dia sering menghabiskan banyak waktu di piano , memilih pertiga, yang ia selalu mencolok, dan kesenangan-Nya menunjukkan bahwa terdengar baik. [...] In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier. [...] Pada tahun keempat usianya ayahnya, untuk permainan seperti itu, mulai mengajar dia beberapa minuets dan potongan di piano itu. [...] He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time. [...] Dia bisa bermain tanpa salah dan dengan kelezatan terbesar, dan menjaga tepat pada waktunya. [...] At the age of five, he was already composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down. [ 5 ] [...] Pada usia lima tahun, dia sudah menyusun potongan-potongan kecil, yang dia bermain dengan ayahnya yang menulis mereka. [5]
These early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch . Potongan-potongan awal, K. 1-5, dicatat dalam Notenbuch Nannerl .
Biographer Maynard Solomon [ 6 ] notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Wolfgang was keen to make progress beyond what he was being taught. Penulis biografi Maynard Salomo [6] mencatat bahwa, sementara Leopold adalah seorang guru dikhususkan untuk anak-anaknya, ada bukti bahwa Wolfgang sangat ingin membuat kemajuan luar apa yang diajarkan. His first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were on his own initiative and came as a great surprise to Leopold. [ 7 ] Leopold eventually gave up composing when his son's outstanding musical talents became evident. [ 8 ] He was Wolfgang's only teacher in his earliest years and taught his children languages and academic subjects as well as music. [ 6 ] tinta-Nya-noda komposisi pertama dan upaya dewasa sebelum waktunya dengan biola itu atas inisiatif sendiri dan datang sebagai kejutan besar untuk Leopold. [7] Leopold akhirnya menyerah menulis ketika beredar's musik anak bakatnya menjadi jelas. [8] Ia Wolfgang guru hanya di awal tahun dan mengajar anak-anaknya bahasa dan mata pelajaran akademis serta musik. [6]
The Mozart family on tour: Leopold , Wolfgang, and Nannerl . Keluarga Mozart tur: Leopold , Wolfgang, dan Nannerl . Watercolor by Carmontelle , ca. Cat air oleh Carmontelle , ca. 1763 [ 9 ] 1763 [9]

1762–1773: Years of travel 1762-1773: Tahun perjalanan

During Mozart's youth, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies . Selama kaum muda Mozart, keluarganya membuat perjalanan beberapa Eropa di mana ia dan Nannerl dilakukan sebagai keajaiban anak . These began with an exhibition, in 1762, at the court of the Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich , and at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague . Ini dimulai dengan pameran, pada tahun 1762, di pengadilan dari Pangeran-pemilih Maximilian III dari Bavaria di Munich , dan di Pengadilan Imperial di Wina dan Praha . A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim , Paris, London, The Hague , again to Paris, and back home via Zürich , Donaueschingen , and Munich. Sebuah tur konser panjang mencakup tiga dan setengah tahun berikutnya, membawa keluarga ke pengadilan Munich, Mannheim , Paris, London, Den Haag , kembali ke Paris, dan kembali ke rumah melalui Zürich , Donaueschingen , dan Munich. During this trip, Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. Selama perjalanan ini, Mozart bertemu sejumlah besar musisi dan mengenal dirinya dengan karya komponis lainnya. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach , whom Mozart visited in London in 1764 and 1765. Sebuah penting pengaruh terutama adalah Johann Christian Bach , Mozart yang dikunjungi di London pada tahun 1764 dan 1765. The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. Keluarga lagi pergi ke Wina pada akhir tahun 1767 dan tinggal di sana sampai Desember 1768.
These trips were often arduous. Perjalanan ini sering sulit. Travel conditions were primitive; [ 10 ] the family had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility. [ 11 ] They endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold (London, summer 1764) [ 12 ] then both children (The Hague, autumn 1765). [ 13 ] kondisi Perjalanan masih primitif; [10] keluarga harus menunggu untuk undangan dan penggantian dari kaum bangsawan. [11] Mereka bertahan lama,-fatal penyakit dekat jauh dari rumah: pertama Leopold (London, musim panas 1764) [12] kemudian kedua anak (Den Haag, musim gugur 1765). [13]
After one year in Salzburg, father and son set off for Italy, leaving Wolfgang's mother and his sister at home. Setelah satu tahun di Salzburg, ayah dan anak berangkat ke Italia, meninggalkan ibu Wolfgang dan kakaknya di rumah. This travel lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. perjalanan ini berlangsung dari Desember 1769 sampai Maret 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a rapidly maturing composer. Seperti perjalanan sebelumnya, Leopold ingin menampilkan kemampuan anaknya sebagai pemain dan komposer cepat jatuh tempo. Wolfgang met GB Martini , in Bologna , and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica . Wolfgang bertemu GB Martini , di Bologna , dan diterima sebagai anggota yang terkenal Filarmonica Accademia . In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri 's Miserere once in performance in the Sistine Chapel . Di Roma, ia mendengar Gregorio Allegri 's Miserere sekali dalam kinerja di Kapel Sistina . He wrote it out in its entirety from memory, only returning to correct minor errors—thus producing the first illegal copy of this closely guarded property of the Vatican . Dia menulis itu keluar secara keseluruhan dari memori, hanya kembali untuk mengoreksi kesalahan-kecil sehingga menghasilkan salinan ilegal pertama ini dijaga properti erat dari Vatikan .
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770), which was performed with success. Di Milan, Mozart menulis opera Mitridate, kembali di Ponto (1770), yang dilakukan dengan sukses. This led to further opera commissions . Hal ini menyebabkan opera lebih lanjut komisi . He returned with his father later twice to Milan (August–December 1771; October 1772 – March 1773) for the composition and premieres of Ascanio in Alba (1771) and Lucio Silla (1772). Ia kembali dengan ayahnya kemudian dua kali untuk Milan (Agustus-Desember 1771; Oktober 1772 - Maret 1773) untuk komposisi dan perdana dari Ascanio di Alba (1771) dan Lucio Silla (1772). Leopold hoped these visits would result in a professional appointment for his son in Italy, but these hopes were never fulfilled. [ 14 ] Leopold berharap kunjungan ini akan menghasilkan sebuah janji profesional untuk anaknya di Italia, tetapi harapan ini tidak pernah terpenuhi. [14]
Toward the end of the final Italian journey, Mozart wrote the first of his works to be still widely performed today, the solo cantata Exsultate, jubilate , K. 165. Menjelang akhir akhir perjalanan Italia, Mozart menulis yang pertama dari karya-karyanya masih banyak yang harus dilakukan hari ini, solo kantata Exsultate, bersorak kegembiraan , K. 165.

1773–1777: The Salzburg court 1773-1777: Pengadilan Salzburg

After finally returning with his father from Italy on 13 March 1773, Mozart was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo . Setelah akhirnya kembali dengan ayahnya dari Italia pada tanggal 13 Maret 1773, Mozart bekerja sebagai musisi pengadilan oleh penguasa Salzburg, Pangeran-Uskup Agung Hieronymus Colloredo . The composer had a great number of friends and admirers in Salzburg [ 15 ] and had the opportunity to work in many genres, composing symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, serenades, and a few minor operas. komposer ini memiliki sejumlah besar teman dan pengagum di Salzburg [15] dan memiliki kesempatan untuk bekerja di berbagai genre, menyusun simfoni, sonata, kuartet string, serenades, dan beberapa opera kecil. Several of these early works are still performed today. Beberapa dari karya-karya awal masih dilakukan hari ini. Between April and December 1775, Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five (the only ones he ever wrote), which steadily increased in their musical sophistication. Antara bulan April dan Desember 1775, Mozart mengembangkan antusiasme untuk concerto biola, menghasilkan serangkaian lima (satu-satunya yang pernah menulis), yang terus meningkat dalam kecanggihan musik mereka. The last three— K. Tiga terakhir K. 216 , K. 216 , K. 218 , K. 218 , K. 219 —are now staples of the repertoire. 219 -sekarang pokok masyarakat repertoar. In 1776 he turned his efforts to piano concertos , culminating in the E-flat concerto K. Pada tahun 1776 ia berpaling upaya untuk concerto piano , yang berpuncak pada konser E-flat K. 271 of early 1777, considered by critics to be a breakthrough work. [ 16 ] 271 awal 1777, dianggap oleh para kritikus untuk menjadi sebuah karya terobosan. [16]
Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontent with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to find a position elsewhere. Meskipun keberhasilan artistik, Mozart menjadi semakin tidak puas dengan Salzburg dan melipatgandakan upaya untuk menemukan posisi tempat lain. One reason was his low salary, 150 florins a year; [ 17 ] Mozart also longed to compose operas, and Salzburg provided only rare occasions for these. Salah satu alasannya adalah gaji rendah nya, 150 florin tahun; [17] Mozart juga rindu untuk menulis opera, dan Salzburg disediakan hanya untuk kesempatan langka ini. The situation worsened in 1775 when the court theater was closed, especially since the other theater in Salzburg was largely reserved for visiting troupes. [ 18 ] Situasi memburuk pada 1775 ketika teater pengadilan ditutup, terutama karena teater lain di Salzburg sebagian besar disediakan untuk rombongan mengunjungi. [18]
Two long expeditions in search of work (both Leopold and Wolfgang were looking) interrupted this long Salzburg stay: they visited Vienna, from 14 July to 26 September 1773, and Munich, from 6 December 1774 to March 1775. Dua ekspedisi panjang untuk mencari pekerjaan (baik Leopold dan Wolfgang cari) terputus ini lama tinggal Salzburg: mereka mengunjungi Wina, dari 14 Juli sampai 26 September 1773 dan Munich, dari 6 Desember 1774 sampai Maret 1775. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera . [ 19 ] kunjungi Baik berhasil, meskipun perjalanan Munich menghasilkan sukses populer dengan perdana opera Mozart giardiniera La Finta . [19]

1777–1778: The Paris journey 1777-1778: Perjalanan Paris

Family portrait from about 1780 by Johann Nepomuk della Croce: Nannerl, Wolfgang, Leopold. Keluarga potret dari sekitar 1780 oleh Johann Nepomuk della Croce: Nannerl, Wolfgang, Leopold. On the wall is a portrait of Mozart's mother, who had died in 1778. Di dinding adalah potret ibu Mozart, yang meninggal pada tahun 1778.
In August 1777, Mozart resigned his Salzburg position [ 20 ] and, on 23 September, ventured out once more in search of employment, with visits to Augsburg , Mannheim, Paris, and Munich. [ 21 ] Since Archbishop Colloredo would not give Leopold leave to travel, Mozart's mother Anna Maria accompanied him. Pada bulan Agustus 1777, Mozart mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya Salzburg [20] dan, pada tanggal 23 September, memberanikan diri keluar sekali lagi dalam mencari pekerjaan, dengan kunjungan ke Augsburg , Mannheim, Paris, dan Munich. [21] Sejak Uskup Agung Colloredo tidak akan memberikan Leopold meninggalkan untuk melakukan perjalanan, ibu Mozart Anna Maria menemaninya.
Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time. Mozart berkenalan dengan anggota dari orkestra terkenal di Mannheim, yang terbaik di Eropa pada saat itu. He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber , one of four daughters in a musical family. Ia juga jatuh cinta dengan Aloysia Weber , salah satu dari empat anak perempuan dalam keluarga musik. There were prospects of employment in Mannheim, but they came to nothing, and Mozart left for Paris on 14 March 1778 [ 22 ] to continue his search. Ada prospek kerja di Mannheim, tapi mereka datang untuk apa-apa, dan Mozart berangkat ke Paris pada tanggal 14 Maret 1778 [22] untuk melanjutkan pencarian. One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles , but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment. [ 23 ] He fell into debt and took to pawning valuables. [ 24 ] The nadir of the visit occurred when Mozart's mother took ill and died on 3 July 1778. [ 25 ] There had been delays in calling a doctor—probably, according to Halliwell, because of a lack of funds. [ 26 ] Salah satu surat dari petunjuk Paris di pos mungkin sebagai organ di Versailles , tapi Mozart tidak tertarik seperti janji. [23] Ia jatuh ke dalam hutang dan turun ke barang-barang berharga gadai. [24] The nadir dari kunjungan tersebut terjadi ketika Ibu Mozart mengambil sakit dan meninggal pada 3 Juli 1778. [25] Ada telah penundaan dalam memanggil dokter-mungkin, menurut Halliwell, karena kurangnya dana. [26]
While Wolfgang was in Paris, Leopold was pursuing opportunities for him back in Salzburg, [ 27 ] and, with the support of local nobility, secured him a post as court organist and concertmaster. Sementara Wolfgang berada di Paris, Leopold mengejar kesempatan untuk kembali di Salzburg, [27] dan, dengan dukungan dari bangsawan lokal, dijamin dia jabatan sebagai organis pengadilan dan concertmaster. The yearly salary was 450 florins, [ 28 ] but Wolfgang was reluctant to accept. [ 29 ] After leaving Paris on 26 September 1778, he tarried in Mannheim and Munich, still hoping to obtain an appointment outside Salzburg. Gaji tahunan adalah 450 florin, [28] tapi Wolfgang enggan untuk menerima. [29] Setelah meninggalkan Paris pada 26 September 1778, ia tinggallah di Mannheim dan Munich, masih berharap untuk mendapatkan janji luar Salzburg. In Munich, he again encountered Aloysia, now a very successful singer, but she made it plain that she was no longer interested in him. [ 30 ] Mozart finally reached home on 15 January 1779 and took up the new position, but his discontent with Salzburg was undiminished. Di Munich, ia kembali bertemu Aloysia, sekarang penyanyi yang sangat sukses, tapi dia membuat jelas bahwa ia tidak lagi tertarik padanya. [30] Mozart akhirnya sampai di rumah pada 15 Januari 1779 dan mengambil posisi baru, namun ia puas dengan Salzburg itu berkurang.
Among the better known works that Mozart wrote on the Paris journey are the A minor piano sonata K. Di antara karya-karya Mozart lebih dikenal yang menulis dalam perjalanan Paris adalah piano sonata A minor K. 310/300d and the "Paris" Symphony (no. 31); these were performed in Paris on 12 June and 18 June 1778. [ 31 ] 310/300d dan "Paris" Symphony (no. 31); dilakukan di Paris pada 12 Juni dan 18 Juni 1778. ini [31]
Mozart in 1777. Mozart pada tahun 1777. Portrait requested by Padre Martini for his gallery; Mozart with the Order of the Golden Spur which he received in 1770 as a 14-year old from Pope Clement XIV in Rome. [ 32 ] Potret diminta oleh Padre Martini untuk galeri-nya, Mozart dengan Orde Spur Emas yang ia terima pada tahun 1770 sebagai tahun 14 tahun dari Paus Klemens XIV Roma. di [32]

1781: Departure to Vienna 1781: Berangkat ke Wina

In January 1781, Mozart's opera Idomeneo premiered with "considerable success" in Munich. [ 33 ] The following March the composer was summoned to Vienna , where his employer, Archbishop Colloredo, was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II to the Austrian throne. Pada bulan Januari 1781, Mozart opera Idomeneo perdana dengan "cukup sukses" di Munich. [33] Berikut Maret komposer dipanggil ke Wina , di mana majikannya, Uskup Agung Colloredo, sedang menghadiri perayaan untuk aksesi Yusuf II ke tahta Austria . Mozart, fresh from the adulation he had earned in Munich, was offended when Colloredo treated him as a mere servant and particularly when the archbishop forbade him to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun 's for a fee equal to half of his yearly Salzburg salary. Mozart, segar dari pujian ia telah mendapatkan di Munich, merasa tersinggung ketika Colloredo memperlakukan dia sebagai hamba belaka dan terutama ketika Uskup Agung melarang dia untuk melakukan sebelum Kaisar di Countess Thun s 'untuk biaya yang sama dengan setengah dari gaji tahunan Salzburg nya . The resulting quarrel came to a head in May: Mozart attempted to resign and was refused. Yang dihasilkan bertengkar datang ke kepala Mei: Mozart berusaha untuk mengundurkan diri dan ditolak. The following month, permission was granted but in a grossly insulting way: the composer was dismissed literally "with a kick in the ass", administered by the archbishop's steward, Count Arco. Bulan berikutnya, izin diberikan tetapi dengan cara yang terlalu menghina: komposer ini ditolak harfiah "dengan tendangan di pantat", yang dikelola oleh pengurus uskup agung, Count Arco. Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer. [ 34 ] Mozart memutuskan untuk menetap di Wina sebagai pemain lepas dan komposer. [34]
The quarrel with the archbishop went harder for Mozart because his father sided against him. Pertengkaran dengan uskup agung itu pergi sulit bagi Mozart karena ayahnya berpihak terhadap dia. Hoping fervently that he would obediently follow Colloredo back to Salzburg, Leopold exchanged intense letters with his son, urging him to be reconciled with their employer. Berharap sungguh-sungguh bahwa dia patuh akan mengikuti Colloredo kembali ke Salzburg, Leopold ditukar surat intens dengan anaknya, mendesak dia untuk didamaikan dengan majikan mereka. Wolfgang passionately defended his intention to pursue an independent career in Vienna. Wolfgang bersemangat membela niatnya untuk mengejar karir independen di Wina. The debate ended when Mozart was dismissed by the archbishop, freeing himself both of his employer and his father's demands to return. Perdebatan berakhir ketika Mozart telah diberhentikan oleh Uskup Agung, membebaskan diri kedua majikannya dan tuntutan ayahnya untuk kembali. Solomon characterizes Mozart's resignation as a "revolutionary step", and it greatly altered the course of his life. [ 35 ] Salomo mencirikan's pengunduran diri Mozart sebagai "langkah revolusioner", dan itu sangat mengubah jalan hidupnya. [35]

Early Vienna years Awal Wina tahun

Mozart's new career in Vienna began well. karir baru Mozart di Wina mulai baik. He performed often as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi on 24 December 1781, [ 34 ] and he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna". [ 34 ] He also prospered as a composer, and in 1782 completed the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio"), which premiered on 16 July 1782 and achieved a huge success. Dia melakukan sering sebagai seorang pianis, terutama dalam kompetisi sebelum Kaisar dengan Muzio Clementi pada tanggal 24 1781, Desember [34] dan dia segera "telah memantapkan dirinya sebagai pemain keyboard terbaik di Wina". [34] Ia juga makmur sebagai komposer , dan pada tahun 1782 menyelesaikan opera Die aus dem Serail Entführung ("The Abduction dari istana"), yang ditayangkan pada tanggal 16 Juli 1782 dan mencapai sukses besar. The work was soon being performed "throughout German-speaking Europe", [ 34 ] and fully established Mozart's reputation as a composer. Pekerjaan itu segera sedang dilakukan "di seluruh Eropa yang berbahasa Jerman", [34] dan sepenuhnya didirikan reputasi Mozart sebagai komposer.
1782 portrait of Constanze Mozart by her brother-in-law Joseph Lange 1782 potret Constanze Mozart oleh-kakak iparnya Joseph Lange
Near the height of his quarrels with Colloredo, Mozart moved in with the Weber family, who had moved to Vienna from Mannheim. Mendekati ketinggian bertengkar dengan Colloredo, Mozart pindah dengan keluarga Weber, yang telah pindah ke Wina dari Mannheim. The father, Fridolin, had died, and the Webers were now taking in lodgers to make ends meet. [ 36 ] Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor Joseph Lange , and Mozart's interest shifted to the third daughter, Constanze . Sang ayah, Fridolin, telah meninggal, dan Webers sekarang mengambil di lodgers untuk memenuhi kebutuhan. [36] Aloysia, yang sebelumnya menolak's setelan Mozart, sekarang menikah dengan aktor Joseph Lange , dan Minat Mozart bergeser ke anak ketiga , Constanze . The courtship did not go entirely smoothly; surviving correspondence indicates that Mozart and Constanze briefly broke up in April 1782. [ 37 ] Mozart also faced a very difficult task in getting his father's permission for the marriage. [ 38 ] The couple were finally married on 4 August 1782, in St. pacaran itu tidak pergi seluruhnya lancar; korespondensi selamat menunjukkan bahwa Mozart dan Constanze sebentar putus pada bulan April 1782. [37] Mozart juga menghadapi kesulitan tugas yang sangat dalam mendapatkan ayah izin untuk pernikahan. [38] Pasangan itu akhirnya menikah pada 4 Agustus 1782, di St Stephen's Cathedral , the day before Leopold's consent arrived in the mail. [ 38 ] Stephen's Cathedral , sehari sebelum itu persetujuan Leopold tiba di pos. [38]
The couple had six children, of which only two survived infancy: Pasangan ini memiliki enam anak, yang hanya dua selamat dalam masa pertumbuhan:
  • Raimund Leopold (17 June – 19 August 1783) Raimund Leopold (17 Juni - 19 Agustus 1783)
  • Karl Thomas Mozart (21 September 1784 – 31 October 1858) Karl Thomas Mozart (21 September 1784 - 31 Oktober 1858)
  • Johann Thomas Leopold (18 October – 15 November 1786) Johann Thomas Leopold (18 Oktober - 15 November 1786)
  • Theresia Constanzia Adelheid Friedericke Maria Anna (27 December 1787 – 29 June 1788) Constanzia Theresia Anna Maria Adelheid Friedericke (27 Desember 1787-29 June 1788)
  • Anna Maria (died soon after birth, 25 December 1789) Anna Maria (meninggal segera setelah lahir, 25 Desember 1789)
  • Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 July 1791 – 29 July 1844) Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 Juli 1791 - 29 Juli 1844)
In the course of 1782 and 1783 Mozart became intimately acquainted with the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel as a result of the influence of Gottfried van Swieten , who owned many manuscripts of the Baroque masters. Dalam perjalanan Mozart 1782 dan 1783 menjadi intim berkenalan dengan karya Johann Sebastian Bach dan George Frideric Handel sebagai akibat dari pengaruh Gottfried van Swieten , yang memiliki banyak manuskrip Baroque master. Mozart's study of these scores inspired compositions in Baroque style, and later influenced his personal musical language, for example in fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") and the finale of Symphony No. 41 . [ 39 ] Mozart's studi ini terinspirasi skor komposisi dalam gaya Baroque, dan kemudian dipengaruhi bahasa pribadi musik, misalnya dalam fugal bagian dalam Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") dan final Symphony No 41 . [39]
In 1783, Wolfgang and Constanze visited his family in Salzburg. Pada 1783, Wolfgang dan Constanze mengunjungi keluarganya di Salzburg. Leopold and Nannerl were, at best, only polite to Constanze, but the visit prompted the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C minor . Leopold dan Nannerl itu, di terbaik, hanya sopan untuk Constanze, tapi kunjungi diminta komposisi dari salah satu potongan besar liturgi's Mozart, yang Misa di C minor . Though not completed, it was premiered in Salzburg, with Constanze singing a solo part. [ 40 ] Meskipun belum selesai, itu perdana di Salzburg, dengan Constanze menyanyi merupakan bagian solo. [40]
Mozart met Joseph Haydn in Vienna, and the two composers became friends (see Haydn and Mozart ). Mozart bertemu Joseph Haydn di Wina, dan dua komponis menjadi teman (lihat Haydn dan Mozart ). When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet . Ketika Haydn mengunjungi Wina, mereka kadang bermain bersama dalam sebuah dadakan kuartet string . Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) date from the period 1782 to 1785, and are judged to be a response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. [ 41 ] Haydn in 1785 told the visiting Leopold: "I tell you before God, and as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer known to me by person and repute, he has taste and what is more the greatest skill in composition." [ 42 ] Mozart enam kuartet didedikasikan untuk Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, dan K. 465) tanggal dari periode 1782-1785, dan dinilai merupakan respon terhadap Haydn's Opus 33 dari 1781. set [41] Haydn pada 1785 mengatakan kepada Leopold mengunjungi: "Aku berkata kepadamu di hadapan Tuhan, dan sebagai orang yang jujur, anak Anda adalah komposer terbesar kepadaku dengan orang dan reputasi, dia memiliki rasa dan apa yang lebih keterampilan terbesar dalam komposisi ". [42]
From 1782 to 1785 Mozart mounted concerts with himself as soloist, presenting three or four new piano concertos in each season. Dari 1782-1785 Mozart terpasang konser dengan dirinya sebagai pemain solo, menghadirkan tiga atau empat concerto piano baru di setiap musim. Since space in the theaters was scarce, he booked unconventional venues: a large room in the Trattnerhof (an apartment building), and the ballroom of the Mehlgrube (a restaurant). [ 43 ] The concerts were very popular, and the concertos he premiered at them are still firm fixtures in the repertoire. Karena ruang dalam teater yang langka, ia membukukan tempat yang tidak konvensional: sebuah kamar besar di Trattnerhof (apartemen), dan ballroom dari Mehlgrube (restoran). [43] Konser yang sangat populer, dan concerto dia perdana pada mereka masih perlengkapan teguh dalam repertoar. Solomon writes that during this period Mozart created "a harmonious connection between an eager composer-performer and a delighted audience, which was given the opportunity of witnessing the transformation and perfection of a major musical genre". [ 43 ] Salomo menulis bahwa selama periode ini Mozart menciptakan "hubungan harmonis antara pemain-komponis bersemangat dan khalayak yang senang, yang diberikan kesempatan untuk menyaksikan transformasi dan kesempurnaan dari suatu genre musik besar". [43]
With substantial returns from his concerts and elsewhere, he and Constanze adopted a rather plush lifestyle. Dengan hasil yang sangat berarti dari konser dan di tempat lain, ia dan Constanze mengadopsi gaya hidup yang agak mewah. They moved to an expensive apartment, with a yearly rent of 460 florins. [ 44 ] Mozart also bought a fine fortepiano from Anton Walter for about 900 florins, and a billiard table for about 300. [ 44 ] The Mozarts sent their son Karl Thomas to an expensive boarding school, [ 45 ] [ 46 ] and kept servants. Mereka pindah ke sebuah apartemen mahal, dengan sewa tahunan 460 florin. [44] Mozart juga membeli denda fortepiano dari Anton Walter untuk sekitar 900 florin, dan biliar meja untuk sekitar 300. [44] The Mozarts mengirimkan putra mereka Karl Thomas ke sekolah asrama mahal, [45] [46] dan terus pelayan. Saving was therefore impossible, and the short period of financial success did nothing to soften the hardship the Mozarts were later to experience. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Tabungan yang mustahil, dan periode pendek keberhasilan keuangan tidak melakukan apa pun untuk melunakkan kesulitan yang Mozarts kemudian mengalami. [47] [48]
On 14 December 1784, Mozart became a Freemason , admitted to the lodge Zur Wohltätigkeit ("Beneficence"). [ 49 ] Freemasonry played an important role in the remainder of Mozart's life: he attended meetings, a number of his friends were Masons, and on various occasions he composed Masonic music. Pada tanggal 14 Desember 1784, Mozart menjadi Freemason , mengaku ke pondok Zur Wohltätigkeit ("kebaikan"). [49] Freemasonry memainkan peran penting dalam sisa Kehidupan Mozart: ia menghadiri pertemuan, sejumlah teman-temannya Mason, dan pada berbagai kesempatan ia menulis musik Masonik. (See Mozart and Freemasonry .) (Lihat Mozart dan Freemasonry .)

1786–1787: Return to opera 1786-1787: Kembali ke opera

Despite the great success of Die Entführung aus dem Serail , Mozart did little operatic writing for the next four years, producing only two unfinished works and the one-act Der Schauspieldirektor . Meskipun sukses besar dari Die aus dem Serail Entführung , Mozart tidak banyak menulis opera untuk tahun berikutnya empat, hanya menghasilkan dua karya yang belum selesai dan satu babak Der Schauspieldirektor . He focused instead on his career as a piano soloist and writer of concertos. Dia malah berfokus karirnya sebagai pemain solo piano dan penulis concerto. However, around the end of 1785, Mozart moved away from keyboard writing [ 50 ] [ page needed ] and began his famous operatic collaboration with the librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte . Namun, sekitar akhir 1785, Mozart pindah dari keyboard menulis [50] [ halaman diperlukan ] dan mulai kolaborasi opera yang terkenal dengan para penulis kata-kata nyanyian Lorenzo Da Ponte . 1786 saw the successful premiere of The Marriage of Figaro in Vienna. 1786 melihat premier sukses Pernikahan dari Fusi di Wina. Its reception in Prague later in the year was even warmer, and this led to a second collaboration with Da Ponte: the opera Don Giovanni , which premiered in October 1787 to acclaim in Prague, and also met with success in Vienna in 1788. Its penerimaan di Praha akhir tahun ini bahkan lebih hangat, dan ini menyebabkan kerjasama kedua dengan Da Ponte: opera Don Giovanni , yang perdana di Oktober 1787 untuk pengakuan di Praha, dan juga bertemu dengan sukses di Wina pada tahun 1788. The two are among Mozart's most important works and are mainstays of the operatic repertoire today, though at their premieres their musical complexity caused difficulty for both listeners and performers. Kedua adalah salah satu karya Mozart yang paling penting dan merupakan andalan dari repertoar opera hari ini, meskipun pada perdana mereka kompleksitas musik mereka menyebabkan kesulitan bagi pendengar dan penyanyi. These developments were not witnessed by the composer's father, as Leopold had died on 28 May 1787. Perkembangan ini tidak disaksikan oleh ayah komposer, seperti Leopold telah meninggal pada tanggal 28 Mei 1787.
In December 1787 Mozart finally obtained a steady post under aristocratic patronage. Pada Desember 1787 Mozart akhirnya memperoleh posting stabil di bawah patronase bangsawan. Emperor Joseph II appointed him as his "chamber composer", a post that had fallen vacant the previous month on the death of Gluck . Kaisar Joseph II mengangkatnya sebagai "nya ruang" komposer, sebuah posting yang jatuh kosong bulan sebelumnya pada kematian Gluck . It was a part-time appointment, paying just 800 florins per year, and only required Mozart to compose dances for the annual balls in the Redoutensaal . Itu adalah janji waktu bagian, membayar hanya 800 florin per tahun, dan hanya dibutuhkan Mozart untuk menulis tarian untuk bola tahunan di Redoutensaal . However, even this modest income became important to Mozart when hard times arrived. Namun, bahkan pendapatan yang sederhana menjadi penting untuk Mozart saat masa sulit tiba. Court records show that Joseph's aim was to keep the esteemed composer from leaving Vienna in pursuit of better prospects. [ 51 ] Catatan pengadilan menunjukkan bahwa itu bertujuan Yusuf adalah untuk menjaga komposer terhormat meninggalkan Wina dalam mengejar prospek yang lebih baik. [51]
In 1787 the young Ludwig van Beethoven spent several weeks in Vienna, hoping to study with Mozart. [ 52 ] No reliable records survive to indicate whether the two composers ever met. Pada tahun 1787 kaum muda Ludwig van Beethoven menghabiskan beberapa minggu di Wina, berharap untuk belajar dengan Mozart. [52] Tidak ada catatan yang dapat diandalkan bertahan untuk menunjukkan apakah kedua komposer yang pernah bertemu. (See Mozart and Beethoven .) (Lihat Mozart dan Beethoven .)

1788–1790 1788-1790

Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint , made by Dora Stock during Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789 Gambar Mozart di silverpoint , yang dibuat oleh Dora Bursa selama ini kunjungan Mozart ke Dresden, April 1789
Toward the end of the decade, Mozart's circumstances worsened. Menjelang akhir dekade, situasi Mozart memburuk. Around 1786 he had ceased to appear frequently in public concerts, and his income shrank. [ 53 ] This was a difficult time for musicians in Vienna because Austria was at war , and both the general level of prosperity and the ability of the aristocracy to support music had declined. [ 54 ] Sekitar 1786 ia sudah tidak lagi sering muncul dalam konser publik, dan penghasilannya menyusut. [53] Ini adalah masa yang sulit bagi musisi di Wina karena Austria berperang , dan kedua tingkat kesejahteraan umum dan kemampuan aristokrasi untuk mendukung musik telah menurun. [54]
By mid-1788, Mozart and his family had moved from central Vienna to the suburb of Alsergrund . [ 53 ] Although it has been thought that Mozart reduced his rental expenses, recent research shows that by moving to the suburb Mozart had certainly not reduced his expenses (as claimed in his letter to Puchberg ), but merely increased the housing space at his disposal. [ 55 ] Mozart began to borrow money, most often from his friend and fellow Mason Michael Puchberg ; "a pitiful sequence of letters pleading for loans" survives. [ 56 ] Maynard Solomon and others have suggested that Mozart was suffering from depression, and it seems that his output slowed. [ 57 ] Major works of the period include the last three symphonies (Nos. 39 , 40 , and 41 , all from 1788), and the last of the three Da Ponte operas, Così fan tutte , premiered in 1790. Pada pertengahan 1788, Mozart dan keluarganya pindah dari Wina pusat ke pinggiran Alsergrund . [53] Walaupun telah berpikir bahwa Mozart mengurangi biaya sewa nya, penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa dengan pindah ke daerah pinggiran Mozart jelas tidak mengurangi nya Beban (seperti diklaim dalam suratnya kepada Puchberg , tetapi hanya meningkatkan perumahan di ruang itu. pembuangan) [55] Mozart mulai meminjam uang, paling sering dari temannya dan sesama Mason Michael Puchberg ; "menyedihkan urutan surat memohon untuk pinjaman "bertahan. [56] Maynard Salomo dan lain-lain telah menyarankan bahwa Mozart menderita depresi, dan tampaknya bahwa output-nya melambat. [57] Mayor karya periode meliputi simfoni terakhir tiga (No. 39 , 40 , dan 41 , semua dari 1788), dan terakhir dari tiga opera Da Ponte, tutte kipas COSI , perdana tahun 1790.
Around this time Mozart made long journeys hoping to improve his fortunes: to Leipzig , Dresden , and Berlin in the spring of 1789 (see Mozart's Berlin journey ), and to Frankfurt , Mannheim, and other German cities in 1790. Sekitar waktu ini Mozart membuat perjalanan panjang berharap untuk memperbaiki nasibnya: untuk Leipzig , Dresden , dan Berlin pada musim semi 1789 (lihat Mozart perjalanan Berlin ), dan untuk Frankfurt , Mannheim, dan kota-kota Jerman lainnya pada tahun 1790. The trips produced only isolated success and did not relieve the family's financial distress. Perjalanan yang dihasilkan hanya sukses terisolasi dan tidak meringankan kesulitan keuangan keluarga.

1791 1791

Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, a time of great productivity—and by some accounts a time of personal recovery. [ 58 ] He composed a great deal, including some of his most admired works: the opera The Magic Flute , the final piano concerto ( K. 595 in B-flat ), the Clarinet Concerto K. terakhir tahun Mozart, sampai penyakit terakhir menghantam, waktu besar-produktivitas dan beberapa account waktu dengan pemulihan pribadi. [58] Ia terdiri banyak, termasuk beberapa yang paling dikagumi karya: opera The Magic Flute , piano concerto terakhir ( K. 595 dalam B-flat ), yang Klarinet Concerto K. 622, the last in his great series of string quintets ( K. 614 in E-flat ), the motet Ave verum corpus K. 622, yang terakhir dalam seri yang besar dari quintets string ( K. 614 dalam E-flat ), yang motet Ave Verum corpus K. 618, and the unfinished Requiem K. 618, dan belum selesai Requiem K. 626. 626.
Mozart's financial situation, a source of extreme anxiety in 1790, finally began to improve. situasi keuangan Mozart, sumber kecemasan ekstrim pada tahun 1790, akhirnya mulai membaik. Although the evidence is inconclusive, [ 59 ] it appears that wealthy patrons in Hungary and Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart in return for the occasional composition. Meskipun bukti-bukti yang meyakinkan, [59] tampak bahwa pelanggan kaya di Hungaria dan Amsterdam berjanji anuitas untuk Mozart sebagai imbalan atas komposisi sesekali. He probably also benefited from the sale of dance music written in his role as Imperial chamber composer. [ 59 ] Mozart no longer borrowed large sums from Puchberg, and made a start on paying off his debts. [ 59 ] Dia mungkin juga diuntungkan dari penjualan musik tari yang ditulis dalam perannya sebagai komposer ruang Imperial. [59] Mozart tidak besar jumlah yang dipinjam lagi dari Puchberg, dan membuat memulai melunasi utang-utangnya. [59]
He experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some of his works, notably The Magic Flute (performed many times in the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death) [ 60 ] and the Little Masonic Cantata K. 623, premiered on 15 November 1791. [ 61 ] Ia mengalami kepuasan besar dalam keberhasilan publik dari beberapa karya-karyanya, khususnya The Magic Flute (dilakukan berkali-kali dalam jangka pendek antara premier dan kematian Mozart) [60] dan Little K. Masonik Cantata 623, perdana pada 15 November 1791 . [61]

Final illness and death Final penyakit dan kematian

Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819 Anumerta lukisan oleh Barbara Krafft di tahun 1819
Mozart fell ill while in Prague for the premiere on 6 September of his opera La clemenza di Tito , written in 1791 on commission for the Emperor's coronation festivities. [ 62 ] He was able to continue his professional functions for some time, and conducted the premiere of The Magic Flute on 30 September. Mozart jatuh sakit sementara di Praha untuk pemutaran perdana pada tanggal 6 September nya opera La Clemenza di Tito , yang ditulis pada 1791 di komisi untuk's penobatan perayaan Kaisar itu. [62] Dia mampu melanjutkan fungsi profesionalnya selama beberapa waktu, dan dilakukan premier dari The Magic Flute pada tanggal 30 September. The illness intensified on 20 November, at which point Mozart became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting. [ 63 ] Penyakit ini intensif di 20 November, di mana titik Mozart menjadi sakit, menderita pembengkakan, rasa sakit, dan muntah. [63]
Mozart was nursed in his final illness by Constanze and her youngest sister Sophie, and attended by the family doctor, Thomas Franz Closset. Mozart dirawat di penyakit terakhir oleh Constanze dan Sophie adik bungsu, dan dihadiri oleh dokter keluarga, Thomas Franz Closset. It is clear that he was mentally occupied with the task of finishing his Requiem . Hal ini jelas bahwa ia mental sibuk dengan tugas finishing nya Requiem . However, the evidence that he actually dictated passages to his student Süssmayr is very slim. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Namun, bukti bahwa dia benar-benar mendikte bagian-bagian untuk muridnya Süssmayr sangat tipis. [64] [65]
Mozart died at 1 am on 5 December 1791 at the age of 35. Mozart meninggal pada 1 pagi tanggal 5 Desember 1791 pada usia 35. The New Grove gives a matter-of-fact description of his funeral: The Grove Baru memberikan soal-fakta deskripsi-pemakaman-Nya:
Mozart was buried in a common grave, in accordance with contemporary Viennese custom, at the St Marx cemetery outside the city on 7 December. Mozart dikuburkan di kuburan umum, sesuai dengan adat Wina kontemporer, di pemakaman Marx St luar kota pada tanggal 7 Desember. If, as later reports say, no mourners attended, that too is consistent with Viennese burial customs at the time; later Jahn (1856) wrote that Salieri , Süssmayr, van Swieten and two other musicians were present. Jika, seperti laporan kemudian mengatakan, tidak ada pelayat hadir, yang juga adalah konsisten dengan adat penguburan Wina pada saat itu; kemudian Jahn (1856) menulis bahwa Salieri , Süssmayr, van Swieten dan dua musisi lain yang hadir. The tale of a storm and snow is false; the day was calm and mild. [ 66 ] Kisah badai dan salju adalah palsu; hari tenang dan ringan. [66]
The cause of Mozart's death cannot be known with certainty. Penyebab kematian Mozart tidak dapat diketahui dengan pasti. The official record has it as "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("severe miliary fever", referring to a rash that looks like millet seeds), a description that does not suffice to identify the cause as it would be diagnosed in modern medicine. Catatan resmi sebagai "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("parah demam miliaria", mengacu pada ruam yang terlihat seperti biji millet), deskripsi yang tidak cukup untuk mengidentifikasi penyebabnya karena akan didiagnosis dalam kedokteran modern. Researchers have posited at least 118 causes of death, including trichinosis , influenza , mercury poisoning , and a rare kidney ailment. [ 67 ] The most widely accepted hypothesis is that Mozart died of acute rheumatic fever . Para peneliti telah mengemukakan setidaknya 118 penyebab kematian, termasuk Trichinosis , influenza , keracunan merkuri , dan penyakit ginjal langka. [67] yang diterima secara luas hipotesis yang paling adalah bahwa Mozart meninggal karena akut demam rematik .
Mozart's sparse funeral did not reflect his standing with the public as a composer: memorial services and concerts in Vienna and Prague were well attended. jarang pemakaman Mozart tidak mencerminkan berdiri dengan masyarakat sebagai komposer: layanan peringatan dan konser di Wina dan Praha dengan baik dihadiri. Indeed, in the period immediately after his death, Mozart's reputation rose substantially: Solomon describes an "unprecedented wave of enthusiasm" [ 68 ] for his work; biographies were written (first by Schlichtegroll , Niemetschek , and Nissen ; see Biographies of Mozart ); and publishers vied to produce complete editions of his works. [ 68 ] Memang, dalam periode segera setelah kematiannya, reputasi Mozart naik secara substansial: Salomo menggambarkan suatu "gelombang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya antusiasme" [68] untuk karyanya, biografi ditulis (pertama oleh Schlichtegroll , Niemetschek , dan Nissen ; melihat Biografi Mozart ); dan penerbit berlomba untuk memproduksi edisi lengkap karya-karyanya. [68]

Appearance and character Penampilan dan karakter

Unfinished portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange Belum selesai potret Mozart oleh-saudaranya-hukum di Joseph Lange
Mozart's physical appearance was described by tenor Michael Kelly , in his Reminiscences : "a remarkably small man, very thin and pale, with a profusion of fine, fair hair of which he was rather vain". penampilan fisik Mozart digambarkan oleh tenor Michael Kelly , dalam Kenangan-Nya: "orang yang sangat kecil, sangat tipis dan pucat, dengan profesi halus, rambut wajar yang agak sia-sia". As his early biographer Niemetschek wrote, "there was nothing special about [his] physique. [...] He was small and his countenance, except for his large intense eyes, gave no signs of his genius." Sebagai awal penulis biografi Niemetschek menulis, "tidak ada yang istimewa dari fisik [nya] [...] Tubuhnya kecil dan wajah-Nya, kecuali untuk mata besarnya intens, tidak memberikan tanda-tanda kejeniusannya.." His facial complexion was pitted, a reminder of his childhood case of smallpox . kulit wajah-nya diadu, pengingat-nya kasus anak cacar . He loved elegant clothing. Dia mencintai pakaian elegan. Kelly remembered him at a rehearsal: "[He] was on the stage with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat , giving the time of the music to the orchestra." Kelly ingat dia di saat latihan: "[Dia] berada di panggung dengan merah nya mantel anak dan emas-laced topi mengokang , memberikan waktu musik untuk orkestra. " Of his voice Constanze later wrote that it "was a tenor, rather soft in speaking and delicate in singing, but when anything excited him, or it became necessary to exert it, it was both powerful and energetic". [ 69 ] Dari suaranya Constanze kemudian menulis bahwa hal itu "adalah tenor, agak lunak dalam berbicara dan halus dalam menyanyi, tetapi ketika apa pun senang dia, atau itu menjadi perlu untuk menggunakan hal itu, yang baik kuat dan energik". [69]
Mozart usually worked long and hard, finishing compositions at a tremendous pace as deadlines approached. Mozart biasanya bekerja lama dan keras, finishing komposisi pada kecepatan yang luar biasa sebagai tenggat waktu mendekat. He often made sketches and drafts; unlike Beethoven's these are mostly not preserved, as Constanze sought to destroy them after his death. [ 70 ] (See: Mozart's compositional method .) He was raised a Roman Catholic , and remained a loyal member of the Church throughout his life. Ia sering membuat sketsa dan rancangan; tidak seperti Beethoven ini kebanyakan tidak diawetkan, seperti Constanze berusaha untuk menghancurkan mereka setelah kematiannya. [70] (Lihat: komposisi metode's Mozart .) Dia dibesarkan seorang Katolik Roma , dan tetap menjadi anggota setia dari Gereja sepanjang hidupnya. (See Mozart and Roman Catholicism .) (Lihat dan Roman Katolik Mozart .)
Mozart lived at the center of the Viennese musical world, and knew a great number and variety of people: fellow musicians, theatrical performers, fellow Salzburgers, and aristocrats, including some acquaintance with the Emperor Joseph II . Mozart tinggal di pusat dunia musik Wina, dan tahu sejumlah besar dan berbagai macam orang: sesama musisi, penyanyi teater, Salzburgers sesama, dan bangsawan, termasuk beberapa kenalan dengan Kaisar Joseph II . Solomon considers his three closest friends to have been Gottfried von Jacquin, Count August Hatzfeld, and Sigmund Barisani; others included his older colleague Joseph Haydn , singers Franz Xaver Gerl and Benedikt Schack , and the horn player Joseph Leutgeb . Salomo menganggap ketiga temannya terdekat telah Gottfried von Jacquin, Count Agustus Hatzfeld, dan Sigmund Barisani; lain termasuk yang lebih tua rekannya Joseph Haydn , penyanyi Franz Xaver Gerl dan Benedikt Schack , dan pemain tanduk Yusuf Leutgeb . Leutgeb and Mozart carried on a curious kind of friendly mockery, often with Leutgeb as the butt of Mozart's practical jokes . [ 71 ] Leutgeb dan Mozart dibawa semacam aneh ejekan ramah, sering dengan Leutgeb sebagai gagang Mozart lelucon praktis . [71]
He enjoyed billiards and dancing (see Mozart and dance ), and kept pets: a canary, a starling , a dog, and also a horse for recreational riding. [ 72 ] He had a fondness for scatological humor, which is preserved in his surviving letters, notably those written to his cousin Maria Anna Thekla Mozart around 1777–1778, but also in his correspondence with his sister and parents [ 73 ] (for an example, see Bölzlschiessen ). Dia menikmati biliar dan menari (lihat Mozart dan tari ), dan terus hewan peliharaan: burung kenari, sebuah jalak , anjing dan juga seekor kuda untuk rekreasi. berkuda, [72] Ia memiliki kegemaran untuk scatological humor, yang diawetkan dalam masih hidup surat, terutama yang ditulis untuk sepupunya Maria Anna Mozart Thekla sekitar 1777-1778, tetapi juga dalam korespondensi dengan adik dan orang tua [73] (untuk contoh, lihat Bölzlschiessen ). Mozart even wrote scatological music, a series of canons ( Leck mich im Arsch , Difficile lectu , Bona nox ) that he sang with his friends. Mozart bahkan menulis musik scatological, serangkaian kanon ( Leck mich im Arsch , difficile lectu , Bona nox ) yang ia bernyanyi dengan teman-temannya.

Works, musical style, and innovations Pekerjaan, gaya musik, dan inovasi

Style Gaya

A facsimile sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the " Requiem Mass in D Minor " (K. 626) in Mozart's own handwriting. Sebuah lembar faksimili musik dari gerakan Dies Irae dari " Requiem Misa dalam D Minor "(K. 626) dalam tulisan tangan Mozart sendiri. It is located at the Mozarthaus in Vienna. Hal ini terletak di Mozarthaus di Wina.
Mozart's music, like Haydn 's, stands as an archetype of the Classical style. Teman-musik Mozart, seperti Haydn s ', berdiri sebagai suatu pola dasar dari gaya klasik. At the time he began composing, European music was dominated by the style galant , a reaction against the highly evolved intricacy of the Baroque . Pada saat dia mulai menulis, musik Eropa didominasi oleh gaya Galant , reaksi terhadap kerumitan yang sangat berkembang dari Baroque . Progressively, and in large part at the hands of Mozart himself, the contrapuntal complexities of the late Baroque emerged once more, moderated and disciplined by new forms , and adapted to a new aesthetic and social milieu. Progresif, dan sebagian besar di tangan Mozart sendiri, kontrapungtal kompleksitas Baroque an muncul sekali lagi, dikelola dan disiplin oleh baru bentuk-bentuk , dan disesuaikan dengan estetika lingkungan dan sosial yang baru. Mozart was a versatile composer, and wrote in every major genre, including symphony , opera , the solo concerto , chamber music including string quartet and string quintet , and the piano sonata . Mozart adalah seorang komponis serbaguna, dan menulis di setiap genre utama, termasuk simfoni , opera , solo konserto , musik kamar termasuk kuartet string dan kwintet string , dan piano sonata . These forms were not new, but Mozart advanced their technical sophistication and emotional reach. Bentuk-bentuk bukan baru, tapi Mozart maju kecanggihan teknis mereka dan mencapai emosional. He almost single-handedly developed and popularized the Classical piano concerto . Dia hampir seorang diri dikembangkan dan mempopulerkan Klasik piano concerto . He wrote a great deal of religious music , including large-scale masses , but also dances, divertimenti , serenades , and other forms of light entertainment. Ia menulis banyak musik religius , termasuk skala besar massa , tetapi juga tarian, divertimenti , serenades , dan bentuk lain dari hiburan ringan.
The central traits of the Classical style are all present in Mozart's music. Ciri-ciri utama dari gaya klasik semua hadir dalam musik Mozart. Clarity, balance, and transparency are the hallmarks of his work, but simplistic notions of its delicacy mask the exceptional power of his finest masterpieces, such as the Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491, the Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550, and the opera Don Giovanni . Charles Rosen makes the point forcefully: Kejelasan, keseimbangan, dan transparansi adalah keunggulan dari pekerjaannya, tapi gagasan-gagasan sederhana dari masker kelezatan yang kekuatan luar biasa terbaik karya nya, seperti Piano Concerto No 24 dalam C minor, K. 491, dengan Symphony No 40 di G minor, K. 550, dan opera Don Giovanni . Charles Rosen membuat titik paksa:
It is only through recognizing the violence and sensuality at the center of Mozart's work that we can make a start towards a comprehension of his structures and an insight into his magnificence. Hanya melalui mengakui kekerasan dan sensualitas di pusat karya Mozart bahwa kita dapat membuat awal menuju pemahaman struktur dan wawasan ke dalam keindahan itu. In a paradoxical way, Schumann 's superficial characterization of the G minor Symphony can help us to see Mozart's daemon more steadily. Dalam cara yang paradoks, Schumann 's karakterisasi dangkal di bawah umur Symphony G dapat membantu kita untuk melihat's daemon Mozart lebih mantap. In all of Mozart's supreme expressions of suffering and terror, there is something shockingly voluptuous. [ 74 ] Dalam semua tertinggi ekspresi Mozart penderitaan dan teror, ada sesuatu yang mengejutkan menggairahkan. [74]
Especially during his last decade, Mozart exploited chromatic harmony to a degree rare at the time, with remarkable assurance and to great artistic effect. Khususnya selama dekade terakhir, Mozart dieksploitasi berwarna harmoni gelar langka pada waktu itu, dengan jaminan yang luar biasa dan efek artistik yang besar.
Mozart always had a gift for absorbing and adapting valuable features of others' music. Mozart selalu punya hadiah untuk menyerap dan mengadaptasi fitur berharga musik orang lain. His travels helped in the forging of a unique compositional language. [ 75 ] In London as a child, he met JC Bach and heard his music. perjalanan-Nya membantu dalam menempa suatu bahasa komposisi yang unik. [75] Di London sebagai seorang anak, ia bertemu dengan JC Bach dan mendengar musik. In Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as well as the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra . Di Paris, Mannheim, dan Wina ia bertemu dengan pengaruh komposisi lainnya, serta kemampuan avant-garde dari orkestra Mannheim . In Italy he encountered the Italian overture and opera buffa , both of which deeply affected the evolution of his own practice. Di Italia ia bertemu dengan pembukaan Italia dan buffa opera , yang keduanya sangat dipengaruhi evolusi praktek sendiri. In London and Italy, the galant style was in the ascendent: simple, light music with a mania for cadencing ; an emphasis on tonic, dominant, and subdominant to the exclusion of other harmonies; symmetrical phrases; and clearly articulated partitions in the overall form of movements. [ 76 ] Some of Mozart's early symphonies are Italian overtures , with three movements running into each other; many are homotonal (all three movements having the same key signature, with the slow middle movement being in the relative minor ). Di London dan Italia, gaya Galant berada di kekuasaan: sederhana, musik ringan dengan mania untuk cadencing ; penekanan pada tonik, dominan, dan subdominant dengan mengesampingkan harmoni lainnya; frase simetris, dan jelas diartikulasikan partisi dalam bentuk keseluruhan gerakan. [76] Beberapa dari awal simfoni Mozart adalah tawaran Italia , dengan tiga gerakan berlari ke satu sama lain; banyak homotonal (semua tiga gerakan memiliki tanda kunci yang sama, dengan gerakan lambat tengah berada di relatif kecil ). Others mimic the works of JC Bach, and others show the simple rounded binary forms turned out by Viennese composers. Lain-lain meniru karya JC Bach, dan lain-lain menunjukkan sederhana bentuk biner bulat ternyata oleh komposer Wina.
As Mozart matured, he progressively incorporated more features adapted from the Baroque. Seperti Mozart jatuh tempo, ia semakin dimasukkan lebih banyak fitur diadaptasi dari Baroque. For example, the Symphony No. 29 in A Major K. Sebagai contoh, Symphony No 29 di A Mayor K. 201 has a contrapuntal main theme in its first movement, and experimentation with irregular phrase lengths. 201 memiliki tema utama kontrapungtal dalam gerakan pertama, dan eksperimen dengan panjang frase tidak teratur. Some of his quartets from 1773 have fugal finales, probably influenced by Haydn, who had included three such finales in his recently published Opus 20 set. Beberapa kuartet dari 1773 telah finales fugal, mungkin dipengaruhi oleh Haydn, yang termasuk tiga finales seperti baru-baru ini diterbitkan dalam set-nya 20 Opus. The influence of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") period in music, with its brief foreshadowing of the Romantic era , is evident in the music of both composers at that time. Pengaruh Sturm und Drang ("Storm dan Stres") periode dalam musik, dengan bayangan singkat nya dari era Romantic , yang jelas dalam musik kedua komponis pada waktu itu. Mozart's Symphony No. 25 in G minor K. Mozart's Symphony No 25 dalam G minor K. 183 is another excellent example. 183 merupakan contoh yang sangat baik.
Mozart would sometimes switch his focus between operas and instrumental music. Mozart kadang-kadang akan beralih fokus di antara opera dan musik instrumental. He produced operas in each of the prevailing styles: opera buffa , such as The Marriage of Figaro , Don Giovanni , and Così fan tutte ; opera seria , such as Idomeneo ; and Singspiel , of which Die Zauberflöte is the most famous example by any composer. Dia mengeluarkan opera di setiap gaya yang berlaku: buffa opera , seperti The Perkawinan Figaro , Don Giovanni , dan COSI tutte penggemar ; opera seria , seperti Idomeneo , dan Singspiel , dimana Die Zauberflöte merupakan contoh yang paling terkenal oleh komposer apapun . In his later operas he employed subtle changes in instrumentation, orchestral texture, and tone color , for emotional depth and to mark dramatic shifts. Dalam opera kemudian, ia bekerja perubahan halus dalam instrumentasi, tekstur orkestra, dan warna nada , untuk kedalaman emosional dan untuk menandai perubahan dramatis. Here his advances in opera and instrumental composing interacted: his increasingly sophisticated use of the orchestra in the symphonies and concertos influenced his operatic orchestration, and his developing subtlety in using the orchestra to psychological effect in his operas was in turn reflected in his later non-operatic compositions. [ 77 ] Di sini kemajuan di opera dan instrumental menyusun berinteraksi: gunakan yang semakin canggih dari orkestra di simfoni dan concerto dipengaruhi orkestrasi opera, dan kehalusan nya berkembang dalam menggunakan orkestra untuk efek psikologis dalam opera nya pada gilirannya tercermin dalam kemudian non-Nya- opera komposisi. [77]
Portrait of Beethoven as a young man by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769–1832) Potret Beethoven sebagai seorang pemuda oleh Carl Traugott Riedel (1769-1832)

Influence Pengaruh

Mozart's most famous pupil, whom the Mozarts took into their Vienna home for two years as a child, was probably Johann Nepomuk Hummel , a transitional figure between Classical and Romantic eras. [ 78 ] More important is the influence Mozart had on composers of later generations. yang paling terkenal murid Mozart, siapa Mozarts membawa ke rumah Wina mereka selama dua tahun sebagai seorang anak, mungkin Johann Nepomuk Hummel , seorang tokoh transisi antara dan Romantis era klasik. [78] Yang lebih penting adalah pengaruh Mozart telah di komponis generasi berikutnya . Ever since the surge in his reputation after his death, studying his scores has been a standard part of the training of classical musicians. Sejak lonjakan reputasinya setelah kematiannya, belajar nilai-nya telah menjadi bagian standar dari pelatihan musisi klasik.
Ludwig van Beethoven , Mozart's junior by fifteen years, was deeply influenced by his work, with which he was acquainted as a teenager. Ludwig van Beethoven , Mozart's junior oleh lima belas tahun, sangat dipengaruhi oleh karya-karyanya, yang ia kenal sebagai remaja. He is thought to have performed Mozart's operas while playing in the court orchestra at Bonn , [ 79 ] and he traveled to Vienna in 1787 hoping to study the older composer. Dia diduga telah melakukan's opera Mozart saat bermain di orkestra pengadilan di Bonn , [79] dan ia pergi ke Wina pada tahun 1787 berharap untuk mempelajari komposer tua. Some of Beethoven's works have direct models in comparable works by Mozart, and he wrote cadenzas ( WoO 58) to Mozart's D minor piano concerto K. Beberapa karya-karya Beethoven memiliki model langsung dalam karya sebanding oleh Mozart, dan ia menulis cadenzas ( Woo 58) untuk minor piano concerto Mozart D K. 466 . 466 .
A number of composers have paid homage to Mozart by writing sets of variations on his themes. Sejumlah komposer telah membayar menyembah Mozart dengan menulis set variasi pada tema nya. Beethoven wrote four such sets (Op. 66, WoO 28, WoO 40, WoO 46). Beethoven menulis empat set tersebut (op. 66, 28 Woo, Woo 40, Woo 46). Others include Frédéric Chopin 's Variations for Piano and Orchestra on "Là ci darem la mano" from Don Giovanni (1827) and Max Reger 's Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart (1914), based on the variation theme in the piano sonata K. Lainnya termasuk Frédéric Chopin 's Variasi untuk Piano dan Orchestra pada "darem ci la la mano" dari Don Giovanni (1827) dan Max Reger 's Variasi dan Fugue pada Tema oleh Mozart (1914), berdasarkan tema variasi piano sonata K. 331 . [ 80 ] Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote his Orchestral Suite No. 4 in G, "Mozartiana" (1887), as a tribute to Mozart. 331 . [80] Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky menulis nya Orkestra No Suite 4 di G, "Mozartiana" (1887), sebagai penghormatan kepada Mozart.

Köchel catalogue Köchel katalog

For unambiguous identification of works by Mozart, a Köchel catalogue number is used. Untuk identifikasi ambigu karya-karya Mozart, nomor katalog Köchel digunakan. This is a unique number assigned, in regular chronological order, to every one of his known works. Ini adalah nomor unik yang diberikan, dalam urutan kronologis biasa, setiap salah satu karya yang dikenal-Nya. A work is referenced by the abbreviation "K." kerja adalah direferensikan oleh singkatan "K." followed by this number. diikuti oleh nomor ini. The first edition of the catalogue was completed in 1862 by Ludwig von Köchel . Edisi pertama dari katalog diselesaikan pada tahun 1862 oleh Ludwig von Köchel . It has since been repeatedly updated, as scholarly research improves our knowledge of the dates and authenticity of individual works. Sejak saat itu telah berulang kali diperbarui, seperti penelitian ilmiah meningkatkan pengetahuan kita tentang tan

Johannes Brahms

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Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms ( pronounced [joːˈhanəs ˈbʁaːms] ) (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897), was a German composer and pianist, and one of the leading musicians of the Romantic period . Johannes Brahms (diucapkan [jo ː ː hanəs bʁa ms] ) (7 Mei 1833 - 3 April 1897), adalah seorang Jerman komposer dan pianis, dan salah satu musisi terkemuka dari periode Romantis . Born in Hamburg , Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna , Austria , where he was a leader of the musical scene. Lahir di Hamburg , Brahms menghabiskan sebagian besar kehidupan profesional di Wina , Austria , dimana ia menjadi pemimpin adegan musik. In his lifetime, Brahms' popularity and influence were considerable; following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow , he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the Three Bs . Dalam masa hidupnya, 'popularitas Brahms dan pengaruh yang cukup besar, menyusul komentar oleh abad kesembilan belas konduktor Hans von Bulow , ia kadang-kadang dikelompokkan dengan Johann Sebastian Bach dan Ludwig van Beethoven sebagai salah satu Tiga Bs .
Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. Brahms terdiri untuk piano, ruang ansambel, orkes simfoni, dan untuk suara dan paduan suara. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works; he also worked with the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim . Seorang pianis virtuoso, ia perdana banyak dari karya sendiri, ia juga bekerja sama dengan para pemain terkemuka pada masanya, termasuk pianis Clara Schumann dan pemain biola Joseph Joachim . Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. Banyak dari karya-karyanya telah menjadi pokok dari repertoar konser modern. Brahms, an uncompromising perfectionist, destroyed many of his works and left some of them unpublished. Brahms, seorang perfeksionis tanpa kompromi, menghancurkan banyak dari karya-karyanya dan meninggalkan beberapa dari mereka tidak dipublikasikan.
Brahms was at once a traditionalist and an innovator. Brahms sekaligus merupakan tradisionalis dan inovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. Musiknya berakar pada struktur dan teknik komposisi dari Baroque dan master Klasik. He was a master of counterpoint , the complex and highly disciplined method of composition for which Bach is famous, and also of development , a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Beethoven. Dia adalah seorang master tandingan , dan sangat disiplin metode yang rumit komposisi Bach yang terkenal, dan juga pengembangan , etos komposisi dipelopori oleh Joseph Haydn , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dan Beethoven. Brahms aimed to honour the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom, in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony and melody. Brahms bertujuan untuk menghormati "kemurnian" ini terhormat "Jerman" struktur dan muka mereka ke dalam idiom Romantis, dalam proses menciptakan pendekatan baru berani untuk harmoni dan melodi. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as the progressive Arnold Schoenberg and the conservative Edward Elgar . Sementara sezaman banyak ditemukan musiknya terlalu akademis, kontribusi dan keahlian telah dikagumi oleh tokoh-tokoh berikutnya beragam seperti progresif Arnold Schoenberg dan konservatif Edward Elgar . The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers. Sifat, rajin sangat dibangun karya Brahms adalah titik awal dan inspirasi bagi generasi komposer.

Contents Isi

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[ edit ] Life [ sunting ] Hidup

[ edit ] Early years [ sunting ] Awal tahun

Brahms's father, Johann Jakob Brahms (1806–72), came to Hamburg from Dithmarschen , seeking a career as a town musician. ayah Brahms, Johann Jakob Brahms (1806-1872), datang ke Hamburg dari Dithmarschen , mencari karir sebagai musisi kota. He was proficient in several instruments, but found employment mostly playing the horn and double bass . Ia mahir dalam beberapa instrumen, tetapi menemukan pekerjaan sebagian besar memainkan klakson dan double bass . In 1830, he married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen (1789–1865), a seamstress never previously married, who was seventeen years older than he was. Pada tahun 1830, ia menikah dengan Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen (1789-1865), seorang penjahit yang sebelumnya tidak pernah menikah, yang berusia tujuh belas tahun lebih tua daripada dirinya. Johannes Brahms had an older sister and a younger brother. Johannes Brahms memiliki kakak perempuan dan adik laki-laki. Initially, they lived near the city docks, in the Gängeviertel quarter of Hamburg, for six months, before moving to a small house on the Dammtorwall, located on the northern perimeter of Hamburg, in the Inner Alster. Awalnya, mereka tinggal di dekat dermaga kota, pada kuartal Gängeviertel Hamburg, selama enam bulan, sebelum pindah ke sebuah rumah kecil di Dammtorwall, terletak di perimeter utara Hamburg, di Alster Inner.
Photograph from 1891 of the building in Hamburg where Brahms was born. Foto dari 1891 gedung di Hamburg mana Brahms lahir. Brahms's family occupied part of the first floor, behind the two double windows on the left hand side. Brahms adalah bagian keluarga yang diduduki lantai pertama, di balik dua jendela ganda di sisi kiri.
Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training. Johann Jakob anaknya memberikan pelatihan pertama musiknya. He studied piano from the age of seven with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Ia belajar piano dari usia tujuh dengan Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Due to the family's poverty, as a boy Brahms played in dance halls and brothels - some of the seediest places in Hamburg - surrounded by drunken sailors and prostitutes that often fondled the boy as he played. Karena kemiskinan keluarga, sebagai anak laki-laki Brahms dimainkan di ruang tari dan pelacuran - beberapa tempat seediest di Hamburg - dikelilingi oleh pelaut mabuk dan pelacur yang sering membelai anak saat ia bermain. Early biographers found this shocking and downplayed this portion of his life. penulis biografi Awal menemukan ini mengejutkan dan meremehkan bagian ini hidupnya. Modern writers have pointed to this as a reason for Brahms' later inability to have a successful relationship for marriage, etc., his view of women being warped by his experiences. [ 1 ] Recently, Brahms scholar Kurt Hoffman has suggested that this legend is false. Penulis modern telah menunjuk ini sebagai alasan untuk kemudian ketidakmampuan 'Brahms untuk memiliki hubungan yang sukses untuk pernikahan, dll, pandangannya tentang perempuan yang melengkung oleh pengalamannya. [1] Baru-baru ini, Brahms sarjana Kurt Hoffman telah menyarankan bahwa legenda ini palsu. Since Brahms himself clearly originated the story, however, some have questioned Hoffman's theory. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Sejak Brahms sendiri jelas berasal cerita, namun, beberapa mempertanyakan's teori Hoffman. [2] [3]
For a time, Brahms also learned the cello. [ 4 ] After his early piano lessons with Otto Cossel, Brahms studied piano with Eduard Marxsen , who had studied in Vienna with Ignaz von Seyfried (a pupil of Mozart ) and Carl Maria von Bocklet (a close friend of Schubert ). Untuk sementara waktu, Brahms juga belajar cello. [4] Setelah piano awal pelajaran dengan Otto Cossel, Brahms belajar piano dengan Eduard Marxsen , yang pernah belajar di Wina dengan Ignaz von Seyfried (murid dari Mozart ) dan Carl Maria von Bocklet ( teman dekat Schubert ). The young Brahms gave a few public concerts in Hamburg, but did not become well known as a pianist until he made a concert tour at the age of nineteen. Para Brahms muda memberikan beberapa konser publik di Hamburg, tapi tidak menjadi terkenal sebagai pianis sampai ia membuat tur konser pada usia sembilan belas. (In later life, he frequently took part in the performance of his own works, whether as soloist, accompanist, or participant in chamber music.) He conducted choirs from his early teens, and became a proficient choral and orchestral conductor. (Dalam kehidupan selanjutnya, ia sering mengambil bagian dalam pelaksanaan karya sendiri, baik sebagai pemain solo, iringan, atau peserta dalam musik kamar.) Ia melakukan paduan suara dari remaja awal, dan menjadi konduktor paduan suara dan orkestra mahir.

[ edit ] Meeting Joachim and Liszt [ sunting ] Rapat Joachim dan Liszt

Brahms in 1853 Brahms pada tahun 1853
He began to compose quite early in life, but later destroyed most copies of his first works; for instance, Louise Japha , a fellow-pupil of Marxsen, reported a piano sonata that Brahms had played or improvised at the age of 11. Dia mulai menulis cukup awal dalam hidup, tapi kemudian hancur salinan sebagian besar karya pertamanya, misalnya, Louise Japha , seorang rekan-murid dari Marxsen, melaporkan sonata piano yang Brahms telah dimainkan atau improvisasi pada usia 11. His compositions did not receive public acclaim until he went on a concert tour as accompanist to the Hungarian violinist Eduard Reményi in April and May 1853. komposisi-Nya tidak menerima pengakuan publik sampai ia melanjutkan tur konser sebagai pengiring untuk pemain biola Hungaria Eduard Reményi pada bulan April dan Mei 1853. On this tour he met Joseph Joachim at Hanover , and went on to the Court of Weimar where he met Franz Liszt , Peter Cornelius , and Joachim Raff . Pada tur ini ia bertemu Yusuf Joachim di Hanover , dan pergi ke Pengadilan Weimar di mana ia bertemu Franz Liszt , Petrus Kornelius , dan Joachim Raff . According to several witnesses of Brahms's meeting with Liszt (at which Liszt performed Brahms's Scherzo , Op. 4, at sight), Reményi was offended by Brahms's failure to praise Liszt's Sonata in B minor wholeheartedly (Brahms supposedly fell asleep during a performance of the recently composed work), and they parted company shortly afterwards. Menurut saksi beberapa Teman-pertemuan Brahms dengan Liszt (di mana Liszt dilakukan Brahms's Scherzo , Op. 4, pada pandangan), Reményi tersinggung oleh Teman-kegagalan Brahms untuk memuji Liszt's Sonata dalam B minor sepenuh hati (Brahms seharusnya jatuh tertidur selama kinerja baru-baru ini terdiri kerja), dan mereka berpisah lama kemudian. Brahms later excused himself, saying that he could not help it, having been exhausted by his travels. Brahms kemudian minta diri, mengatakan bahwa ia tidak dapat membantu itu, yang telah habis oleh perjalanannya.

[ edit ] Brahms and Schumann [ sunting ] Brahms dan Schumann

Joachim had given Brahms a letter of introduction to Robert Schumann , and after a walking tour in the Rhineland , Brahms took the train to Düsseldorf , and was welcomed into the Schumann family on arrival there. Joachim Brahms telah memberikan surat pengantar untuk Robert Schumann , dan setelah tur berjalan di Rhineland , Brahms naik kereta ke Düsseldorf , dan disambut ke dalam keluarga Schumann pada saat kedatangan di sana. Schumann, amazed by the 20 year-old's talent, published an article entitled " Neue Bahnen " (New Paths) in the October 28, 1853 issue of the journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik alerting the public to the young man, who, he claimed, was "destined to give ideal expression to the times." [ 5 ] This pronouncement was received with some scepticism outside of Schumann's immediate circle, and may have increased Brahms's naturally self-critical need to perfect his works and technique. Schumann, kagum dengan tahun-tua itu bakat 20, menerbitkan sebuah artikel berjudul "Neue Bahnen" (Baru Jalan) di, 1853 edisi 28 Oktober jurnal Zeitschrift für Neue Musik mengingatkan masyarakat kepada orang muda, yang, ia mengklaim, adalah "ditakdirkan untuk memberikan ekspresi yang ideal untuk perkembangan zaman." [5] pernyataan ini telah diterima dengan skeptis beberapa luar lingkaran Schumann langsung, dan mungkin telah meningkat secara alami kritik diri Brahms perlu untuk menyempurnakan karya-karyanya dan teknik. While he was in Düsseldorf, Brahms participated with Schumann and Albert Dietrich in writing a sonata for Joachim; this is known as the " FAE Sonata " ( German : Frei aber einsam ). Sementara ia di Düsseldorf, Brahms berpartisipasi dengan Schumann dan Albert Dietrich secara tertulis sonata untuk Joachim, ini dikenal sebagai " FAE Sonata "( Jerman : Frei einsam Aber). He became very attached to Schumann's wife, the composer and pianist Clara , fourteen years his senior, with whom he would carry on a lifelong, emotionally passionate relationship. Ia menjadi sangat dekat dengan istri Schumann, komponis dan pianis Clara , empat belas tahun itu senior, dengan siapa ia akan membawa pada emosional, gairah hubungan seumur hidup. Brahms never married, despite strong feelings for several women and despite entering into an engagement, soon broken off, with Agathe von Siebold in Göttingen in 1859. Brahms pernah menikah, meskipun perasaan yang kuat untuk beberapa wanita dan meskipun masuk ke dalam sebuah pertunangan, segera putus, dengan Agathe Siebold di Göttingen pada tahun 1859. After Schumann's attempted suicide and subsequent confinement in a mental sanatorium near Bonn in February 1854, Brahms was the main intercessor between Clara and her husband, and found himself virtually head of the household. Setelah mencoba bunuh diri's Schumann dan pengurungan berikutnya di sebuah sanatorium mental di dekat Bonn pada bulan Februari 1854, Brahms adalah perantara utama antara Clara dan suaminya, dan mendapati dirinya hampir kepala rumah tangga.
After Schumann's death, Brahms hurried to Düsseldorf and for the next two years lived in an apartment above the Schumann's house, and sacrificed his career and his art for Clara's sake. Setelah kematian Schumann, Brahms bergegas ke Düsseldorf dan selama dua tahun ke depan tinggal di sebuah apartemen di atas rumah Schumann, dan mengorbankan karirnya dan seni demi Clara. The question of Brahms and Clara Schumann is perhaps the most mysterious in music history, alongside that of Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved." Pertanyaan tentang Brahms dan Clara Schumann mungkin yang paling misterius dalam sejarah musik, di samping bahwa Beethoven "Immortal Beloved." Whether they were actually lovers is unknown, but their destruction of their letters to each other may point to something beyond mere privacy. [ 6 ] Apakah mereka benar-benar pecinta tidak diketahui, tetapi kehancuran mereka surat mereka satu sama lain mungkin menunjuk ke sesuatu di luar privasi belaka. [6]

[ edit ] Detmold and Hamburg [ sunting ] Detmold dan Hamburg

After Schumann's death at the sanatorium in 1856, Brahms divided his time between Hamburg, where he formed and conducted a ladies' choir, and the principality of Detmold , where he was court music-teacher and conductor. Setelah kematian Schumann di sanatorium tahun 1856, Brahms membagi waktunya antara Hamburg, di mana ia membentuk dan dilakukan wanita paduan suara, dan azas Detmold , di mana ia pengadilan-guru musik dan konduktor. He was the soloist at the premiere of his Piano Concerto No. 1 in 1859. Dia adalah solois pada premiere-nya Piano Concerto No 1 tahun 1859. He first visited Vienna in 1862, staying there over the winter, and, in 1863, was appointed conductor of the Vienna Singakademie . Dia pertama kali mengunjungi Wina pada tahun 1862, tinggal di sana selama musim dingin, dan 1863, diangkat penyelenggara Singakademie Wina . Though he resigned the position the following year, and entertained the idea of taking up conducting posts elsewhere, he based himself increasingly in Vienna and soon made his home there. Meskipun ia mengundurkan diri posisi tahun berikutnya, dan menghibur ide mengambil melakukan posting di tempat lain, ia mendasarkan dirinya semakin di Wina dan segera membuat rumah di sana. From 1872 to 1875, he was director of the concerts of the Vienna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde ; afterwards, he accepted no formal position. Dari 1872-1875, ia adalah direktur dari konser dari Wina der Gesellschaft Musikfreunde , setelah itu, ia menerima ada posisi formal. He declined an honorary doctorate of music from University of Cambridge in 1877, but accepted one from the University of Breslau in 1879, and composed the Academic Festival Overture as a gesture of appreciation. Dia menolak gelar doktor kehormatan dari musik dari University of Cambridge pada 1877, tetapi menerima satu dari Universitas Breslau pada 1879, dan menyusun Akademik Festival Overture sebagai tanda penghargaan.
He had been composing steadily throughout the 1850s and 60s, but his music had evoked divided critical responses, and the Piano Concerto No. 1 had been badly received in some of its early performances. Dia telah menulis terus sepanjang tahun 1850-an dan 60-an, tapi musiknya telah membangkitkan dibagi tanggapan kritis, dan Piano Concerto No 1 sudah sangat diterima di beberapa pertunjukan awal. His works were labelled old-fashioned by the 'New German School' whose principal figures included Liszt and Richard Wagner . Karya-karyanya dicap kuno oleh 'Jerman Baru Sekolah' yang utama termasuk tokoh Liszt dan Richard Wagner . Brahms admired some of Wagner's music and admired Liszt as a great pianist, but the conflict between the two schools, known as the War of the Romantics , soon embroiled all of musical Europe. Brahms's mengagumi beberapa musik Wagner dan mengagumi Liszt sebagai pianis besar, tetapi konflik antara kedua sekolah, yang dikenal sebagai Perang Romantis , segera terlibat seluruh Eropa musik. In the Brahms camp were his close friends: Clara Schumann, the influential music critic Eduard Hanslick , and the leading Viennese surgeon Theodor Billroth . Di kamp Brahms adalah teman dekatnya: Clara Schumann, musik berpengaruh kritikus Eduard Hanslick , dan ahli bedah terkemuka Wina Theodor Billroth . In 1860, Brahms attempted to organize a public protest against some of the wilder excesses of the Wagnerians' music. Pada tahun 1860, Brahms mencoba mengadakan protes publik terhadap beberapa ekses liar dari musik Wagnerians '. This took the form of a manifesto, written by Brahms and Joachim jointly. Ini mengambil bentuk manifesto, yang ditulis oleh Brahms dan Joachim bersama-sama. The manifesto, which was published prematurely with only three supporting signatures, was a failure, and he never engaged in public polemics again. [ 7 ] Manifesto, yang diterbitkan secara prematur dengan hanya tiga tanda tangan pendukung, gagal, dan ia tidak pernah terlibat dalam polemik publik lagi. [7]

[ edit ] Years of popularity [ sunting ] Tahun popularitas

It was the premiere of A German Requiem , his largest choral work, in Bremen , in 1868, that confirmed Brahms's European reputation and led many to accept that he had conquered Beethoven and the symphony. Itu adalah pemutaran perdana A Requiem Jerman , karyanya paduan suara terbesar, di Bremen , pada tahun 1868, yang dikonfirmasi Eropa reputasi's Brahms dan menyebabkan banyak untuk menerima bahwa dia telah menaklukkan Beethoven dan simfoni. This may have given him the confidence finally to complete a number of works that he had wrestled with over many years, such as the cantata Rinaldo , his first string quartet, third piano quartet, and most notably his first symphony. Ini mungkin telah memberinya kepercayaan diri akhirnya untuk menyelesaikan sejumlah karya bahwa ia telah bergumul dengan lebih dari bertahun-tahun, seperti kantata Rinaldo , kuartet string pertama, kuartet piano ketiga, dan terutama simfoni pertamanya. This appeared in 1876, though it had been begun (and a version of the first movement seen by some of his friends) in the early 1860s. Hal ini muncul pada tahun 1876, meskipun telah dimulai (dan versi dari gerakan pertama kali dilihat oleh beberapa teman-temannya) pada 1860-an awal. The other three symphonies then followed in 1877, 1883, and 1885. Tiga lainnya simfoni kemudian diikuti pada tahun 1877, 1883, dan 1885. From 1881, he was able to try out his new orchestral works with the court orchestra of the Duke of Meiningen , whose conductor was Hans von Bülow . Dari 1881, ia mampu mencoba orkestra baru karya-karyanya dengan orkestra istana Adipati Meiningen , yang konduktor adalah Hans von Bulow . He was the soloist at the premiere of his Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1881. Dia adalah solois pada premiere-nya Piano Concerto No 2 tahun 1881.
Brahms frequently travelled, both for business (concert tours) and pleasure. Brahms sering bepergian, baik untuk bisnis (tur konser) dan kesenangan. From 1878 onwards, he often visited Italy in the springtime, and he usually sought out a pleasant rural location in which to compose during the summer. Dari 1878 dan seterusnya, ia sering mengunjungi Italia di musim semi, dan dia biasanya mencari lokasi pedesaan yang menyenangkan di mana untuk menyusun selama musim panas. He was a great walker and especially enjoyed spending time in the open air, where he felt that he could think more clearly. Dia adalah seorang pejalan besar dan sangat menikmati menghabiskan waktu di udara terbuka, di mana ia merasa bahwa ia bisa berpikir lebih jernih.
In 1889, one Theo Wangemann, a representative of American inventor Thomas Edison , visited the composer in Vienna and invited him to make an experimental recording. Pada 1889, satu Theo Wangemann, seorang perwakilan dari penemu Amerika Thomas Edison , mengunjungi komposer di Wina dan mengundangnya untuk membuat rekaman eksperimental. Brahms played an abbreviated version of his first Hungarian dance on the piano. Brahms memainkan versi singkat tari Hungaria pertama di atas piano. The recording was later issued on an LP of early piano performances (compiled by Gregor Benko ). Rekaman itu kemudian dikeluarkan pada LP kinerja piano awal (disusun oleh Gregor Benko ). Although the spoken introduction to the short piece of music is quite clear, the piano playing is largely inaudible due to heavy surface noise. Meskipun pengenalan berbicara dengan potongan pendek musik cukup jelas, bermain piano sebagian besar terdengar karena kebisingan permukaan berat. Nevertheless, this remains the earliest recording made by a major composer. Namun demikian, ini tetap rekaman paling awal dibuat oleh seorang komponis besar. Analysts and scholars remain divided, however, as to whether the voice that introduces the piece is that of Wangemann or of Brahms. [ 8 ] Several attempts have been made to improve the quality of this historic recording; a "denoised" version was produced at Stanford University which claims to solve the mystery. [ 9 ] Analis dan sarjana tetap dibagi, namun, untuk apakah suara yang memperkenalkan bagian itu adalah dari Wangemann atau Brahms. [8] Beberapa upaya telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas rekaman bersejarah ini, sebuah "denoised" versi diproduksi di Stanford University yang mengklaim untuk memecahkan misteri. [9]
In 1889, Brahms was named an honorary citizen of Hamburg , until 1948 the only one born in Hamburg. [ 10 ] Pada 1889, Brahms bernama merupakan warga kehormatan Hamburg , hingga tahun 1948 satu-satunya lahir di Hamburg. [10]

[ edit ] Later years [ sunting ] Kemudian tahun

Brahms's grave in the Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna. Brahms's makam di Zentralfriedhof (Pusat Cemetery), Wina.
In 1890, the 57 year-old Brahms resolved to give up composing. Pada tahun 1890, pada 57 Brahms tahun memutuskan untuk menyerah menulis. However, as it turned out, he was unable to abide by his decision, and in the years before his death he produced a number of acknowledged masterpieces. Namun, ternyata, ia tidak mampu untuk mematuhi keputusan, dan di tahun-tahun sebelum kematiannya ia menghasilkan sejumlah karya diakui. His admiration for Richard Mühlfeld , clarinetist with the Meiningen orchestra, moved him to compose the Clarinet Trio , Op. kekaguman Nya bagi Richard Mühlfeld , klarinet dengan orkestra Meiningen, pindah dia untuk menyusun Clarinet Trio , Op. 114, Clarinet Quintet , Op. 114, Clarinet Quintet , Op. 115 (1891), and the two Clarinet Sonatas , Op. 115 (1891), dan dua sonata Klarinet , Op. 120 (1894). 120 (1894). He also wrote several cycles of piano pieces, Opp. Ia juga menulis beberapa siklus potongan piano, Opp. 116–119, the Four Serious Songs ( Vier ernste Gesänge ), Op. 116-119, yang Empat Serius Songs (Vier ernste Gesänge), Op. 121 (1896), and the Eleven Chorale Preludes for organ, Op. 121 (1896), dan Sebelas Chorale Prelude untuk organ, Op. 122 (1896). 122 (1896).
While completing the Op. Sambil menyelesaikan Op. 121 songs, Brahms developed cancer (sources differ on whether this was of the liver or pancreas ). 121 lagu, Brahms kanker dikembangkan (sumber berbeda tentang apakah ini adalah dari hati atau pankreas ). His condition gradually worsened and he died on April 3, 1897, aged 63. Kondisinya berangsur-angsur memburuk dan dia meninggal pada tanggal 3 April 1897, usia 63. Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna. Brahms dimakamkan di Zentralfriedhof di Wina.

[ edit ] Music of Brahms [ sunting ] Musik Brahms

[ edit ] Works [ sunting ] Pekerjaan

Brahms wrote a number of major works for orchestra, including two serenades , four symphonies , two piano concertos ( No. 1 in D minor ; No. 2 in B flat major ), a Violin Concerto , a Double Concerto for violin and cello, and two orchestral overtures, the Academic Festival Overture and the Tragic Overture . Brahms menulis sejumlah karya besar untuk orkestra, termasuk dua serenades , empat simfoni , dua piano concerto ( No 1 di D minor , No 2 dalam B datar besar ), sebuah Violin Concerto , sebuah Double Concerto untuk biola dan cello, dan dua orkestra tawaran, yang Akademik Festival Overture dan Tragic Overture .
His large choral work A German Requiem is not a setting of the liturgical Missa pro defunctis but a setting of texts which Brahms selected from the Lutheran Bible . pekerjaan besar paduan suara-Nya A Requiem Jerman bukan merupakan konfigurasi dari Missa pro liturgi defunctis tetapi pengaturan teks yang Brahms dipilih dari Alkitab Lutheran . The work was composed in three major periods of his life. Pekerjaan itu terdiri dalam tiga periode utama dalam hidupnya. An early version of the second movement was first composed in 1854, not long after Robert Schumann 's attempted suicide, and this was later used in his first piano concerto. Versi awal gerakan kedua pertama kali disusun pada 1854, tidak lama setelah Robert Schumann 's mencoba bunuh diri, dan ini kemudian digunakan dalam konser piano pertamanya. The majority of the Requiem was composed after his mother's death in 1865. Mayoritas Requiem itu terdiri setelah kematian ibunya pada tahun 1865. The fifth movement was added after the official premiere in 1868, and the work was published in 1869. Gerakan kelima ditambahkan setelah premier resmi pada 1868, dan karya tersebut dipublikasikan tahun 1869.
Brahms's works in variation form include the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel and the Paganini Variations , both for solo piano, and the Variations on a Theme by Haydn in versions for two pianos and for orchestra. Karya-karya Brahms di variasi bentuk termasuk Variasi dan Fugue pada Tema oleh Handel dan Variasi Paganini , baik untuk piano solo, dan Variasi pada Tema oleh Haydn dalam versi untuk dua piano dan orkestra. The final movement of the Fourth Symphony , Op. Gerakan akhir dari Symphony Keempat , Op. 98, is formally a passacaglia . 98, secara resmi sebuah passacaglia .
His chamber works include three string quartets, two string quintets, two string sextets, a clarinet quintet, a clarinet trio, a horn trio , a piano quintet, three piano quartets, and four piano trios (the fourth being published posthumously). Nya ruang bekerja termasuk kuartet string tiga, dua quintets string, dua sextets string, kwintet klarinet, trio klarinet, sebuah trio tanduk , sebuah kwintet piano, tiga kuartet piano, dan trio piano empat (yang keempat yang diterbitkan secara anumerta). He composed several instrumental sonatas with piano, including three for violin, two for cello, and two for clarinet (which were subsequently arranged for viola by the composer). Dia terdiri sonata beberapa instrumental piano, termasuk tiga untuk biola, dua untuk cello, dan dua untuk klarinet (yang kemudian diatur untuk biola oleh komposer). His solo piano works range from his early piano sonatas and ballades to his late sets of character pieces. Nya piano solo karya berkisar dari awal piano sonata dan ballades untuk set akhir nya potongan karakter. Brahms was a significant Lieder composer, who wrote over 200 songs. Brahms adalah signifikan Lieder komposer, yang menulis lebih dari 200 lagu. His chorale preludes for organ , Op. Nya nyanyian untuk paduan suara Prelude untuk organ , Op. 122, which he wrote shortly before his death, have become an important part of the organist's repertoire. 122, yang ia tulis tak lama sebelum kematiannya, telah menjadi bagian penting dari repertoar organ itu.
Brahms strongly preferred writing absolute music that does not refer to an explicit scene or narrative, and he never wrote an opera or a symphonic poem . Brahms sangat disukai menulis musik absolut yang tidak mengacu pada suatu adegan eksplisit atau narasi, dan dia tidak pernah menulis sebuah opera atau puisi simfoni .
Despite his reputation as a serious composer of large, complex musical structures, some of Brahms's most widely known and most commercially successful compositions during his life were small-scale works of popular intent aimed at the thriving contemporary market for domestic music-making; indeed, during the 20th century, the influential American critic BH Haggin , rejecting more mainstream views, argued in his various guides to recorded music that Brahms was at his best in such works and much less successful in larger forms. Meskipun reputasinya sebagai seorang komposer serius besar, struktur musik yang kompleks, beberapa komposisi Brahms paling luas dikenal dan paling sukses secara komersial selama hidupnya adalah karya kecil-skala niat populer ditujukan untuk pasar kontemporer berkembang untuk musik dalam negeri-keputusan; memang, selama abad 20, Amerika berpengaruh kritikus BH Haggin , menolak pandangan lebih utama, berpendapat dalam berbagai panduan untuk rekaman musik yang Brahms berada di terbaik dalam karya-karya tersebut dan yang kurang berhasil dalam bentuk yang lebih besar. Among the most cherished of these lighter works by Brahms are his sets of popular dances—the Hungarian Dances , the Waltzes , Op. Di antara yang paling dihargai dari karya-karya ringan oleh Brahms adalah set nya populer tarian-the Dances Hungaria , yang waltz, Op. 39, for piano duet, and the Liebeslieder Waltzes for vocal quartet and piano—and some of his many songs, notably the Wiegenlied , Op. 39, untuk duet piano, dan waltz Liebeslieder untuk kuartet vokal dan piano-dan beberapa dari sekian banyak lagu, terutama Wiegenlied, Op. 49, No. 4 (published in 1868). 49, No 4 (diterbitkan pada 1868). This last was written (to a folk text) to celebrate the birth of a son to Brahms's friend Bertha Faber and is universally known as Brahms's Lullaby . Ini terakhir ditulis (untuk teks rakyat) untuk merayakan kelahiran seorang anak untuk Brahms's teman Bertha Faber dan secara universal dikenal sebagai Brahms's Lullaby .

[ edit ] Style and influences [ sunting ] Gaya dan pengaruh

Brahms maintained a Classical sense of form and order in his works – in contrast to the opulence of the music of many of his contemporaries. Brahms mempertahankan rasa Klasik bentuk dan ketertiban dalam karyanya - kontras dengan kemewahan dari musik banyak orang sezamannya. Thus many admirers (though not necessarily Brahms himself) saw him as the champion of traditional forms and "pure music", as opposed to the "New German" embrace of programme music. Jadi banyak pengagum (walaupun belum tentu Brahms sendiri) melihat dia sebagai juara bentuk-bentuk tradisional dan "musik murni", sebagai lawan dari "New Jerman" merangkul program musik.
Brahms venerated Beethoven : in the composer's home, a marble bust of Beethoven looked down on the spot where he composed, and some passages in his works are reminiscent of Beethoven's style. Brahms dihormati Beethoven : di komposer rumah, patung marmer Beethoven melihat ke bawah di tempat di mana ia menulis, dan beberapa bagian dalam karyanya mengingatkan's gaya Beethoven. Brahms's First Symphony bears strongly a homage (or influence) from Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as the two works are both in a formidable C Minor, and end in the struggle towards a C Major triumph. Brahms's Symphony Pertama dikenakan sangat sebuah penghormatan (atau pengaruh) dari Beethoven's Fifth Symphony sebagai dua karya keduanya dalam C Minor tangguh, dan akhir dalam perjuangan menuju kemenangan Mayor C. The main theme of the finale the First Symphony is also reminiscent of the main theme of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth , and when this resemblance was pointed out to Brahms, he replied that any ass – jeder Esel – could see that. Tema utama finale Symphony Pertama ini juga mengingatkan pada tema utama final Beethoven's Ninth , dan ketika kemiripan ini ditunjukkan pada Brahms, dia menjawab bahwa keledai - jeder Esel - bisa melihat itu. In 1876, when the work was premiered in Vienna, it was immediately hailed as "Beethoven's Tenth". Pada tahun 1876, ketika pekerjaan itu perdana di Wina, ia segera dianggap sebagai "Beethoven Kesepuluh".
A German Requiem was partially inspired by his mother's death in 1865 (at which time he composed a funeral march that was to become the basis of Part Two, Denn alles Fleisch ), but it also incorporates material from a Symphony which he started in 1854 but abandoned following Schumann's suicide attempt. A Requiem Jerman sebagian terinspirasi oleh ibu kematiannya pada tahun 1865 (pada saat itu ia menyusun pawai pemakaman yang menjadi dasar Bagian Dua, Denn alles Fleisch), tetapi juga mencakup materi dari Symphony yang ia mulai pada 1854, namun ditinggalkan berikut ini mencoba bunuh diri Schumann. He once wrote that the Requiem "belonged to Schumann". The first movement of this abandoned Symphony was re-worked as the first movement of the First Piano Concerto .
Brahms also loved the Classical composers Mozart and Haydn . He collected first editions and autographs of their works, and edited performing editions. He also studied the music of pre-classical composers, including Giovanni Gabrieli , Johann Adolph Hasse , Heinrich Schütz , and, especially, Johann Sebastian Bach . His friends included leading musicologists, and, with Friedrich Chrysander , he edited an edition of the works of François Couperin . He looked to older music for inspiration in the arts of strict counterpoint ; the themes of some of his works are modelled on Baroque sources such as Bach's The Art of Fugue in the fugal finale of Cello Sonata No. 1 or the same composer's Cantata No. 150 in the passacaglia theme of the Fourth Symphony's finale .
The early Romantic composers also had a major influence on Brahms, particularly Schumann, who encouraged Brahms as a young composer. Brahms often met Robert and Clara Schumann . During his stay in Vienna in 1862–63, Brahms became particularly interested in the music of Franz Schubert . [ 11 ] The latter's influence may be identified in works by Brahms dating from the period, such as the two piano quartets Op. 25 and Op. 26, and the Piano Quintet which alludes to Schubert's String Quintet and Grand Duo for piano four hands. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] There is less evidence for influence of Chopin and Mendelssohn on Brahms, although occasionally one can find in his works what seems to be an allusion to one of their works (for example, Brahms's Scherzo, Op. 4, alludes to Chopin's Scherzo in B-flat minor; [ 13 ] the scherzo movement in Brahms's Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 5 , alludes to the finale of Mendelssohn's Piano Trio in C minor [ 14 ] ).
Brahms considered giving up composition when it seemed that other composers' innovations in extended tonality would result in the rule of tonality being broken altogether. Although Wagner became fiercely critical of Brahms as the latter grew in stature and popularity, he was enthusiastically receptive of the early Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel ; Brahms himself, according to many sources (Swafford, 1999), deeply admired Wagner's music, confining his ambivalence only to the dramaturgical precepts of Wagner's theory.
Brahms wrote settings for piano and voice of 144 German folk songs, and many of his lieder reflect folk themes or depict scenes of rural life. His Hungarian dances were among his most profitable compositions.

[ edit ] Brahms and religion

Despite Brahms' humanist and sceptical tendencies, it is certain one of his musical influences was the Bible . Meskipun 'humanis dan skeptis kecenderungan Brahms, ini adalah salah satu tertentu pengaruh musiknya adalah Alkitab . He was reared to appreciate Luther 's translation. Ia dipelihara untuk menghargai Luther terjemahan '. His "Requiem" employs biblical texts to convey a humanist message, omitting words about salvation or immortality, and focuses on the living rather than the dead. Nya "Requiem" menggunakan teks-teks alkitabiah untuk menyampaikan pesan humanis, menghilangkan kata-kata tentang keselamatan atau keabadian, dan berfokus pada yang hidup daripada mati. Author Walter Niemann declared, "The fact that Brahms began his creative activity with the German folk song and closed with the Bible reveals... the true religious creed of this great man of the people." Penulis Walter Niemann menyatakan, "Kenyataan bahwa Brahms memulai aktivitas kreatif dengan lagu rakyat Jerman dan ditutup dengan Alkitab mengungkapkan ... kredo agama yang benar dari orang besar rakyat." Some biographers and critics, however, see Brahms as more of a cultural Lutheran who embraced the cultural aspects of his upbringing but may or may not have adopted the religious beliefs. [ 15 ] When asked by conductor Karl Reinthaler to add additional sectarian text to his "requiem", Brahms responded, "As far as the text is concerned, I confess that I would gladly omit even the word German and instead use Human; also with my best knowledge and will I would dispense with passages like John 3:16 . On the other hand, I have chosen one thing or another because I am a musician, because I needed it, and because with my venerable authors I can't delete or dispute anything. But I had better stop before I say too much." Beberapa penulis biografi dan kritikus, bagaimanapun, lihat Brahms sebagai lebih dari seorang Lutheran budaya yang memeluk aspek budaya asuhan, tapi mungkin atau tidak mungkin telah mengadopsi keyakinan agama. [15] Ketika ditanya oleh kondektur Karl Reinthaler untuk menambahkan teks sektarian tambahan untuk nya "requiem", Brahms menjawab, "Sejauh sebagai teks yang bersangkutan, saya mengakui bahwa saya senang hati akan menghilangkan bahkan kata Jerman dan sebagai gantinya menggunakan Manusia; juga dengan pengetahuan terbaik saya dan akan saya akan membuang bagian seperti Yohanes 3:16 . Di sisi lain, saya telah memilih satu hal atau lain karena saya musisi, karena saya membutuhkannya, dan karena dengan penulis terhormat saya, saya tidak dapat menghapus atau apa sengketa Tapi aku lebih baik berhenti sebelum aku bicara terlalu banyak.. "
There is reason to believe that Brahms was a religious freethinker. Ada alasan untuk percaya bahwa Brahms adalah pemikir bebas agama. Being a star of his age, he would frequently say deceptive things to the public. Menjadi bintang seusianya, ia sering akan mengatakan hal-hal menipu kepada publik. This means that the most reliable accounts on Brahms's innermost feelings may come from the people in the close circle around him. Ini berarti bahwa akun yang paling dapat diandalkan pada perasaan terdalam Brahms's mungkin berasal dari orang-orang di lingkaran dekat di sekelilingnya. Among these was the pious Antonín Dvořák , the closest Brahms ever would come to having a protégé. Salah satu diantaranya adalah saleh Antonín Dvořák , yang paling dekat Brahms pernah akan datang untuk memiliki seorang anak didik. In a letter, Dvořák disclosed his concerns regarding Brahms's religious views: "Such a man, such a fine soul—and he believes in nothing! He believes in nothing!" [ 16 ] Dalam huruf a, Dvořák diungkapkan kekhawatirannya mengenai pandangan keagamaan's Brahms: "Orang seperti itu, misalnya denda jiwa-dan dia percaya tidak ada apa-apa! Dia percaya!" [16]
The question of Brahms and religiosity has been controversial and elicited accusations of fraud. Pertanyaan tentang Brahms dan religiusitas telah menimbulkan kontroversial dan tuduhan penipuan. One example is the book "Talks With Great Composers" by Arthur Abell which contains an unconfirmed interview with Brahms and Joseph Joachim replete with biblical references. Salah satu contoh adalah buku "Perundingan Dengan Great Penggubah" oleh Arthur Abell yang berisi wawancara belum dikonfirmasi dengan Brahms dan Joseph Joachim penuh dengan referensi Alkitab. The book was released in the 1950s and Brahms biographer Jan Swafford declared the interview fraudulent. [ citation needed ] Buku ini dirilis di tahun 1950-an dan Brahms penulis biografi Jan Swafford menyatakan wawancara penipuan. [ rujukan? ]

[ edit ] Influence [ sunting ] Pengaruh

Brahms's point of view looked both backward and forward; his output was often bold in its exploration of harmony and rhythm. Brahms titik pandang tampak baik mundur dan maju, output-nya sering berani dalam eksplorasi harmoni dan irama. As a result, he was an influence on composers of both conservative and modernist tendencies. Akibatnya, ia adalah seorang komposer berpengaruh terhadap kedua kecenderungan konservatif dan modernis. Within his lifetime, his idiom left an imprint on several composers within his personal circle, who were strong admirers of his music, such as Heinrich von Herzogenberg , Robert Fuchs , and Julius Röntgen , as well as on Gustav Jenner , who was Brahms's only formal composition pupil. Antonín Dvořák , who received substantial assistance from Brahms, deeply admired his music and was influenced by it in several works such as the Symphony No 7 in D minor and the F minor Piano Trio. Dalam masa hidupnya, idiom nya meninggalkan jejak pada sejumlah komponis dalam lingkaran pribadinya, yang pengagum kuat musiknya, seperti Heinrich von Herzogenberg , Robert Fuchs , dan Julius Röntgen , serta pada Gustav Jenner , yang Brahms hanya formal komposisi murid. Antonín Dvořák , yang menerima bantuan besar dari Brahms, sangat mengagumi musik dan dipengaruhi oleh itu dalam beberapa karya seperti Symphony No 7 dalam D minor dan F minor Piano Trio. Features of the 'Brahms style' were absorbed in a more complex synthesis with other contemporary (chiefly Wagnerian) trends by Hans Rott , Wilhelm Berger and Max Reger , whereas the British composers, Hubert Parry and Edward Elgar , and the Swede, Wilhelm Stenhammar , all testified to learning much from Brahms's example. Fitur dari 'gaya Brahms' diserap dalam sintesis yang lebih kompleks dengan lainnya kontemporer (terutama Wagnerian) tren dengan Hans Rott , Wilhelm Berger dan Max Reger , sedangkan komposer Inggris, Hubert Parry dan Edward Elgar , dan Swedia, Wilhelm Stenhammar , semua bersaksi untuk belajar banyak dari contoh Brahms's. It was Elgar who said, "I look at the Third Symphony of Brahms, and I feel like a pygmy." [ 17 ] Itu Elgar yang mengatakan, "Aku melihat Symphony Ketiga Brahms, dan saya merasa seperti seorang kerdil." [17]
Ferruccio Busoni 's early music shows much Brahmsian influence, and Brahms took an interest in him, though Busoni later tended to disparage Brahms. Ferruccio Busoni 's musik awal menunjukkan pengaruh Brahmsian banyak, dan Brahms mengambil minat dalam dirinya, meskipun Busoni kemudian cenderung untuk meremehkan Brahms. Towards the end of his life, Brahms offered substantial encouragement to Ernő Dohnányi and also to Alexander von Zemlinsky . Menjelang akhir hidupnya, Brahms menawarkan dorongan besar untuk Ernő Dohnanyi dan juga untuk Alexander von Zemlinsky . Their early chamber works (and those of Béla Bartók , who was friendly with Dohnányi,) show a thoroughgoing absorption of the Brahmsian idiom. ruang karya awal mereka (dan orang-orang Béla Bartók , yang ramah dengan Dohnanyi,) menunjukkan penyerapan menyeluruh dari idiom Brahmsian. Zemlinsky, moreover, was in turn the teacher of Arnold Schoenberg , and Brahms was apparently impressed by two movements of Schoenberg's early Quartet in D major which Zemlinsky showed him. Zemlinsky, apalagi, pada gilirannya guru dari Arnold Schoenberg , dan Brahms tampaknya terkesan oleh dua gerakan lebih awal Schoenberg Kuartet dalam D mayor yang Zemlinsky menunjukkan kepadanya. In 1933, Schoenberg wrote an essay "Brahms the Progressive" (re-written 1947), which drew attention to Brahms's fondness for motivic saturation and irregularities of rhythm and phrase; in his last book ( Structural Functions of Harmony , 1948), he analysed Brahms's "enriched harmony" and exploration of remote tonal regions. Pada tahun 1933, Schoenberg menulis esai "Brahms Progresif" (ditulis ulang 1947), yang menarik perhatian's menyukai Brahms untuk saturasi motivic dan penyimpangan dari irama dan frase; dalam buku terakhirnya (Fungsi Struktural Harmony, 1948), ia menganalisis Brahms's "harmoni diperkaya" dan eksplorasi tonal daerah terpencil. These efforts paved the way for a re-evaluation of Brahms's reputation in the 20th century. Upaya ini membuka jalan untuk evaluasi kembali reputasi Brahms di abad ke-20. Schoenberg went so far as to orchestrate one of Brahms's piano quartets. Schoenberg pergi terlalu jauh dengan mengatur salah satu kuartet piano Brahms's. Schoenberg's pupil Anton Webern , in his 1933 lectures, posthumously published under the title The Path to the New Music , claimed Brahms as one who had anticipated the developments of the Second Viennese School , and Webern's own Op. Teman-murid Schoenberg Anton Webern , dalam bukunya 1933 kuliah, anumerta diterbitkan dibawah judul jalan untuk Musik Baru, diklaim Brahms sebagai seorang yang telah mengantisipasi perkembangan dari Kedua Sekolah Wina , dan memiliki's Webern Op. 1, an orchestral passacaglia , is clearly in part a homage to, and development of, the variation techniques of the passacaglia-finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony. 1, sebuah orkestra passacaglia , jelas dalam bagian penghormatan, dan pengembangan, teknik variasi final-passacaglia dari Brahms's Symphony Keempat.
Brahms was honoured by the German Hall of Fame, the Walhalla temple . Brahms dihormati oleh Jerman Hall of Fame, yang kuil Walhalla . On 14 September 2000, he was introduced there as 126th " rühmlich ausgezeichneter Teutscher " and 13th composer among them, with a bust by sculptor Milan Knobloch . [ 18 ] Pada tanggal 14 September 2000, dia diperkenalkan di sana sebagai 126 "ausgezeichneter rühmlich Teutscher" dan komposer 13 di antara mereka, dengan payudara dengan pematung Milan Knobloch . [18]

[ edit ] Personality [ sunting ] Kepribadian

Like Beethoven, Brahms was fond of nature and often went walking in the woods around Vienna. Seperti Beethoven, Brahms sangat menyukai alam dan sering pergi berjalan-jalan di hutan sekitar Wina. He often brought penny candy with him to hand out to children. Dia sering membawa permen sen dengan dia untuk membagikan kepada anak-anak. To adults, Brahms was often brusque and sarcastic, and he sometimes alienated other people. Untuk orang dewasa, Brahms sering kasar dan sarkastik, dan dia kadang-kadang terasing orang lain. His pupil Gustav Jenner wrote, "Brahms has acquired, not without reason, the reputation for being a grump, even though few could also be as lovable as he. [ 19 ] " He also had predictable habits, which were noted by the Viennese press, such as his daily visit to his favourite "Red Hedgehog" tavern in Vienna , and the press also particularly took into account his style of walking with his hands firmly behind his back complete with a caricature of him in this pose walking alongside a red hedgehog. murid-Nya Gustav Jenner menulis, "Brahms telah mengakuisisi, bukan tanpa alasan, reputasi untuk menjadi grump, meskipun sedikit juga bisa sama dicintai seperti dia. [19] "Dia juga punya kebiasaan ditebak, yang dicatat oleh pers Wina , seperti kunjungan hariannya ke favorit nya "Red Hedgehog" kedai di Wina , lalu tekan juga sangat memperhitungkan gaya berjalan dengan tangan tegas balik ke belakang lengkap dengan karikatur dirinya di pose ini berjalan berdampingan dengan landak merah . Those who remained his friends were very loyal to him, however, and he reciprocated with equal loyalty and generosity. Mereka yang tetap teman-temannya sangat setia kepadanya, bagaimanapun, dan ia membalas dengan loyalitas yang sama dan kemurahan hati.
Brahms had amassed a small fortune in the second half of his career, around 1860, when his works sold widely. Brahms telah mengumpulkan keberuntungan kecil pada paruh kedua dari karirnya, sekitar 1860, ketika karya-karyanya dijual secara luas. But despite his wealth, he lived very simply, with a modest apartment - a mess of music papers and books - and a single housekeeper that cleaned and cooked for him. Tapi meskipun kekayaan, ia hidup sangat sederhana, dengan sebuah apartemen sederhana - berantakan kertas musik dan buku - dan pembantu rumah tangga tunggal yang dibersihkan dan dimasak untuknya. He was often the butt of jokes for his long beard, his cheap clothes and often not wearing socks, etc. Brahms gave away large sums of money to friends and to aid various musical students, often with the term of strict secrecy. Dia sering butt of jokes untuk jenggot panjang, pakaian murah dan sering tidak mengenakan kaus kaki, dll Brahms menyerahkan uang dalam jumlah besar kepada teman dan untuk membantu mahasiswa berbagai musik, sering kali dengan jangka waktu kerahasiaan yang ketat. Brahms' domicile was hit during World War II, destroying his piano and other possessions that were still kept there for posterity by the Viennese. [ 1 ] 'Kedudukan Brahms dipukul selama Perang Dunia II, menghancurkan piano dan harta benda lainnya yang masih tetap ada untuk anak cucu oleh Wina. [1]
Johann Strauss II (left) and Johannes Brahms (right) photographed in Vienna Johann Strauss II (kiri) dan Johannes Brahms (kanan) difoto di Wina
Brahms was a lifelong friend of Johann Strauss II , though they were very different as composers. Brahms adalah teman seumur hidup Johann Strauss II , meskipun mereka sangat berbeda sebagai komposer. Brahms even struggled to get to the Theater an der Wien in Vienna for the premiere of Strauss's operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft in 1897 before his death. Brahms bahkan berjuang untuk sampai ke Theater an der Wien di Wina untuk pemutaran perdana's operet Strauss Die Göttin der Vernunft pada tahun 1897 sebelum kematiannya. Perhaps the greatest tribute that Brahms could pay to Strauss was his remark that he would have given anything to have written The Blue Danube waltz . Mungkin upeti terbesar yang Brahms bisa membayar untuk Strauss adalah pernyataannya bahwa ia akan memberikan apa saja telah menulis The Blue Danube waltz . An anecdote dating around the time Brahms became acquainted with Strauss is that when Strauss's wife Adele asked Brahms to autograph her fan, he wrote a few notes from the "Blue Danube" waltz, and then cheekily inscribed the words "Alas, not by Brahms!" Sebuah anekdot dating sekitar waktu Brahms berkenalan dengan Strauss adalah bahwa ketika Strauss istri Adele diminta Brahms untuk tanda tangan kipas, ia menulis beberapa catatan dari waltz "Blue Danube", dan kemudian genit bertuliskan kata-kata "Alas, bukan oleh Brahms! "
Brahms was an extreme perfectionist. Brahms adalah perfeksionis ekstrem. He destroyed many early works — including a Violin Sonata he had performed with Reményi and violinist Ferdinand David — and once claimed to have destroyed 20 string quartets before he issued his official First in 1873. Dia menghancurkan banyak karya awal - termasuk Violin Sonata ia dilakukan dengan Reményi dan pemain biola Ferdinand David - dan sekali mengklaim telah menghancurkan 20 kuartet gesek sebelum ia mengeluarkan nya resmi pertama pada tahun 1873. Over the course of several years, he changed an original project for a symphony in D minor into his first piano concerto . Selama beberapa tahun, dia mengubah sebuah proyek asli untuk sebuah simfoni dalam D minor ke nya concerto piano pertamanya . In another instance of devotion to detail, he laboured over the official First Symphony for almost fifteen years, from about 1861 to 1876. Dalam contoh lain pengabdian terhadap detail, ia bekerja selama Symphony Pertama resmi selama hampir lima belas, dari sekitar 1861-1876. Even after its first few performances, Brahms destroyed the original slow movement and substituted another before the score was published. Bahkan setelah beberapa pertunjukan pertama, Brahms menghancurkan gerakan lambat asli dan diganti lain sebelum skor diterbitkan. (A conjectural restoration of the original slow movement has been published by Robert Pascall.) Another factor that contributed to Brahms's perfectionism was that Schumann had announced early on that Brahms was to become the next great composer like Beethoven, a prediction that Brahms was determined to live up to. (A restorasi bersifat terkaan dari gerakan lambat yang asli telah dipublikasikan oleh Robert Pascall.) Faktor lain yang memberikan kontribusi terhadap's kesempurnaan Brahms adalah bahwa Schumann telah mengumumkan sejak awal bahwa Brahms adalah untuk menjadi komposer besar berikutnya seperti Beethoven, sebuah prediksi yang Brahms bertekad untuk hidup sampai. This prediction hardly added to the composer's self-confidence, and may have contributed to the delay in producing the First Symphony. Prediksi ini tidak ditambahkan ke kepercayaan diri komposer-, dan mungkin telah berkontribusi untuk menunda dalam memproduksi Symphony Pertama. However, Clara Schumann noted before that Brahms's First Symphony was a product that was not reflective of Brahms's real nature. Namun, Clara Schumann dicatat sebelumnya bahwa Brahms Symphony Pertama adalah produk yang tidak mencerminkan alam nyata Brahms. She felt that the final exuberant movement was "too brilliant", as she was encouraged by the dark and tempestuous opening movement she had seen in an early draft. Dia merasa bahwa gerakan riang akhir ini "terlalu brilian", karena ia didorong oleh gerakan membuka gelap dan menggelora ia telah melihat dalam draft awal. However, she recanted in accepting the Second Symphony, which has often been seen in modern times as one of his sunniest works. Namun, dia menarik kembali dalam menerima Symphony Kedua, yang sering terlihat pada zaman modern sebagai salah satu dari karya-karyanya tercerah. Other contemporaries, however, found the first movement especially dark, and Reinhold Brinkmann , in a study of Symphony No. 2 in relation to 19th century ideas of melancholy , has published a revealing letter from Brahms to the composer and conductor Vinzenz Lachner in which Brahms confesses to the melancholic side of his nature and comments on specific features of the movement that reflect this. sezaman lain, bagaimanapun, menemukan gerakan pertama khusus gelap, dan Reinhold Brinkmann , dalam studi Symphony No 2 dalam kaitannya dengan gagasan abad ke-19 dari melankolis , telah menerbitkan surat mengungkapkan dari Brahms ke komposer dan konduktor Vinzenz Lachner yang Brahms mengaku ke sisi melankolis alam dan komentar tentang fitur khusus gerakan yang mencerminkan ini.

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