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Thursday, 16 December 2010

George Frideric Handel

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George Frideric Handel, 1733, by Balthasar Denner George Frideric Handel, 1733, oleh Denner Balthasar
Händel as a young man Handel sebagai seorang pemuda
George Frideric Handel (German: Georg Friedrich Händel ; pronounced [ˈhɛndəl] ) (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-British Baroque composer. George Frideric Handel (Jerman: Georg Friedrich Handel; diucapkan [hɛndəl] ) (23 Feb 1685 - 14 April 1759) adalah seorang Jerman-Inggris Baroque composer. He is famous for his operas , oratorios , and concertos . Dia terkenal karena opera , oratorios , dan concerto . Handel was born in Germany in the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach and Domenico Scarlatti . Handel lahir di Jerman pada tahun yang sama seperti Johann Sebastian Bach dan Domenico Scarlatti . He received critical musical training in Italy before settling in London and becoming a naturalised British subject. [ 1 ] His works include Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks . Ia menerima pelatihan musik penting di Italia sebelum menetap di London dan menjadi subjek Inggris naturalisasi. [1] Karya-karyanya meliputi Mesias , Air Musik , dan Musik untuk Royal Fireworks . He was strongly influenced by the techniques of the great composers of the Italian Baroque and the middle-German polyphonic Choral tradition. Ia sangat dipengaruhi oleh teknik komponis besar Baroque Italia dan tradisi polifonik tengah-Jerman paduan suara. Handel's music was well-known to many composers, including Haydn , Mozart , and Beethoven . Handel's musik adalah terkenal untuk komposer, termasuk Haydn , Mozart , dan Beethoven .

Contents Isi

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[ edit ] Early years [ sunting ] Awal tahun

Handel's baptismal registration (Marienbibliothek Halle) Handel's pembaptisan pendaftaran (Marienbibliothek Halle)
Handel was born in Halle (which was then in the Duchy of Magdeburg , a province of Brandenburg-Prussia ) to Georg and Dorothea (née Taust) Händel in 1685, [ 2 ] :[1] . Handel lahir di Halle (yang kemudian di Kadipaten Magdeburg , sebuah provinsi di Brandenburg-Prusia ) untuk Georg dan Dorothea (née Taust) Handel pada tahun 1685, [2] : [1]. His father, Georg Händel , 63 when his son was born, was an eminent barber-surgeon who also served as surgeon to the court of Saxe-Weissenfels and the Margraviate of Brandenburg . [ 3 ] According to John Mainwaring , his first biographer, "Handel had discovered such a strong propensity to Music, that his father who always intended him for the study of the Civil Law, had reason to be alarmed. He strictly forbade him to meddle with any musical instrument but Handel found means to get a little clavichord privately convey'd to a room at the top of the house. To this room he constantly stole when the family was asleep". [ 4 ] At an early age Handel became a skillful performer on the harpsichord and pipe organ . [ 5 ] :[3–4] Ayahnya, Georg Handel , 63 ketika anaknya lahir, adalah terkenal tukang cukur-ahli bedah yang juga menjabat sebagai ahli bedah untuk pengadilan Saxe-Weissenfels dan Margraviate Brandenburg . [3] Menurut John Mainwaring , penulis biografi pertamanya, " Handel telah menemukan seperti kecenderungan kuat untuk Music, bahwa ayahnya yang selalu ditujukan padanya untuk studi Hukum Perdata, punya alasan untuk khawatir. Dia ketat melarangnya untuk ikut campur dengan alat musik tapi Handel menemukan cara untuk mendapatkan sedikit clavichord pribadi convey'd ke sebuah kamar di bagian atas rumah.. Untuk kamar ini ia selalu mencuri ketika keluarga sedang tidur " [4] Pada usia dini Handel menjadi pemain terampil di piano dan organ pipa . [5] : [3-4]
Birthplace of Handel in Halle (Saale) – oldest published engraving at The Illustrated London News (18 July 1859) Tempat Lahir Handel di Halle (Saale) - ukiran diterbitkan tertua di The Illustrated London News (18 Juli 1859)
One day Handel and his father went on a trip to Weissenfels to visit either his son (Handel's half-brother) Carl, or grandson (Handel's nephew) Georg Christian [ 6 ] , who was serving as a valet to Duke Johann Adolf I . [ 7 ] According to legend, the young Handel attracted the attention of the Duke with his playing on the church organ. Satu Handel hari dan ayahnya melanjutkan perjalanan ke Weissenfels untuk mengunjungi salah satu anaknya (yang setengah Handel-saudara) Carl, atau cucu (keponakan Handel) Georg Kristen [6] , yang melayani sebagai pelayan untuk Duke Johann Adolf saya . [ 7] Menurut legenda, Handel muda menarik perhatian dari Duke dengan bermain di atas organ gereja. At his urging, Handel's father permitted him to take lessons in musical composition and keyboard technique from Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow , the organist of the Lutheran Marienkirche. Pada desakannya, ayah Handel mengizinkannya untuk mengambil pelajaran dalam komposisi musik dan teknik keyboard dari Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow , yang organis dari Lutheran Marienkirche. From then on Handel learned about harmony and contemporary styles, analysed sheet music scores, learned to work fugue subjects and copy music. Sejak saat itu Handel belajar tentang harmoni dan gaya kontemporer, dianalisis lembaran musik skor, belajar untuk bekerja fuga subyek dan musik salin. Sometimes he would take his teacher's place as organist for services. [ 8 ] :[17] In 1698 Handel played for Frederick I of Prussia and met Giovanni Battista Bononcini in Berlin, in 1701 Georg Philipp Telemann went to Halle to listen to the promising young man. Kadang-kadang dia akan mengambil Teman-guru tempatnya sebagai organis untuk layanan. [8] : [17] Pada 1698 Handel bermain untuk Frederick I dari Prusia dan bertemu Giovanni Battista Bononcini di Berlin, pada 1701 Georg Philipp Telemann pergi ke Halle untuk mendengarkan menjanjikan muda manusia.

[ edit ] From Halle to Italy [ sunting ] Dari Halle ke Italia

The Hamburg Opera am Gänsemarkt in 1726 Opera Hamburg am Gänsemarkt pada tahun 1726
In 1702, following his father's wishes, Handel started studying law at the University of Halle ; [ 8 ] :[17–18] and also succeeded in getting an appointment as the organist at the local Protestant cathedral. Pada 1702, setelah ayah keinginannya, Handel mulai belajar hukum di Universitas Halle ; [8] : [17-18] dan juga berhasil mendapatkan janji sebagai organis di katedral Protestan lokal. After a year Handel seems to have been very unsatisfied and in 1703, he moved to Hamburg , accepting a position as violinist and harpsichordist in the orchestra of the opera house. [ 9 ] :[18] There he met Johann Mattheson , Christoph Graupner and Reinhard Keiser . Setelah setahun Handel tampaknya telah sangat tidak puas dan pada tahun 1703, ia pindah ke Hamburg , menerima posisi sebagai pemain biola dan orkestra harpsichordist di rumah opera. [9] : [18] Di sana ia bertemu Johann Mattheson , Christoph Graupner dan Reinhard Keiser . His first two operas, Almira and Nero , were produced in 1705. [ 9 ] :[19] He produced two other operas, Daphne and Florindo , in 1708. pertamanya dua opera, Almira dan Nero , diproduksi pada 1705. [9] : [19] Dia menghasilkan dua opera lainnya, Daphne dan Florindo , pada 1708. It is unclear if Handel directed these performances himself in the Oper am Gänsemarkt . Tidak jelas apakah Handel diarahkan pertunjukan ini sendiri di Oper am Gänsemarkt .
Entrance of Teatro del Cocomero Pintu masuk Teatro del Cocomero
According to Mainwaring, in 1706 Handel travelled to Italy at the invitation of Ferdinando de' Medici , but Mainwaring must have been confused. Menurut Mainwaring, 1706 Handel dalam perjalanan ke Italia atas undangan Ferdinando de 'Medici , tetapi Mainwaring pasti bingung. It was Gian Gastone de' Medici , whom Handel had met in 1703/1704 in Hamburg. [ 10 ] Ferdinando, who had succeeded in making Florence the musical capital of Italy, attracting the leading talents of his day, had a keen interest in opera. Itu Gian Gastone de 'Medici , yang Handel telah bertemu di 1703/1704 di Hamburg. [10] Ferdinando, yang telah berhasil membuat Florence musik ibukota Italia, menarik bakat terkemuka pada zamannya, memiliki minat dalam opera . There Handel met the librettist Antonio Salvi , with whom he would collaborate. Ada Handel bertemu dengan penulis kata-kata nyanyian Antonio Salvi , dengan siapa dia akan berkolaborasi. According to rumours at the time, he also had a love affair with Vittoria Tarquini , a singer. Menurut rumor pada saat itu, ia juga memiliki hubungan cinta dengan Vittoria Tarquini , penyanyi. Handel left for Rome and, as opera was (temporarily) banned in the Papal States , composed sacred music for the Roman clergy ; the famous Dixit Dominus (1707) is from this era. :[24, 26] He also composed many cantatas in pastoral style for musical gatherings in the palace of Cardinals Pietro Ottoboni , Benedetto Pamphili and Carlo Colonna . Handel berangkat ke Roma dan, sebagai opera adalah (sementara) dilarang di Negara-negara Kepausan , mengarang musik sakral untuk Roma ulama , yang terkenal Dixit Dominus (1707) dari era ini:. [24, 26] Ia juga banyak terdiri cantatas di pastoral style untuk pertemuan musik di istana Cardinals Pietro Ottoboni , Benedetto Pamphili dan Carlo Colonna . Two oratorios , La Resurrezione and Il Trionfo del Tempo , were produced in a private setting for Ruspoli and Ottoboni in 1709 and 1710, respectively. Rodrigo , his first immature, but all-Italian opera, was produced in the Cocomero theatre in Florence in 1707. [ 9 ] :[29–30] Agrippina was first produced in 1709 at Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo , the prettiest theatre at Venice, owned by the Grimani's. Dua oratorios , La Resurrezione dan Il Trionfo del Tempo, diproduksi dalam pengaturan pribadi untuk Ruspoli dan Ottoboni di 1709 1710, dan masing-masing. Rodrigo , dewasa pertamanya, tetapi semua-Italia opera, diproduksi dalam teater Cocomero di Florence pada tahun 1707 . [9] : [29-30] Agrippina pertama kali diproduksi pada 1709 di Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo , yang tercantik teater di Venesia, yang dimiliki oleh Grimani's. The opera, with a libretto by cardinal Vincenzo Grimani , ran for an unprecedented 27 performances. Opera, dengan nyanyian oleh kardinal Grimani Vincenzo , berlari untuk sebuah pertunjukan belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya 27. It showed remarkable maturity and established Handel's reputation as a composer of opera. Hal ini menunjukkan kematangan yang luar biasa dan mendirikan Handel reputasi sebagai seorang komponis opera. The audience, thunderstruck with the grandeur and sublimity of his style, [ 11 ] applauded for Il caro Sassone . Penonton, disambar petir dengan kemegahan dan keagungan gayanya, [11] bertepuk tangan untuk Il caro Sassone.

[ edit ] The move to London [ sunting ] Langkah itu ke London

Portrait of George Friderick Handel by William Hogarth Potret Friderick Handel George oleh William Hogarth
In 1710, Handel became Kapellmeister to the German prince George, Elector of Hanover , who would become King George I of Great Britain in 1714. [ 9 ] :[38] He visited Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici and her husband in Düsseldorf on his way to London in 1710. Pada 1710, Handel menjadi dirigen ke pangeran Jerman George, Pemilih dari Hanover , yang akan menjadi Raja George I dari Inggris pada 1714. [9] : [38] Dia mengunjungi Anna Maria Luisa de 'Medici dan suaminya di Düsseldorf pada nya cara ke London tahun 1710. With his opera Rinaldo , based on La Gerusalemme Liberata by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso , Handel enjoyed great success, "but it is difficult to see why he lifted from old Italian works unless he was in a hurry". [ 12 ] This work contains one of Handel's favourite arias, Cara sposa, amante cara . Dengan nya opera Rinaldo , berdasarkan La Gerusalemme Liberata oleh penyair Italia Torquato Tasso , Handel menikmati kesuksesan besar, "tetapi sulit untuk melihat mengapa ia diangkat dari karya Italia tua kecuali dia terburu-buru". [12] Karya ini berisi salah satu favorit aria's Handel, sposa Cara, cara Amante. In 1712, Handel decided to settle permanently in England. Pada 1712, Handel memutuskan untuk menetap permanen di Inggris. He received a yearly income of £200 from Queen Anne after composing for her the Utrecht te Deum performed in 1713. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Dia menerima pendapatan tahunan sebesar £ 200 dari Queen Anne setelah menulis untuknya Utrecht te Deum dilakukan pada tahun 1713. [13] [14]
George Frideric Handel (left) and King George I on the Thames River , 17 July 1717. George Frideric Handel (kiri) dan Raja George I di Sungai Thames , 17 Juli 1717. Painting by Edouard Jean Conrad Hamman (1819–88). Lukisan oleh Jean Conrad Hamman Edouard (1819-1888).
One of his most important patrons was the young and wealthy Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington , who showed an early love of his music. [ 15 ] For him he wrote Amadigi di Gaula , an unusual opera, featuring Nicolo Grimaldi and no voices lower than alto . Salah satu yang paling penting pelanggan nya adalah muda dan kaya Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington , yang menunjukkan kasih yang awal musiknya. [15] Baginya ia menulis Amadigi di Gaula , sebuah opera yang tidak biasa, yang menampilkan Nicolo Grimaldi dan tidak ada suara yang lebih rendah dari alto . In July 1717 Handel's Water Music was performed more than three times on the Thames for the King and his guests, such as Anne Vaughan, the Duchess of Bolton , Countess Godolphin , Countess of Darlington and the Earl of Orkney . Pada Juli 1717 Handel Water Music dilakukan lebih dari tiga kali pada Thames untuk Raja dan tamu-tamunya, seperti Anne Vaughan, yang Duchess of Bolton , Countess Godolphin , Countess Darlington dan Earl of Orkney . The barges, heading for Chelsea or Lambeth and leaving the party after midnight, used the tides of the river. The tongkang, menuju Chelsea atau Lambeth dan meninggalkan partai setelah tengah malam, menggunakan sungai pasang surut. The composition was successful in reconciling the king and Handel. [ 9 ] :[77] Komposisi berhasil mendamaikan raja dan Handel. [9] : [77]

[ edit ] Cannons (1717–18) [ sunting ] Meriam (1717-1718)

Handel spent the most carefree time of his life as house composer at Cannons in Middlesex and laid the cornerstone for his future choral compositions in the twelve Chandos Anthems . [ 16 ] Romain Rolland stated that these anthems were as important for his oratorios as the cantatas were for his operas. Handel riang menghabiskan waktu sebagian besar hidupnya sebagai komponis rumah di Meriam di Middlesex dan meletakkan landasan bagi masa depan komposisi paduan suara dalam dua belas Chandos lagu kebangsaan. [16] Romain Rolland menyatakan bahwa lagu kebangsaan adalah sebagai penting bagi oratorios nya sebagai cantatas adalah untuk opera nya. Rolland also highly estimated Acis and Galatea , like Winton Dean , who wrote that "the music catches breath and disturbs the memory". [ 17 ] During Handel's lifetime it was his most performed work. Rolland juga sangat estimasi ACIS dan Galatea , seperti Winton Dean , yang menulis bahwa "musik menangkap nafas dan mengganggu memori". [17] Selama ini seumur hidup nya Handel itu dilakukan paling pekerjaan itu.
George Frideric Handel signature.svg
Handel was a canny investor: he put money into South Sea stock in 1716 when prices were low [ 18 ] and had sold up by 1720 when the South Sea credit bubble burst in one of the greatest financial cataclysms in fiscal history. [ 19 ] Handel adalah seorang investor lihai: dia memasukkan uang ke saham Laut Selatan pada 1716 ketika harga rendah [18] dan telah dijual oleh 1720 ketika gelembung kredit Laut Selatan meledak di salah satu cataclysms keuangan terbesar dalam sejarah fiskal. [19]
Handel House at 25 Brook Street , Mayfair, London Handel House di 25 Brook Street , Mayfair, London

[ edit ] Royal Academy of Music (1719–34) [ sunting ] Royal Academy of Music (1719-1734)

In May 1719 Handel was ordered by Lord Chamberlain Thomas Holles, the Duke of Newcastle to look for new singers. [ 20 ] Handel travelled to Dresden to attend the newly built opera. Pada bulan Mei 1719 Handel diperintahkan oleh Lord Chamberlain Thomas Holles, Duke of Newcastle untuk mencari penyanyi baru. [20] Handel melakukan perjalanan ke Dresden untuk menghadiri opera yang baru dibangun. He saw Teofane by Antonio Lotti , and engaged the cast on account of the Royal Academy of Music , founded by a group of aristocrats to secure themselves with a constant supply of baroque opera or opera seria . Dia melihat Teofane oleh Antonio Lotti , dan terlibat dalam dilemparkan pada rekening Royal Academy of Music , didirikan oleh sekelompok kaum bangsawan untuk mengamankan diri dengan pasokan konstan baroque opera atau opera seria . Handel may have invited John Smith, his fellow student in Halle, and his son Johann Christoph Schmidt , to become his secretary and amanuensis . [ 21 ] In or even before 1723, he moved into a Georgian house at 25 Brook Street, which he rented for the rest of his life. [ 9 ] :[387] This house, where he rehearsed, copied music and sold tickets, is now the Handel House Museum . [ 22 ] In 1724 and 1725, within twelve months, Handel wrote three outstanding and successful operas, Giulio Cesare , Tamerlano and Rodelinda , according to Winton Dean an achievement without parallel, with many da capo arias , such as Svegliatevi nel core . Handel mungkin telah mengundang John Smith, sesama mahasiswa di Halle, dan anaknya Johann Christoph Schmidt , untuk menjadi sekretaris dan amanuensis . [21] Pada atau bahkan sebelum 1723, ia pindah ke Georgia rumah di 25 Brook Street, yang ia menyewa untuk sisa hidupnya. [9] : [387] Rumah ini, di mana ia berlatih, disalin musik dan menjual tiket, sekarang Handel House Museum . [22] Pada 1724 1725, dan dalam dua belas bulan, Handel menulis tiga beredar dan opera sukses, Giulio Cesare , Tamerlano dan Rodelinda , menurut Winton Dean sebuah prestasi tanpa paralel, dengan banyak aria da capo , seperti inti pasukan penjaga perdamaian Svegliatevi . After composing Silete venti , he concentrated on opera and stopped writing cantatas. Scipio , from which we have the regimental slow march of the British Grenadier Guards [ 2 ] :[194] was performed as a stopgap, waiting for the arrival of Faustina Bordoni . Setelah menyusun venti Silete, ia berkonsentrasi pada opera dan berhenti cantatas menulis. Scipio , dari mana kita memiliki berbaris lambat resimen dari British Pengawal Grenadier [2] : [194] dilakukan sebagai pengganti sementara, menunggu kedatangan Faustina Bordoni .
In 1727 Handel was commissioned to write four anthems for the coronation ceremony of King George II . Handel pada tahun 1727 ditugaskan untuk menulis empat lagu kebangsaan untuk upacara penobatan Raja George II . One of these, Zadok the Priest , has been played at every British coronation ceremony since. Salah satunya, Imam Zadok , telah dimainkan pada setiap upacara penobatan Inggris sejak. In 1728 John Gay's The Beggar's Opera premiered at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre and ran for 62 consecutive performances, the longest run in theatre history up to that time. Dalam 1728 John Gay pengemis Opera perdana di Lincoln Inn Fields Teater dan berlari untuk 62 pertunjukan berturut-turut, jangka terpanjang dalam sejarah teater sampai saat itu. After nine years Handel's contract was ended by the directors but he soon started a new company. Setelah sembilan tahun kontrak Handel itu berakhir oleh direksi namun ia segera memulai sebuah perusahaan baru.
The Queen's Theatre in Haymarket (now Her Majesty's Theatre ), established in 1705 by architect and playwright John Vanbrugh , quickly became an opera house . [ 23 ] and between 1711 and 1739, more than 25 of Handel's operas were premièred there. [ 24 ] In 1729 Handel became joint manager of the Theatre with John James Heidegger . The Queen's Theatre di Haymarket (sekarang Her Majesty's Theatre ), didirikan pada 1705 oleh arsitek dan dramawan John Vanbrugh , dengan cepat menjadi sebuah gedung opera . [23] dan antara 1711 dan 1739, lebih dari 25 organisasi-opera Handel yang ditayangkan di sana. [24] Handel tahun 1729 menjadi manajer bersama Teater dengan John James Heidegger .
A musical portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales and his sisters by Philip Mercier , dated 1733, using Kew Palace as its plein-air backdrop Sebuah potret musik Frederick, Prince of Wales dan saudari-Nya oleh Philip Mercier , tanggal 1733, dengan menggunakan Kew Palace sebagai udara-nya plein latar belakang
Handel travelled to Italy to engage seven new singers. Handel melakukan perjalanan ke Italia untuk terlibat tujuh penyanyi baru. He composed seven more operas, but the public did not come to listen to his music but to hear the singers. [ 25 ] After two English oratorios Esther and Deborah , both commercially successful, he was able to invest again in the South Sea Company . Dia terdiri tujuh opera lebih, tapi publik tidak datang untuk mendengarkan musik, tapi untuk mendengarkan penyanyi. [25] Setelah dua oratorios Inggris Ester dan Deborah , baik sukses secara komersial, ia dapat berinvestasi kembali di Laut Selatan Perusahaan . Handel reworked his Acis and Galathea which then became his most successful work ever. Handel ulang nya ACIS dan Galathea yang kemudian menjadi yang paling berhasil karyanya pernah. In the long run Handel failed to compete with the Opera of the Nobility , engaging musicians such as Johann Adolf Hasse , Nicolo Porpora and the famous castrato Farinelli . Dalam jangka panjang Handel gagal bersaing dengan Opera Nobility itu , melibatkan musisi seperti Johann Adolf Hasse , Nicolo Porpora dan terkenal castrato yang Farinelli . The strong support by Frederick, Prince of Wales caused conflicts in the royal family. Dukungan yang kuat oleh Frederick, Prince of Wales menimbulkan konflik dalam keluarga kerajaan. In March 1734 Handel directed a wedding anthem This is the day which the Lord hath made , and a serenata Parnasso in Festa for Anne of Hanover . [ 5 ] :[33] Pada Maret 1734 Handel diarahkan pernikahan lagu ini adalah hari yang telah Tuhan dibuat, dan rayuan musik Parnasso di Festa untuk Anne dari Hanover . [5] : [33]

[ edit ] Opera at Covent Garden (1734–41) [ sunting ] Opera di Covent Garden (1734-1741)

The Queen's Theatre on Haymarket in London by William Capon The Queen's Theatre di Haymarket di London oleh William ayam kebiri
In 1733 the Earl of Essex received a letter with the following sentence: "Handel became so arbitrary a prince, that the Town murmurs". Pada tahun 1733 dengan Earl of Essex menerima surat dengan kalimat berikut: "Handel menjadi sangat sewenang-wenang seorang pangeran, bahwa murmur Kota". The board of chief investors expected Handel to retire when his contract ended, but Handel immediately looked for another theatre. Dewan investor diharapkan kepala Handel untuk pensiun saat kontraknya berakhir, tapi Handel segera mencari teater lain. In cooperation with John Rich he started his third company at Covent Garden Theatre . Dalam kerjasama dengan John Rich ia memulai perusahaan ketiga di Covent Garden Theatre . Rich was renowned for his spectacular productions: he suggested Handel use his small chorus and introduce the dancing of Marie Sallé , for whom Handel composed Terpsichore . Kaya terkenal karena produksi spektakuler: ia menyarankan Handel menggunakan chorus kecil dan memperkenalkan menari Marie Salle , untuk siapa Handel terdiri Terpsichore . In 1735 he introduced organ concertos between the acts. Pada tahun 1735 ia memperkenalkan concerto organ antara tindakan. For the first time Handel allowed Gioacchino Conti , who had no time to learn his part, to substitute arias. [ 26 ] Financially, Ariodante was a failure, although he introduced ballet suites at the end of each act. [ 27 ] Alcina , his last opera with a magic content, and Alexander's Feast or the Power of Music based on John Dryden's Alexander's Feast starred Anna Maria Strada del Pò and John Beard (tenor) . Untuk pertama kalinya Handel diperbolehkan Gioacchino Conti , yang tidak punya waktu untuk belajar bagiannya, untuk mengganti aria. [26] Secara finansial, Ariodante adalah kegagalan, meskipun ia suite balet diperkenalkan pada akhir setiap tindakan. [27] Alcina , nya opera terakhir dengan konten sihir, dan Alexander Pesta atau Kekuatan Musik berdasarkan John Dryden's Alexander Pesta membintangi Anna Maria Strada del PO dan John Beard (tenor) .
In April 1737, at age 52, Handel suffered an apparent stroke which left his right arm temporarily paralysed, preventing him from performing. [ 9 ] :[395] He also complained of difficulties in focussing his eyesight. [ citation needed ] In summer the disorder seemed at times to affect his understanding. Pada bulan April 1737, pada usia 52, Handel menderita stroke yang jelas yang kiri sementara tangan kanannya lumpuh, mencegah dia dari melakukan. [9] : 395] Ia juga mengeluhkan kesulitan dalam berfokus nya. penglihatan [[ rujukan? ] Di musim panas sepertinya gangguan di kali untuk mempengaruhi pemahamannya. Nobody expected that Handel would ever be able to perform again. Tidak ada yang diharapkan Handel akan pernah mampu tampil lagi. But whether the affliction was rheumatism, a stroke or a nervous breakdown, he recovered remarkably quickly. [ 28 ] To aid his recovery, Handel had travelled to Aachen , a spa in Germany. Tapi apakah penderitaan itu rematik, stroke atau gangguan saraf, ia sembuh sangat cepat. [28] Untuk membantu pemulihan, Handel telah melakukan perjalanan ke Aachen , spa di Jerman. During six weeks he took long hot baths, and ending up playing the organ for a surprised audience. [ 29 ] Selama enam minggu ia mengambil panas mandi lama, dan berakhir bermain organ untuk audiens terkejut. [29]
Deidamia his last, and only baroque opera without an accompagnato , was performed three times. Deidamia nya terakhir, dan hanya opera barok tanpa accompagnato , dilakukan tiga kali. Having lost a fortune in operatic management, [ citation needed ] Handel gave up the business in 1741. Setelah kehilangan keberuntungan dalam manajemen opera, [ rujukan? ] Handel menyerah bisnis pada 1741. In the meantime John Walsh published six organ concertos and Twelve Grand Concertos . Sementara itu John Walsh diterbitkan concerto organ enam dan Dua Belas Grand concerto . Handel enjoyed success with his English oratorios. Handel menikmati kesuksesan dengan oratorios bahasa Inggris-nya.

[ edit ] Oratorio [ sunting ] Oratorio

Handel by Philip Mercier Handel oleh Philip Mercier
Handel's first attempt at oratorio was made in Italy in 1707-1708 with the Il Trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno , an allegory , and La Resurrezione which uses material from the bible. pertama upaya's Handel di Oratorio dibuat di Italia pada 1707-1708 dengan Il Trionfo Tempo e del del Disinganno , sebuah alegori , dan La Resurrezione yang menggunakan bahan dari Alkitab. His next attempt was Haman and Mordecai performed at Cannons, in which the anthem character is very clear. Usaha berikutnya adalah Haman dan Mordekhai dilakukan pada Meriam, di mana lagu kebangsaan karakter sangat jelas. Unfortunately the circumstances of Esther and its first performance are obscure. [ 30 ] Another twelve years passed when an act of piracy , caused him to take up Ester once again. [ 31 ] Three earlier performances aroused such interest that they naturally prompted the idea of introducing it to a larger public. Sayangnya keadaan Ester dan kinerja pertama adalah jelas. [30] lain dua belas tahun berlalu ketika suatu tindakan pembajakan , menyebabkan dia untuk mengambil Ester sekali lagi. [31] Tiga pertunjukan sebelumnya membangkitkan bunga tersebut yang mereka alami mendorong gagasan memperkenalkan ke publik yang lebih besar. Next came Deborah , also strongly coloured by the anthem and Athaliah , in which Handel laid the foundation for the traditional use of the chorus which marks his later oratorios. Berikutnya Deborah , juga sangat diwarnai oleh lagu kebangsaan dan Atalya , di mana Handel meletakkan dasar untuk penggunaan tradisional dari paduan suara yang menandai oratorios di kemudian hari. Obviously Handel became sure of himself, broader in his presentation, and more diverse in his composition. [ 32 ] Jelas Handel menjadi yakin pada dirinya sendiri, yang lebih luas dalam presentasi, dan lebih beragam dalam komposisi nya. [32]
It is evident how much he learnt from Corelli about writing for instruments, and from Alessandro Scarlatti about writing for the solo voice; but there is no single composer who taught him how to write for chorus. Hal ini terbukti berapa banyak dia belajar dari Corelli tentang menulis untuk instrumen, dan dari Alessandro Scarlatti tentang menulis untuk suara solo, tetapi tidak ada komposer tunggal yang mengajarinya bagaimana menulis untuk paduan suara. Handel tended more and more to replace Italian soloists by English ones. Handel cenderung lebih banyak dan lebih banyak untuk mengganti solois Italia oleh orang Inggris. The weightiest reason for this change was the dwindling financial returns from his operas. [ 33 ] Thus a tradition was created for oratorios which was to govern their future performance. Alasan weightiest untuk perubahan ini adalah pengembalian keuangan berkurang dari opera nya. [33] Jadi tradisi diciptakan untuk oratorios yang mengatur kinerja masa depan mereka. The performances were given without costumes and action; the performers appeared in a black suit. [ 34 ] Kinerja diberi tanpa kostum dan tindakan; para pemain muncul dalam setelan hitam. [34]
Caricature of Handel by Joseph Goupy (1754) Karikatur dari Handel oleh Goupy Joseph (1754)
In 1736 Handel came with Alexander's Feast . John Beard appeared for the first time as one of Handel's principal singers and became Handel's permanent tenor soloist for the rest of his life. [ 35 ] The piece was a great success and it encouraged Handel to make the transition from writing Italian operas to English choral works. Pada tahun 1736 Handel menyertai 's Pesta Alexander . John Beard muncul untuk pertama kalinya sebagai salah satu pokok penyanyi's Handel dan menjadi tenor solo permanen's Handel untuk sisa hidupnya. [35] bagian ini sukses besar dan mendorong Handel untuk membuat transisi dari menulis opera Italia ke Bahasa Inggris karya-karya paduan suara. In Saul , Handel was collaborating with Charles Jennens and experimenting with three trombones, a carillon and extra-large military kettledrums (from the Tower of London ), to be sure "...it will be most excessive noisy". [ 36 ] Saul and Israel in Egypt both from 1739 head the list of great, mature oratorios, in which the da capo and dal segno aria became the exception and not the rule. [ 37 ] Israel in Egypt consists of little else but choruses, borrowing from the Funeral Anthem for Queen Caroline . Dalam Saul , Handel telah bekerjasama dengan Charles Jennens dan bereksperimen dengan tiga trombon, sebuah lonceng dan-besar militer ekstra kettledrums (dari Tower of London ), untuk memastikan "... itu akan menjadi yang paling berisik yang berlebihan". [36] Saul dan Israel di Mesir baik dari 1739 kepala daftar besar, oratorios matang, di mana da capo dan segno dal aria menjadi pengecualian dan bukan aturan. [37] Israel di Mesir terdiri dari sedikit lain selain chorus, meminjam dari Pemakaman lagu untuk Ratu Caroline . In his next works Handel changed his course. Dalam karya-karya berikutnya Handel mengubah arah nya. In these works he laid greater stress on the effects of orchestra and soloists; the chorus retired into the background. [ 38 ] L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato has a rather diverting character; the work is light and fresh. Dalam karya-karya ia meletakkan stress yang lebih besar pada efek dari orkestra dan solois, paduan suara pensiunan ke latar belakang. [38] L'Allegro, il ed il Moderato Penseroso memiliki karakter agak pengalihan, pekerjaan ringan dan segar.
During the summer of 1741, the 3rd Duke of Devonshire invited Handel to Dublin to give concerts for the benefit of local hospitals. [ 5 ] :[40, 41] His Messiah was first performed at the New Music Hall in Fishamble Street , on 13 April 1742, with 26 boys and five men from the combined choirs of St Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals participating. [ 39 ] :[48] Handel secured a balance between soloists and chorus which he never surpassed. Selama musim panas 1741, para 3 Duke of Devonshire diundang Handel ke Dublin untuk memberikan konser untuk kepentingan rumah sakit setempat. [5] : [40, 41] Nya Mesias pertama kali dilakukan di New Music Hall di Fishamble Street , pada tanggal 13 April 1742, dengan 26 anak laki-laki dan lima orang dari paduan suara gabungan St Patrick dan Kristus Gereja katedral berpartisipasi. [39] : [48] Handel dijamin keseimbangan antara solois dan paduan suara yang ia tidak pernah dilampaui.
The use of English soloists reached its height at the first performance of Samson . Penggunaan solois Inggris mencapai puncaknya pada kinerja pertama Simson . The work is highly theatrical. Jephtha was first performed on 26 February 1752; even though it was his last oratorio, it was no less a masterpiece than his earlier works. [ 9 ] :[354–55] adalah pekerjaan yang sangat teatrikal. Yang Jephtha pertama kali dilakukan pada 26 Februari 1752, bahkan meskipun itu Oratorio terakhir, itu tidak kurang suatu karya dari karya sebelumnya. [9] : [354-55]

[ edit ] Later years [ sunting ] Kemudian tahun

Hand-coloured etching of the royal fireworks on the Thames, 1749 Tangan berwarna etsa kembang api kerajaan di Thames, 1749
In 1749 he composed Music for the Royal Fireworks ; 12,000 people attended the performance. [ 9 ] :[297–98] In 1750 Handel arranged a performance of Messiah to benefit the Foundling Hospital . Pada 1749 ia menulis Musik untuk Fireworks Royal ; 12.000 orang menghadiri kinerja. [9] : [297-98] Pada 1750 Handel mengatur kinerja Mesias untuk menguntungkan Rumah Sakit bayi terlantar . The performance was considered a great success and was followed by annual concerts that continued throughout his life. Kinerja dianggap sebagai sukses besar dan diikuti oleh konser tahunan yang terus berlanjut sepanjang hidupnya. In recognition of his patronage, Handel was made a governor of the Hospital the day after his initial concert. Dalam pengakuan patronase nya, Handel diangkat menjadi gubernur dari Rumah Sakit sehari setelah konser awalnya. He bequeathed a copy of Messiah to the institution upon his death. [ 39 ] :[56] His involvement with the Foundling Hospital is today commemorated with a permanent exhibition in London's Foundling Museum , which also holds the Gerald Coke Handel Collection . Ia diwariskan salinan Mesias lembaga saat kematiannya. [39] : [56] keterlibatan Nya dengan Rumah Sakit bayi terlantar adalah hari ini diperingati dengan pameran permanen di London Museum bayi terlantar , yang juga memegang Gerald Coke Handel Koleksi. In addition to the Foundling Hospital, Handel also gave to a charity that helped to assist impoverished musicians and their families. Selain Rumah Sakit bayi terlantar, Handel juga memberikan sebuah amal yang membantu untuk membantu musisi miskin dan keluarga mereka.
In August 1750, on a journey back from Germany to London, Handel was seriously injured in a carriage accident between The Hague and Haarlem in the Netherlands. [ 5 ] :[63] In 1751 his eyesight started to fail in one eye. Pada bulan Agustus 1750, pada perjalanan kembali dari Jerman ke London, Handel terluka parah dalam sebuah kecelakaan kereta antara Den Haag dan Haarlem di Belanda. [5] : [63] Pada 1751 penglihatannya mulai gagal dalam satu mata. The cause was a cataract which was operated on by the great charlatan Chevalier Taylor . Penyebabnya adalah katarak yang dioperasikan pada oleh penipu besar Chevalier Taylor . This led to uveitis and subsequent loss of vision. Hal ini menyebabkan uveitis dan kehilangan penglihatan berikutnya. He died some eight years later in 1759 in London, at the age of 74, with his last attended performance being his own Messiah . Ia meninggal sekitar delapan tahun kemudian pada 1759 di London, pada usia 74, dengan dihadiri nya penampilan terakhir keberadaannya Mesias sendiri. More than three thousand mourners attended his funeral, which was given full state honours, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey . [ 39 ] :[60] Lebih dari tiga ribu pelayat menghadiri pemakamannya, yang diberikan pejabat negara penuh, dan ia dimakamkan di Westminster Abbey . [39] : [60]
Handel never married, and kept his personal life private. Handel pernah menikah, dan terus kehidupan pribadinya pribadi. He left a sizable estate at his death, worth £20,000, the bulk of which he bequeathed to a niece in Germany, with additional gifts to his other relations, servants, friends and favourite charities. Dia meninggalkan estate yang cukup besar pada saat kematiannya, senilai £ 20.000, sebagian besar yang diwariskan kepada keponakan di Jerman, dengan hadiah tambahan untuk hubungan yang lain, pelayan, teman dan amal favorit.

[ edit ] Works [ sunting ] Pekerjaan

Senesino , the famous castrato from Siena Senesino , yang terkenal castrato dari Siena
Main articles: List of compositions by George Frideric Handel and List of operas by Handel . Artikel utama: Daftar komposisi oleh George Frideric Handel dan Daftar opera oleh Handel .
Handel's compositions include 42 operas, 29 oratorios, more than 120 cantatas , trios and duets , numerous arias , chamber music , a large number of ecumenical pieces, odes and serenatas , and 16 organ concerti . Teman-komposisi Handel termasuk 42 opera, 29 oratorios, lebih dari 120 cantatas , trio dan duet , banyak aria , musik kamar , sejumlah besar potongan ekumenis, Odes dan serenatas , dan 16 organ konser . His most famous work, the oratorio Messiah with its "Hallelujah" chorus, is among the most popular works in choral music and has become a centrepiece of the Christmas season. Karyanya yang paling terkenal, Oratorio ini Mesias dengan "Haleluya" paduan suara, adalah di antara karya yang paling populer dalam musik paduan suara dan telah menjadi inti dari musim Natal. Amongst the works with opus numbers published and popularised in his lifetime are the Organ Concertos Op.4 and Op.7 , together with the Opus 3 and Opus 6 concerti grossi ; the latter incorporate an earlier organ concerto The Cuckoo and the Nightingale in which birdsong is imitated in the upper registers of the organ. Antara karya-karya dengan nomor komposisi diterbitkan dan dipopulerkan dalam hidupnya adalah Organ concerto Op.4 dan Op.7 , bersama-sama dengan Opus 3 dan 6 Opus Grossi konser , yang menggabungkan kedua sebuah konser organ sebelumnya Cuckoo ini dan Nightingale di mana kicau burung yang ditiru di register atas organ. Also notable are his sixteen keyboard suites, especially The Harmonious Blacksmith . Juga terkenal adalah suite keyboard enam belas, khususnya The Harmonious Blacksmith .
Handel introduced various previously uncommon musical instruments in his works: the viola d'amore and violetta marina ( Orlando ), the lute ( Ode for St. Cecilia's Day ), three trombones (Saul), clarinets or small high cornets ( Tamerlano ), theorbo , horn ( Water Music ), lyrichord , double bassoon , viola da gamba , bell chimes , positive organ , and harp ( Giulio Cesare , Alexander's Feast ). [ 40 ] Handel diperkenalkan sebelumnya musik berbagai instrumen biasa dalam karyanya: yang biola d'amore dan marina Violetta (Orlando), dengan kecapi (Ode untuk St Cecilia's Day), tiga trombon (Saul), klarinet atau tinggi kecil cornets (Tamerlano), theorbo , tanduk ( Musik Air ), lyrichord , bassoon ganda , viola da Gamba , bel lonceng , organ positif , dan kecapi (Giulio Cesare, Alexander's Feast). [40]
Handel's works have been catalogued in the Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis and are commonly referred to by a HWV number. karya-karya Handel telah katalog di Handel-Werke-Verzeichnis dan sering disebut oleh sejumlah HWV. For example, Messiah is catalogued as HWV 56. Sebagai contoh, Mesias adalah katalog sebagai HWV 56.

[ edit ] Legacy [ sunting ] Warisan

After his death, Handel's Italian operas fell into obscurity, except for selections such as the aria from Serse , " Ombra mai fù ". Setelah kematiannya, Italia opera's Handel jatuh ke dalam ketidakjelasan, kecuali untuk pilihan seperti aria dari Serse , " Ombra mai fu ". Throughout the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, particularly in the Anglophone countries, his reputation rested primarily on his English oratorios, which were customarily performed by enormous choruses of amateur singers on solemn occasions. Sepanjang abad ke-19 dan paruh pertama abad 20, terutama di negara-negara Anglophone, reputasinya beristirahat terutama pada oratorios bahasa Inggris-nya, yang lazim dilakukan oleh chorus besar penyanyi amatir pada kesempatan khidmat.
Since the 1960s, with the revival of interest in baroque music, original instrument playing styles, and the prevalence of countertenors who could more accurately replicate castrato roles, interest has revived in Handel's Italian operas, and many have been recorded and performed onstage. Since the Early Music Revival the fifty operas he wrote were performed in opera houses and concert halls.
Recent decades have also seen the revival of a number of secular cantatas and what one might call 'secular oratorios' or 'concert operas'. Of the former, Ode for St. Cecilia's Day (1739) (set to texts by John Dryden ) and Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne (1713) are particularly noteworthy. For his secular oratorios, Handel turned to classical mythology for subjects, producing such works as Acis and Galatea (1719), Hercules (1745) and Semele (1744). In terms of musical style, particularly in the vocal writing for the English-language texts, these works have a close kinship with the sacred oratorios, but they also share something of the lyrical and dramatic qualities of Handel's Italian operas. As such, they are sometimes performed onstage by small chamber ensembles. With the rediscovery of his theatrical works, Handel, in addition to his renown as instrumentalist, orchestral writer, and melodist, is now perceived as being one of opera's great musical dramatists.
A carved marble statue of Handel, created for the Vauxhall Gardens in 1738 by Louis-François Roubiliac , and now preserved in the Victoria & Albert Museum .
Handel has generally been accorded high esteem by fellow composers, both in his own time and since. [ 41 ] Bach even attempted, unsuccessfully, to meet with Handel while he was visiting Halle. [ 5 ] :[23] Mozart is reputed to have said of him, "Handel understands effect better than any of us. When he chooses, he strikes like a thunder bolt." [ 42 ] and to Beethoven he was "the master of us all... the greatest composer that ever lived. I would uncover my head and kneel before his tomb". [ 42 ] Beethoven emphasised above all the simplicity and popular appeal of Handel's music when he said, "Go to him to learn how to achieve great effects, by such simple means".
After Handel's death, many composers wrote works based on or inspired by his music. The first movement from Louis Spohr 's Symphony No. 6 , Op. 116, "The Age of Bach and Handel", resembles two melodies from Handel's Messiah . In 1797 Ludwig van Beethoven published the 12 Variations in G major on 'See the conqu'ring hero comes' from Judas Maccabaeus by Handel , for cello and piano. Guitar virtuoso Mauro Giuliani composed his Variations on a Theme by Handel, Op. 107 for guitar, based on Handel's Suite No. 5 in E major, HWV 430, for harpsichord. In 1861, using a theme from the second of Handel's harpsichord suites, Johannes Brahms wrote the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel , Op. 24, one of his most successful works (it even received praise from Richard Wagner ). Several works by the French composer Félix-Alexandre Guilmant use themes by Handel, for example his March on a Theme by Handel for organ, which uses a theme from Messiah . French composer and flautist Philippe Gaubert wrote his Petite marche for flute and piano based on the fourth movement of Handel's Trio Sonata, Op. 5, No. 2, HWV 397. Argentine composer Luis Gianneo composed his Variations on a Theme by Handel for piano. In 1911, Australian-born composer and pianist Percy Grainger based one of his most famous works on the final movement of Handel's Suite No. 5 in E major (just like Giuliani). He first wrote some variations on the theme, which he titled Variations on Handel's 'The Harmonious Blacksmith' . Then he used the first sixteen bars of his set of variations to create Handel in the Strand , one of his most beloved pieces, of which he made several versions (for example, the piano solo version from 1930). Arnold Schoenberg 's Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra in B flat major (1933) was composed after Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 6/7. 6 / 7.
Handel's works were edited by Samuel Arnold (40 vols., London, 1787–1797), and by Friedrich Chrysander , for the German Händel-Gesellschaft (100 vols., Leipzig, 1858–1902).
Handel adopted the spelling "George Frideric Handel" on his naturalisation as a British subject, and this spelling is generally used in English-speaking countries. The original form of his name, Georg Friedrich Händel, is generally used in Germany and elsewhere, but he is known as "Haendel" in France. Another composer with a similar name, Handl, was a Slovene and is more commonly known as Jacobus Gallus .

[ edit ] Veneration [ sunting ] Penghormatan

Handel is honored together with Johann Sebastian Bach and Henry Purcell with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on July 28.
He is commemorated as a musician in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on July 28, with Johann Sebastian Bach and Heinrich Schütz .

Johann Sebastian Bach

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Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Bach dalam sebuah potret 1748 oleh Haussmann
Tanda tangan JS Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach [ 1 ] (31 March 1685 [ 2 ] – 28 July 1750) was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. [ 3 ] Although he did not introduce new forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust contrapuntal technique, an unrivalled control of harmonic and motivic organisation, and the adaptation of rhythms, forms and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Johann Sebastian Bach [1] (31 Maret 1685 [2] - 28 Juli 1750) adalah seorang Jerman komposer, organis, harpsichordist, violis, dan pemain biola dan sekuler yang bekerja sakral untuk paduan suara, orkestra, dan instrumen solo menggambar bersama untai dari barok periode dan membawanya ke kematangan akhirnya. [3] Walaupun ia tidak memperkenalkan bentuk-bentuk baru, ia memperkaya gaya Jerman yang berlaku dengan kuat kontrapungtal teknik, kontrol tak tertandingi harmonisa dan motivic organisasi, dan adaptasi ritme, bentuk dan tekstur dari luar negeri, terutama dari Italia dan Perancis.
Revered for their intellectual depth, technical command and artistic beauty, Bach's works include the Brandenburg concertos , the Goldberg Variations , the Partitas , The Well-Tempered Clavier , the Mass in B Minor , the St Matthew Passion , the St John Passion , the Magnificat , The Musical Offering , The Art of Fugue , the English and French Suites , the Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin , the Cello Suites , more than 200 surviving cantatas , and a similar number of organ works, including the celebrated Toccata and Fugue in D minor and Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor . Dihormati untuk kedalaman intelektual mereka, perintah teknis dan keindahan artistik, karya-karya Bach meliputi concerto Brandenburg , yang Goldberg Variasi , yang Partitas , The-Tempered Clavier Nah , yang Misa dalam B Minor , yang St Matthew Passion , yang St John Passion , yang Magnificat , The Musical Penawaran , The Art of Fugue , dalam bahasa Inggris dan Perancis Suites , yang sonata dan Partitas untuk biola solo , yang Suites Cello , lebih dari 200 masih hidup cantatas , dan sejumlah sama organ karya, termasuk merayakan Toccata dan Fugue dalam D kecil dan Passacaglia dan Fugue di C minor .
Bach's abilities as an organist were highly respected throughout Europe during his lifetime, although he was not widely recognised as a great composer until a revival of interest and performances of his music in the first half of the 19th century. kemampuan Bach sebagai suatu organ yang sangat dihormati di seluruh Eropa selama hidupnya, meskipun ia tidak secara luas diakui sebagai seorang komposer besar sampai kebangkitan minat dan pertunjukan musik pada paruh pertama abad ke-19. He is now generally regarded one of the main composers of the Baroque style, and as one of the greatest composers of all time. [ 4 ] Dia sekarang umumnya dianggap salah satu komposer utama dari gaya Baroque, dan sebagai salah satu komposer terbesar sepanjang masa. [4]

Childhood (1685–1703) Childhood (1685-1703)

Johann Ambrosius Bach, Bach's father Johann Ambrosius Bach, ayah Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach , Saxe-Eisenach , on 31 March ( OS 21 March) 1685. Johann Sebastian Bach lahir di Eisenach , Sachsen-Eisenach , pada tanggal 31 Maret ( OS 21 Maret) 1685. He was the youngest child of Johann Ambrosius Bach , the director of the Stadtpfeifer or town musicians, [ 5 ] and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt . Dia adalah anak bungsu dari Johann Ambrosius Bach , direktur atau kota musisi Stadtpfeifer, [5] dan Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt . His father taught him to play violin and harpsichord . [ 6 ] His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts ranged from church organists and court chamber musicians to composers. Ayahnya mengajarinya bermain biola dan harpsichord . [6] paman Nya semua musisi profesional, yang posting berkisar dari organists musisi gereja dan ruang pengadilan untuk komposer. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach (1645–93), was especially famous and introduced him to the art of organ playing. Satu paman, Johann Christoph Bach (1645-1693), terutama terkenal dan memperkenalkannya kepada seni bermain organ. Bach was proud of his family's musical achievements, and around 1735 he drafted a genealogy, "Origin of the musical Bach family". [ 7 ] Bach bangga dengan prestasi musik keluarganya, dan sekitar 1735 ia menyusun sebuah silsilah, "Asal dari keluarga Bach musik". [7]
Bach's mother died in 1694, and his father eight months later. [ 8 ] The 10-year-old orphan moved in with his oldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach (1671–1721), the organist at the Michaeliskirche in nearby Ohrdruf . [ 9 ] There, he copied, studied and performed music, and apparently received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord . Ibu Bach meninggal pada 1694, dan ayahnya delapan bulan kemudian. [8] 10 tahun anak yatim tinggal bersama tertua saudaranya, Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), yang organis di Michaeliskirche di dekatnya Ohrdruf . [9 ] Di sana, ia disalin, dipelajari dan dilakukan musik, dan tampaknya menerima pengajaran berharga dari saudaranya, yang memerintahkan dia di clavichord . JC Bach exposed him to the works of the great South German composers of the day, such as Johann Pachelbel (under whom Johann Christoph had studied) [ 10 ] and Johann Jakob Froberger ; possibly to the music of North German composers; to Frenchmen, such as Jean-Baptiste Lully , Louis Marchand , Marin Marais ; and to the Italian clavierist Girolamo Frescobaldi . JC Bach terkena dia untuk karya-karya komposer besar Jerman Selatan hari, seperti Johann Pachelbel (di bawah siapa Johann Christoph telah mempelajari) [10] dan Johann Jakob Froberger , mungkin dengan musik dari komponis Jerman Utara; untuk Prancis, seperti sebagai Jean-Baptiste Lully , Louis Marchand , Marin Marais , dan ke clavierist Italia Girolamo Frescobaldi . The young Bach probably witnessed and assisted in the maintenance of the organ music. Bach muda mungkin menyaksikan dan membantu dalam pemeliharaan musik organ. Bach's obituary indicates that he copied music out of Johann Christoph's scores, but his brother had apparently forbidden him to do so, possibly because scores were valuable and private commodities at the time. obituari Bach menunjukkan bahwa ia disalin musik keluar dari nilai Johann Christoph, tapi saudaranya rupanya dia dilarang untuk melakukannya, mungkin karena skor komoditas berharga dan swasta pada saat itu.
At the age of 14, Bach, along with his older school friend George Erdmann, was awarded a choral scholarship to study at the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg , not far from the northern seaport of Hamburg , one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire . [ 11 ] This involved a long journey with his friend, probably undertaken partly on foot and partly by coach. Pada usia 14, Bach, bersama dengan teman sekolah yang lebih tua, George Erdmann, mendapat beasiswa paduan suara untuk belajar di St Michael's School bergengsi di Lüneburg , tidak jauh dari pelabuhan utara Hamburg , salah satu kota terbesar di Kekaisaran Romawi Suci . [11] ini lama perjalanan terlibat dengan temannya, mungkin dilakukan sebagian berjalan kaki dan sebagian lagi oleh pelatih. His two years there appear to have been critical in exposing him to a wider palette of European culture than he would have experienced in Thuringia . Nya dua tahun ada tampaknya telah kritis dalam mengungkap dia palet yang lebih luas dari budaya Eropa dari dia akan telah berpengalaman dalam Thuringia . In addition to singing in the a cappella choir, it is likely that he played the School's three-manual organ and its harpsichords. Selain bernyanyi dalam paduan suara acapela, maka kemungkinan bahwa ia memainkan organ tiga-manual Sekolah dan harpsichord nya. He probably learned French and Italian, and received a thorough grounding in theology, Latin, history, geography, and physics. Dia mungkin belajar bahasa Prancis dan Italia, dan menerima landasan menyeluruh dalam teologi, Latin, sejarah, geografi, dan fisika. He would have come into contact with sons of noblemen from northern Germany sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in diplomacy, government, and the military. Dia akan datang ke dalam kontak dengan anak-anak bangsawan dari Jerman Utara dikirim ke sekolah sangat selektif untuk mempersiapkan karir dalam diplomasi, pemerintah, dan militer.
Although little supporting historical evidence exists at this time, it is almost certain that while in Lüneburg, young Bach would have visited the Johanniskirche (Church of St. John) and heard (and possibly played) the church's famous organ (built in 1549 by Jasper Johannsen and nicknamed the "Böhm organ" after its most prominent master, Georg Böhm ). Meskipun sedikit yang mendukung bukti sejarah ada saat ini, hampir pasti bahwa sementara di Lüneburg, Bach muda akan mengunjungi Johanniskirche (Gereja St Yohanes) dan mendengar (dan mungkin dimainkan) terkenal organ gereja (dibangun tahun 1549 oleh Jasper Johannsen dan dijuluki "organ Bohm" setelah paling menonjol tuannya, Georg Bohm ). Given his innate musical talent, Bach would have had significant contact with prominent organists of the day in Lüneburg, most notably Böhm (the organist at Johanniskirche) as well as organists in nearby Hamburg, such as Johann Adam Reincken . [ 12 ] Mengingat bakat bawaan musik, Bach akan memiliki kontak signifikan dengan organists terkemuka hari di Lüneburg, terutama Bohm (yang organis di Johanniskirche) serta organists di Hamburg terdekat, seperti Johann Adam Reincken . [12]

Arnstadt to Weimar (1703–08) Arnstadt untuk Weimar (1703-1708)

St. Boniface's Church in Arnstadt St Bonifasius Gereja di Arnstadt
In January 1703, shortly after graduating and failing an audition for an organist's post at Sangerhausen , [ 13 ] Bach took up a post as a court musician in the chapel of Duke Johann Ernst in Weimar , a large town in Thuringia. Pada bulan Januari 1703, tak lama setelah lulus dan gagal audisi untuk organ pasca sebuah di Sangerhausen , [13] Bach mengambil posisi sebagai seorang musisi pengadilan di kapel Duke Johann Ernst di Weimar , sebuah kota besar di Thuringia. His role there is unclear, but appears to have included menial, non-musical duties. Perannya ada tidak jelas, tetapi tampaknya telah termasuk kasar, tugas-tugas non-musik. During his seven-month tenure at Weimar, his reputation as a keyboard player spread. Selama masa jabatannya tujuh-bulan di Weimar, reputasinya sebagai pemain keyboard menyebar. He was invited to inspect and give the inaugural recital on the new organ at St. Boniface's Church in Arnstadt . [ 14 ] The Bach family had close connections with this oldest town in Thuringia, about 40 km to the southwest of Weimar at the edge of the great forest. [ 15 ] In August 1703, he accepted the post of organist at that church, with light duties, a relatively generous salary, and a fine new organ tuned to a modern system that allowed a wide range of keys to be used. Dia diundang untuk memeriksa dan memberikan resital perdana pada organ baru di St Bonifasius Gereja di Arnstadt . [14] Para keluarga Bach memiliki hubungan dekat dengan kota tertua di Thuringia, sekitar 40 km ke arah barat daya dari Weimar di tepi hutan besar. [15] Pada bulan Agustus 1703, ia menerima jabatan organis di gereja itu, dengan tugas ringan, sebuah gaji yang relatif murah hati, dan organ baru diperbaiki ke sistem modern yang memungkinkan berbagai kunci yang akan digunakan . At this time, Bach was embarking on the serious composition of organ preludes; these works, in the North German tradition of virtuosic, improvisatory preludes, already showed tight motivic control (in which a single, short music idea is explored cogently throughout a movement). Pada saat ini, Bach memulai komposisi serius Prelude organ, karya-karya ini, dalam tradisi Jerman Utara virtuoso, Prelude improvisatory, sudah menunjukkan kontrol ketat motivic (di mana ide, musik tunggal pendek dieksplorasi cogently seluruh gerakan) . In these works the composer had yet to fully develop his powers of large-scale organisation and his contrapuntal technique (in which two or more melodies interact simultaneously). Dalam karya-karya komposer belum sepenuhnya mengembangkan kekuasaannya dari organisasi skala besar dan itu teknik kontrapungtal (di mana dua atau lebih melodi berinteraksi secara bersamaan).
Strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer failed to prevent tension between the young organist and the authorities after several years in the post. hubungan keluarga yang kuat dan majikan musik antusias gagal mencegah ketegangan antara organ muda dan pihak berwenang setelah beberapa tahun di pos. He was apparently dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir; more seriously, there was his unauthorised absence from Arnstadt for several months in 1705–06, when he visited the great master Dieterich Buxtehude and his Abendmusiken at the Marienkirche in the northern city of Lübeck . Dia rupanya tidak puas dengan standar penyanyi di paduan suara, lebih serius, tidak ada yang tidak sah dari Arnstadt selama beberapa bulan di 1705-1706, ketika ia mengunjungi guru besar Dieterich Buxtehude dan nya Abendmusiken di Marienkirche di kota utara Lübeck . This well-known incident in Bach's life involved his walking some 400 kilometres (250 mi) each way to spend time with the man he probably regarded as the father figure of German organists. Insiden ini terkenal dalam kehidupan Bach terlibat nya berjalan sekitar 400 kilometer (250 mil) setiap cara untuk menghabiskan waktu dengan pria yang mungkin dianggap sebagai figur ayah dari organists Jerman. The trip reinforced Buxtehude's style as a foundation for Bach's earlier works, and that he overstayed his planned visit by several months suggests that his time with the old man was of great value to his art. Perjalanan diperkuat gaya Buxtehude sebagai dasar bagi karya-karya sebelumnya Bach, dan bahwa dia overstay rencana kunjungan itu dengan beberapa bulan menunjukkan bahwa waktunya dengan orang tua itu nilai yang besar untuk seni. According to legend, both Bach and George Frideric Handel wanted to become amanuensis (assistant and successor) to Buxtehude, but neither wanted to marry his daughter, as that was a condition for the position. [ 16 ] Johann Christian Schieferdecker eventually accepted the job in 1707. [ 17 ] Menurut legenda, baik Bach dan George Frideric Handel ingin menjadi amanuensis (asisten dan penerusnya) untuk Buxtehude, tetapi tidak ingin menikahi putrinya, karena itu adalah kondisi untuk posisi itu. [16] Johann Christian Schieferdecker akhirnya menerima pekerjaan di 1707. [17]
Places in which Bach lived throughout his life Tempat di mana Bach tinggal sepanjang hidupnya
According to minutes from the proceedings of the Arnstadt consistory in August 1705, Bach was involved in a brawl in Arnstadt: Menurut menit dari proses dari Konsistori Arnstadt pada bulan Agustus 1705, Bach terlibat dalam perkelahian di Arnstadt:
" Johann Sebastian Bach, organist here at the New Church, appeared and stated that, as he walked home yesterday, fairly late night ... Johann Sebastian Bach, organis di sini, di Gereja Baru, muncul dan menyatakan bahwa, ketika ia berjalan pulang kemarin, malam cukup larut ... six students were sitting on the "Langenstein" (Long Stone), and as he passed the town hall, the student Geyersbach went after him with a stick, calling him to account: Why had he [Bach] made abusive remarks about him? enam siswa sedang duduk di "Langenstein" (Long Stone), dan ketika ia melewati balai kota, mahasiswa Geyersbach pergi setelah dia dengan tongkat, memanggilnya ke account: Mengapa dia [Bach] membuat pernyataan yang kasar tentang dia? He [Bach] answered that he had made no abusive remarks about him, and that no one could prove it, for he had gone his way very quietly. Ia [Bach] menjawab bahwa ia tidak membuat komentar kasar tentang dirinya, dan bahwa tidak ada yang bisa membuktikan hal itu, karena ia pergi jalan-Nya sangat pelan. Geyersbach retorted that while he [Bach] might not have maligned him, he had maligned his bassoon at some time, and whoever insulted his belongings insulted him as well ... Geyersbach balas bahwa sementara dia [Bach] mungkin tidak difitnah, dia telah difitnah bassoon di beberapa waktu, dan siapa pun yang menghina harta miliknya menghina dia juga ... [Geyersbach] had at once struck out at him. [Geyersbach] telah sekaligus menyerang keluar padanya. Since he had not been prepared for this, he had been about to draw his dagger, but Geyersbach had fallen into his arms, and the two of them tumbled about until the rest of the students ... Karena ia tidak pernah siap untuk ini, ia telah sekitar untuk menarik belatinya, tapi Geyersbach telah jatuh ke dalam pelukannya, dan mereka berdua terguling tentang sampai seluruh mahasiswa ... had rushed toward them and separated them. [ 18 ] bergegas ke arah mereka dan memisahkan mereka. [18] "
Despite his comfortable position in Arnstadt, by 1706 Bach appeared to have realised that he needed to escape from the family milieu and move on to further his career. Meskipun posisi yang nyaman di Arnstadt, oleh Bach 1706 tampaknya telah menyadari bahwa ia harus melarikan diri dari lingkungan keluarga dan beralih ke karirnya lebih lanjut. He was offered a more lucrative post as organist at St. Blasius's in Mühlhausen , a large and important city to the north. Ia menawarkan menguntungkan posting lebih sebagai organis di St Blasius di Mühlhausen , sebuah kota besar dan penting di utara. The following year, he took up this senior post with significantly improved pay and conditions, including a good choir. Tahun berikutnya, dia mengambil posting ini senior dengan membayar meningkat secara signifikan dan kondisi, termasuk paduan suara yang baik. Four months after arriving at Mühlhausen, he married his second cousin from Arnstadt, Maria Barbara Bach . Empat bulan setelah tiba di Mühlhausen, ia menikah sepupu kedua dari Arnstadt, Maria Barbara Bach . They had seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood. Mereka memiliki tujuh anak, empat di antaranya selamat sampai dewasa. Two of them— Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach —became important composers in the ornate Rococo style that followed the Baroque. Dua dari mereka- Wilhelm Friedemann Bach dan Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach -menjadi komponis penting dalam berhias Rococo gaya yang mengikuti Baroque.
The church and city government at Mühlhausen agreed to his plan for an expensive renovation of the organ at St. Blasius's. Pemerintah gereja dan kota di Mühlhausen menyetujui rencananya untuk renovasi mahal organ di St Blasius's. Bach, in turn, wrote an elaborate, festive cantataGott ist mein König, BWV 71 — for the inauguration of the new council in 1708. Bach, pada gilirannya, menulis, rumit meriah kantata - Gott ist mein König, BWV 71 - untuk pelantikan dewan baru pada 1708. The council was so delighted with the piece that they paid handsomely for its publication, and twice in later years had the composer return to conduct it. Dewan itu begitu senang dengan potongan bahwa mereka dibayar mahal untuk publikasi, dan dua kali dalam tahun kemudian telah kembali komposer untuk melakukan itu. That same year, Bach was offered a better position in Weimar. Pada tahun yang sama, Bach ditawari posisi yang lebih baik di Weimar.

Weimar (1708–17) Weimar (1708-1717)

A portrait of a young man, supposedly of Bach, but disputed [ 19 ] Sebuah potret seorang pemuda, diduga dari Bach, namun dipertentangkan [19]
After barely a year at Mühlhausen, Bach left, to become the court organist and concertmaster at the ducal court in Weimar, a far cry from his earlier position there as 'lackey'. Setelah hampir satu tahun di Mühlhausen, Bach kiri, untuk menjadi organ pengadilan dan concertmaster di pengadilan yg berkenaan dgn duke di Weimar, jauh dari posisi sebelumnya di sana 'sebagai' pesuruh. The munificent salary on offer at the court and the prospect of working entirely with a large, well-funded contingent of professional musicians may have prompted the move. Gaji banyak sekali yang ditawarkan di pengadilan dan prospek kerja sepenuhnya dengan besar bergerak, baik yang didanai kontingen musisi profesional mungkin telah mendorong. The family moved into an apartment just five minutes' walk from the ducal palace. Keluarga itu pindah ke apartemen hanya lima menit berjalan kaki dari istana yg berkenaan dgn duke. In the following year, their first child was born and they were joined by Maria Barbara's elder, unmarried sister, who remained with them to assist in the running of the household until her death in 1729. Pada tahun berikutnya, anak pertama mereka lahir dan mereka bergabung dengan kakak Maria Barbara, belum menikah, yang tetap dengan mereka untuk membantu dalam menjalankan rumah tangga sampai kematiannya pada 1729. It was in Weimar that the two musically significant sons were born—Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Itu adalah di Weimar bahwa kedua anak musik signifikan lahir-Wilhelm Friedemann dan Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.
Bach's position in Weimar marked the start of a sustained period of composing keyboard and orchestral works, in which he had attained the technical proficiency and confidence to extend the prevailing large-scale structures and to synthesise influences from abroad. posisi Bach di Weimar menandai dimulainya periode waktu yang berkelanjutan keyboard menyusun dan karya orkestra, di mana ia telah mencapai kemampuan teknis dan kepercayaan diri untuk memperpanjang struktur skala besar yang berlaku dan untuk mensintesis pengaruh dari luar negeri. From the music of Italians such as Vivaldi , Corelli and Torelli , he learned how to write dramatic openings and adopted their sunny dispositions, dynamic motor-rhythms and decisive harmonic schemes. Dari musik Italia seperti Vivaldi , Corelli dan Torelli , ia belajar bagaimana menulis bukaan dramatis dan mengadopsi disposisi cerah mereka, dinamis motor-irama dan skema harmonis menentukan. Bach inducted himself into these stylistic aspects largely by transcribing for harpsichord and organ the ensemble concertos of Vivaldi; these works are still concert favourites. Bach dilantik dirinya ke dalam sebagian besar aspek gaya dengan mencatat untuk piano dan organ concerto ansambel dari Vivaldi, karya-karya ini masih favorit konser. He may have picked up the idea of transcribing the latest fashionable Italian music from Prince Johann Ernst , one of his employers, who was a musician of professional calibre. Dia mungkin telah mengambil gagasan menyalin modis musik Italia terbaru dari Pangeran Johann Ernst , salah satu pengusaha, yang adalah seorang musisi sekaliber profesional. In 1713, the Duke returned from a tour of the Low Countries with a large collection of scores, some of them possibly transcriptions of the latest fashionable Italian music by the blind organist Jan Jacob de Graaf. Pada tahun 1713, Duke kembali dari tur ke Negara Rendah dengan koleksi besar skor, beberapa dari mereka mungkin transkripsi modis musik Italia terbaru oleh Jan buta organis Jacob de Graaf. Bach was particularly attracted to the Italian solo-tutti structure, in which one or more solo instruments alternate section-by-section with the full orchestra throughout a movement. Bach terutama tertarik dengan struktur solo-Tutti Italia, di mana satu atau lebih instrumen solo bagian-alternatif oleh-bagian dengan orkestra penuh seluruh gerakan.
In Weimar, he had the opportunity to play and compose for the organ, and to perform a varied repertoire of concert music with the duke's ensemble. Di Weimar, ia memiliki kesempatan untuk bermain dan menulis untuk organ, dan untuk melakukan beragam repertoar konser musik dengan ansambel duke's. A master of contrapuntal technique, Bach's steady output of fugues began in Weimar. Seorang guru kontrapungtal teknik, stabil output's Bach dari fugues dimulai di Weimar. The largest single body of his fugal writing is Das wohltemperierte Clavier ("The well-tempered keyboard"— Clavier meaning keyboard instrument). [ 20 ] It consists of two collections compiled in 1722 and 1744, [ 21 ] each containing a prelude and fugue in every major and minor key . [ 22 ] This is a monumental work for its masterful use of counterpoint and its exploration, for the first time, of the full range of keys–and the means of expression made possible by their slight differences from each other—available to keyboardists when their instruments are tuned according to systems such as that of Andreas Werckmeister . Tubuh tunggal terbesar menulis fugal nya Das Clavier wohltemperierte ("The-marah keyboard baik" - yang berarti Clavier instrumen keyboard). [20] ini terdiri dari dua koleksi disusun pada tahun 1722 dan 1744, [21] setiap pendahuluan yang berisi dan fuga di setiap besar dan kunci minor . [22] Ini adalah karya monumental untuk penggunaan ahli atas tandingan dan eksplorasi, untuk pertama kalinya, dari berbagai kunci-dan cara ekspresi yang dimungkinkan oleh sedikit perbedaan dari masing-masing lain-tersedia untuk keyboardists ketika instrumen mereka disetel sesuai dengan sistem seperti itu dari Andreas Werckmeister .
Violin Sonata No. 1 in G minor (BWV 1001) in Bach's handwriting Violin Sonata No 1 di G minor (BWV 1001) dalam tulisan tangan Bach's
During his tenure at Weimar, Bach started work on the "Little Organ Book" for his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann; this contains traditional Lutheran chorales ( hymn tunes ), set in complex textures to assist the training of organists. Selama masa jabatannya di Weimar, Bach mulai bekerja pada "Organ Little Book" untuk sulung anaknya, Wilhelm Friedemann; ini berisi tradisional Lutheran chorales ( lagu himne ), ditetapkan dalam tekstur kompleks untuk membantu pelatihan organists. The book illustrates two major themes in Bach's life: his dedication to teaching and his love of the chorale as a musical form. Buku ini menggambarkan dua tema utama dalam kehidupan Bach: dedikasi untuk mengajar dan cinta tentang nyanyian untuk paduan suara sebagai suatu bentuk musik. Bach eventually fell out of favour in Weimar and was, according to the court secretary's report, jailed for almost a month before being unfavourably dismissed: Bach akhirnya jatuh dari kasih karunia di Weimar dan, menurut laporan sekretaris pengadilan, dipenjara selama hampir sebulan sebelum diberhentikan tidak baik:
" On November 6, [1717], the quondam concertmaster and organist Bach was confined to the County Judge's place of detention for too stubbornly forcing the issue of his dismissal and finally on December 2 was freed from arrest with notice of his unfavourable discharge. [ 23 ] Pada tanggal 6 November [1717], yang concertmaster bekas dan organ Bach terbatas County Hakim tempat penahanan terlalu keras kepala memaksa isu pemecatan dan akhirnya pada tanggal 2 Desember dibebaskan dari tahanan dengan pemberitahuan debit yang kurang baik itu. [23 ] "

Köthen (1717–23) Köthen (1717-1723)

Bach began once again to search out a more stable job that was conducive to his musical interests. Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen hired Bach to serve as his Kapellmeister (director of music). Bach mulai sekali lagi untuk mencari sebuah pekerjaan yang lebih stabil yang kondusif untuk kepentingan musik. Leopold, Pangeran Anhalt-Köthen disewa Bach untuk melayani sebagai nya dirigen (direktur musik). Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach's talents, paid him well, and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing. Pangeran Leopold, dirinya seorang musisi, menghargai bakat Bach, dibayar dengan baik, dan memberinya lintang yang cukup besar dalam menyusun dan melakukan. The prince was Calvinist and did not use elaborate music in his worship; thus, most of Bach's work from this period was secular, [ 24 ] including the Orchestral suites , the Six Suites for Unaccompanied Cello and the Sonatas and partitas for solo violin . pangeran itu Calvinis dan tidak menggunakan musik rumit dalam ibadah, dengan demikian, sebagian besar adalah pekerjaan Bach dari periode ini adalah sekuler, [24] termasuk suite Orkestra , yang Enam Suites untuk ditemani Cello dan sonata dan partitas untuk biola solo . The well-known Brandenburg concertos date from this period. [ 25 ] Bach composed secular cantatas for the court such as the Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht, BWV 134a . Terkenal Brandenburg concerto tanggal dari periode ini. [25] Bach terdiri cantatas sekuler untuk pengadilan seperti Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre Macht, BWV 134a .
On 7 July 1720, while Bach was abroad with Prince Leopold, tragedy struck: his wife, Maria Barbara, the mother of his first 7 children, died suddenly. Pada tanggal 7 Juli 1720, sedangkan Bach luar negeri dengan Prince Leopold, tragedi menimpa: istrinya, Maria Barbara, ibu dari 7 anak pertamanya, meninggal tiba-tiba. The following year, the widower met Anna Magdalena Wilcke , a young, highly gifted soprano 17 years his junior, who performed at the court in Köthen ; they married on 3 December 1721. [ 26 ] Together they had 13 more children, six of whom survived into adulthood: Gottfried Heinrich , Johann Christoph Friedrich and Johann Christian , all of whom became significant musicians; Elisabeth Juliane Friederica (1726–81), who married Bach's pupil Johann Christoph Altnikol; Johanna Carolina (1737–81); and Regina Susanna (1742–1809). [ 27 ] Tahun berikutnya, duda bertemu Anna Magdalena Wilcke , seorang, soprano muda yang sangat berbakat 17 tahun lebih muda, yang dilakukan di pengadilan di Köthen ; menikah pada 3 Desember 1721. mereka [26] Bersama-sama mereka memiliki 13 anak lagi, enam di antaranya selamat menjadi dewasa: Gottfried Heinrich , Johann Christoph Friedrich dan Johann Christian , yang semuanya menjadi musisi yang signifikan; Elisabeth Juliane Friederica (1726-1781), yang menikah Teman-murid Bach Johann Christoph Altnikol; Johanna Carolina (1737-1781), dan Regina Susana ( 1742-1809). [27]

Leipzig (1723–50) Leipzig (1723-1750)

Commemorative statue of JS Bach in Leipzig Patung peringatan JS Bach di Leipzig
In 1723, Bach was appointed Cantor of Thomasschule , adjacent to the Thomaskirche (St. Thomas's Lutheran Church) in Leipzig , as well as Director of Music in the principal churches in the town. [ 28 ] This was a prestigious post in the leading mercantile city in Saxony, a neighbouring electorate to Thuringia. 1723, Bach diangkat penyanyi In Thomasschule , berdekatan dengan Thomaskirche (St Thomas Gereja Lutheran) di Leipzig , serta Direktur Musik di gereja-gereja utama di kota itu. [28] Ini adalah posting bergengsi di pedagang terkemuka kota di Sachsen, pemilih tetangga Thüringen. Apart from his brief tenures in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen, this was Bach's first government position in a career that had mainly involved service to the aristocracy. Selain tenor singkat di Arnstadt dan Mühlhausen, ini pertama kali pemerintah Bach posisi dalam karir yang terutama yang terlibat pelayanan kepada aristokrasi. This final post, which he held for 27 years until his death, brought him into contact with the political machinations of his employer, the Leipzig Council. Akhir posting ini, yang ia pegang selama 27 tahun sampai kematiannya, membawanya ke dalam kontak dengan intrik politik majikannya, Dewan Leipzig. The Council comprised two factions: the Absolutists, loyal to the Saxon monarch in Dresden, Augustus the Strong ; and the City-Estate faction, representing the interests of the mercantile class, the guilds and minor aristocrats. Dewan terdiri dari dua faksi: yang absolutis, setia kepada raja Saxon di Dresden, Augustus Kuat , dan faksi-Estate Kota, mewakili kepentingan kelas pedagang, serikat dan bangsawan kecil. Bach was the nominee of the monarchists, in particular of the Mayor at the time, Gottlieb Lange, a lawyer who had earlier served in the Dresden court. Bach adalah calon dari monarkis, khususnya Walikota pada saat itu, Gottlieb Lange, seorang pengacara yang sebelumnya bertugas di pengadilan Dresden. In return for agreeing to Bach's appointment, the City-Estate faction was granted control of the School, and Bach was required to make a number of compromises with respect to his working conditions. [ 29 ] Although it appears that no one on the Council doubted Bach's musical genius, there was continual tension between the Cantor, who regarded himself as the leader of church music in the city, and the City-Estate faction, which saw him as a schoolmaster and wanted to reduce the emphasis on elaborate music in both the School and the Churches. Sebagai imbalan atas persetujuan untuk's pengangkatan Bach, the-Estat faksi Kota diberikan kendali School, dan Bach diminta untuk membuat sejumlah kompromi terhadap kondisi kerja nya. [29] Meskipun tampak bahwa tidak ada seorang pun di Dewan meragukan jenius musik Bach, ada ketegangan terus-menerus antara Cantor, yang menganggap dirinya sebagai pemimpin musik gereja di kota, dan faksi Kota-Estate, yang melihat dia sebagai penuntun dan ingin mengurangi penekanan pada musik rumit baik dalam Sekolah dan Gereja-gereja. The Council never honoured Lange's promise at interview of a handsome salary of 1,000 talers a year, although it did provide Bach and his family with a smaller income and a good apartment at one end of the school building, which was renovated at great expense in 1732. Dewan tidak pernah menghormati janji Lange di wawancara gaji tampan 1.000 talers tahun, meskipun hal itu memberikan Bach dan keluarganya dengan pendapatan yang lebih kecil dan sebuah apartemen yang baik di salah satu ujung gedung sekolah, yang telah direnovasi dengan biaya besar di 1732 .
St. Thomas Church, Leipzig , in the 21st century St Thomas Church, Leipzig , pada abad ke-21
Bach's job required him to instruct the students of the Thomasschule in singing and to provide weekly music at the two main churches in Leipzig, St. Bach's pekerjaan mengharuskan dia untuk menginstruksikan mahasiswa Thomasschule dalam menyanyi dan untuk menyediakan musik mingguan di dua gereja utama di Leipzig, St Thomas and St Nicholas . Thomas dan Nicholas St . His post obliged him to teach Latin, but he was allowed to employ a deputy to do this instead. pasca-Nya wajib untuk mengajar bahasa Latin, tetapi ia diperbolehkan mempekerjakan wakil untuk melakukan hal ini sebagai gantinya. In an astonishing burst of creativity, he wrote up to five annual cantata cycles during his first six years in Leipzig (two of which have apparently been lost). Dalam ledakan yang menakjubkan dari kreativitas, ia menulis sampai lima tahunan kantata siklus selama enam tahun pertamanya di Leipzig (dua di antaranya telah tampaknya sudah hilang). Most of these concerted works expound on the Gospel readings for every Sunday and feast day in the Lutheran year; many were written using traditional church hymns, such as Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme , Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland , and Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern as inspiration for chorale cantatas . Kebanyakan dari karya-karya bersama menjelaskan pencatatan pada Injil untuk setiap hari Minggu dan hari raya pada tahun Lutheran; banyak ditulis menggunakan himne gereja tradisional, seperti Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme , Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland , dan schön leuchtet Wie der Morgenstern sebagai inspirasi untuk cantatas nyanyian untuk paduan suara .
To rehearse and perform these works at St. Thomas Church, Bach probably sat at the harpsichord or stood in front of the choir on the lower gallery at the west end, his back to the congregation and the altar at the east end. Untuk berlatih dan melakukan ini bekerja di Gereja St Thomas, Bach mungkin duduk di piano atau berdiri di depan paduan suara di galeri lebih rendah di ujung barat, kembali kepada jemaat dan altar di ujung timur. He would have looked upwards to the organ that rose from a loft about four metres above. Dia akan tampak ke atas untuk organ yang naik dari loteng sekitar empat meter di atas. To the right of the organ in a side gallery would have been the winds, brass and timpani; to the left were the strings. Di sebelah kanan organ di galeri sisi akan menjadi angin, kuningan dan timpani, ke kiri adalah senar. The Council provided only about eight permanent instrumentalists, a source of continual friction with the Cantor, who had to recruit the rest of the 20 or so players required for medium-to-large scores from the University, the School and the public. Dewan disediakan hanya sekitar delapan instrumentalis permanen, sumber gesekan terus-menerus dengan Cantor, yang harus merekrut sisa 20 atau jadi pemain yang diperlukan untuk skor menengah sampai besar dari Universitas, Sekolah dan masyarakat. The organ or harpsichord was probably played by the composer (when not standing to conduct), the in-house organist, or one of Bach's elder sons, Wilhelm Friedemann or Carl Philipp Emanuel. Organ atau piano kuno mungkin dimainkan oleh komposer (jika tidak berdiri untuk melakukan), yang organis di-rumah, atau salah satu dari anak sulung Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann atau Carl Philipp Emanuel.
Bach drew the soprano and alto choristers from the School, and the tenors and basses from the School and elsewhere in Leipzig. Bach menarik choristers soprano dan alto dari Sekolah, dan tenor dan bass dari Sekolah dan di tempat lain di Leipzig. Performing at weddings and funerals provided extra income for these groups; it was probably for this purpose, and for in-school training, that he wrote at least six motets , mostly for double choir . Tampil di pernikahan dan pemakaman diberikan penghasilan tambahan bagi kelompok-kelompok ini, itu mungkin untuk tujuan ini, dan untuk-sekolah pelatihan dalam, bahwa ia menulis sedikitnya enam motets , sebagian besar untuk paduan suara ganda . As part of his regular church work, he performed motets of the Venetian School and Germans such as Heinrich Schütz , which would have served as formal models for his own motets. Sebagai bagian dari pekerjaan gereja yang teratur, ia melakukan motets dari Sekolah Venesia dan Jerman seperti Heinrich Schütz , yang akan berfungsi sebagai model formal untuk motets sendiri.
Having spent much of the 1720s composing cantatas, Bach had assembled a huge repertoire of church music for Leipzig's two main churches. Setelah menghabiskan banyak dari menyusun cantatas 1720-an, Bach telah mengumpulkan repertoar besar musik gereja selama dua Leipzig gereja utama. He now wished to broaden his composing and performing beyond the liturgy. Dia sekarang ingin memperluas nya menyusun dan melaksanakan di luar liturgi. In March 1729, he took over the directorship of the Collegium Musicum , a secular performance ensemble that had been started in 1701 by his old friend, the composer Georg Philipp Telemann . Pada bulan Maret 1729, ia mengambil alih jabatan direktur dari Musicum Collegium , ansambel kinerja sekuler yang telah dimulai pada 1701 oleh teman lamanya, komposer Georg Philipp Telemann . This was one of the dozens of private societies in the major German-speaking cities that had been established by musically active university students; these societies had come to play an increasingly important role in public musical life and were typically led by the most prominent professionals in a city. Ini adalah salah satu dari lusinan masyarakat swasta di kota-kota besar berbahasa Jerman yang telah didirikan oleh mahasiswa musik aktif; ini masyarakat datang untuk memainkan peran yang semakin penting dalam kehidupan musik publik dan biasanya dipimpin oleh para profesional yang paling menonjol dalam kota. In the words of Christoph Wolff , assuming the directorship was a shrewd move that 'consolidated Bach's firm grip on Leipzig's principal musical institutions'. [ 30 ] During much of the year, Leipzig's Collegium Musicum gave twice-weekly, two-hour performances in Zimmerman's Coffeehouse on Catherine Street, just off the main market square. Dalam kata-kata Christoph Wolff , dengan asumsi direktur ini merupakan suatu langkah yang cerdas bahwa 'perusahaan pegangan konsolidasi Bach pada musik lembaga pelaku Leipzig. [30] Selama banyak tahun, Leipzig Collegium Musicum memberikan dua kali seminggu, dua jam pertunjukan di Zimmerman's kedai kopi di Catherine Street, tak jauh dari alun-alun pasar utama. For this purpose, the proprietor provided a large hall and acquired several musical instruments. Untuk tujuan ini, pemilik memberikan ruang yang besar dan diperoleh beberapa alat musik. Many of Bach's works during the 1730s and 1740s were probably written for and performed by the Collegium Musicum; among these were almost certainly parts of the Clavier-Übung ( Keyboard Practice ) and many of the violin and harpsichord concertos . Banyak dari karya-karya Bach selama 1730s dan 1740-an yang mungkin ditulis untuk dan dilakukan oleh Musicum Collegium, antara ini hampir pasti bagian dari Clavier-Ubung (Keyboard Praktek) dan banyak biola dan concerto harpsichord .
Zimmerman's Coffeehouse in Leipzig, where Bach's Collegium Musicum gave regular concerts Zimmerman's kedai kopi di Leipzig, di mana Bach Collegium Musicum memberikan konser biasa
During this period, he composed the Kyrie and Gloria of the Mass in B Minor , and in 1733, he presented the manuscript to the King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony, August III in an ultimately successful bid to persuade the monarch to appoint him as Royal Court Composer. Selama periode ini, ia menyusun Kyrie dan Gloria dari Misa dalam B Minor , dan pada tahun 1733, ia menyajikan naskah ke Raja Polandia, Grand Duke of Lithuania dan Pemilih dari Saxony, Agustus III dalam tawaran akhirnya berhasil membujuk raja untuk menunjuk dia sebagai Royal Court Komposer. He later extended this work into a full Mass, by adding a Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, the music for which was almost wholly taken from some of the best of his cantata movements. Dia kemudian diperluas karya ini menjadi sebuah misa penuh, dengan menambahkan Credo, Sanctus dan agnus Dei, musik yang hampir seluruhnya diambil dari beberapa yang terbaik dari gerakan kantata nya. Bach's appointment as court composer appears to have been part of his long-term struggle to achieve greater bargaining power with the Leipzig Council. Bach penunjukan sebagai komposer pengadilan tampaknya telah menjadi bagian dari perjuangan jangka panjang untuk mencapai posisi tawar yang lebih besar dengan Dewan Leipzig. Although the complete mass was probably never performed during the composer's lifetime, [ 31 ] it is considered to be among the greatest choral works of all time. Meskipun massa lengkap mungkin tidak pernah dilakukan selama komposer seumur hidup, [31] itu dianggap antara karya-karya paduan suara terbesar sepanjang masa. Between 1737 and 1739, Bach's former pupil Carl Gotthelf Gerlach took over the directorship of the Collegium Musicum. Antara 1737 dan 1739, mantan murid Bach Carl Gotthelf Gerlach mengambil alih jabatan direktur dari Musicum Collegium.
In 1747, Bach went to the court of Frederick II of Prussia in Potsdam , where the king played a theme for Bach and challenged him to improvise a fugue based on his theme. Pada tahun 1747, Bach pergi ke pengadilan Frederick II dari Prusia di Potsdam , di mana raja memainkan tema untuk Bach dan menantang dia untuk berimprovisasi sebuah fuga berdasarkan tema-nya. Bach improvised a three-part fugue on Frederick's pianoforte , then a novelty, and later presented the king with a Musical Offering which consists of fugues, canons and a trio based on the "royal theme," nominated by the monarch. Bach improvisasi sebuah bagian fuga tiga di Frederick pianoforte , maka hal yang baru, dan kemudian disajikan raja dengan Penawaran Musik yang terdiri dari fugues, kanon dan trio berdasarkan "tema kerajaan," dicalonkan oleh raja. Its six-part fugue includes a slightly altered subject more suitable for extensive elaboration. enam-bagian fuga Its mencakup subjek sedikit diubah lebih cocok untuk elaborasi luas.
The Art of Fugue , published posthumously but probably written years before Bach's death, is unfinished. The Art of Fugue , diterbitkan secara anumerta tapi mungkin ditulis tahun sebelum kematian Bach, belum selesai. It consists of 18 complex fugues and canons based on a simple theme. [ 32 ] A magnum opus of thematic transformation and contrapuntal devices, this work is often cited as the summation of polyphonic techniques. Ini terdiri dari 18 fugues kompleks dan kanon berdasarkan tema sederhana. [32] opus magnum Sebuah transformasi tematik dan perangkat kontrapungtal, pekerjaan ini sering disebut sebagai ringkasan dari teknik polifonik.
The final work Bach completed was a chorale prelude for organ, dictated to his son-in-law, Johann Altnikol , from his deathbed. Karya Bach selesai akhir adalah awal nyanyian untuk paduan suara untuk organ, didikte-anaknya-hukum, Johann Altnikol , dari ranjang kematiannya. Entitled Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit ( Before thy throne I now appear , BWV 668a); when the notes on the three staves of the final cadence are counted and mapped onto the Roman alphabet, the initials "JSB" are found. [ 33 ] The chorale is often played after the unfinished 14th fugue to conclude performances of The Art of Fugue . Berjudul Vor deinen ich tret Thron hiermit (Sebelum takhta-Mu aku sekarang muncul, BWV 668a), ketika catatan pada tiga stave dari irama akhir dihitung dan dipetakan ke abjad Romawi, inisial "JSB" ditemukan. [33] nyanyian untuk paduan suara ini sering diputar setelah 14 fuga belum selesai untuk menyimpulkan kinerja The Art of Fugue.

Death (1750) Kematian (1750)

The 1750 "Volbach Portrait" may show Bach in the last months of his life. [ 34 ] 1750 "Potret Volbach" mungkin menunjukkan Bach pada bulan-bulan terakhir hidupnya. [34]
Bach's final resting place, St. Bach final tempat istirahat, St Thomas' Church, Leipzig Thomas 'Church, Leipzig
Bach's health may have been in decline in 1749; on 2 June, Heinrich von Brühl wrote to one of the Leipzig burgomasters to request that his music director, Gottlob Harrer, fill the post of Thomascantor and Director musices posts "upon the eventual ... decease of Mr. Bach." [ 35 ] Bach became increasingly blind, and the celebrated British eye surgeon John Taylor (who would later operate unsuccessfully on Handel ) operated on Bach while visiting Leipzig in 1750. kesehatan Bach mungkin telah menurun pada 1749, pada tanggal 2 Juni, Heinrich von Brühl menulis kepada salah satu Leipzig burgomasters untuk meminta sutradara musik, Gottlob Harrer, mengisi pos dan Direktur musices posting Thomascantor "pada akhirnya ... kematian Mr Bach ". [35] Bach menjadi semakin buta, dan dokter mata dirayakan Inggris John Taylor (yang kemudian akan beroperasi gagal pada Handel ) dioperasikan pada saat mengunjungi Leipzig Bach tahun 1750. Bach died on 28 July 1750 at the age of 65. Bach meninggal pada tanggal 28 Juli 1750 di usia 65. A contemporary newspaper reported the cause of death as "from the unhappy consequences of the very unsuccessful eye operation". [ 36 ] Some modern historians speculate the cause of death was a stroke complicated by pneumonia. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] His estate was valued at 1159 thalers and included five Clavecins , two lute-harpsichords, three violins, three violas, two cellos, a viola da gamba , a lute and a spinet , and 52 "sacred books" (many by Martin Luther , Muller and Pfeiffer, including Josephus ' History of the Jews and nine volumes of Paul Wagner's Leipzig Song Book ). [ 40 ] Sebuah surat kabar kontemporer melaporkan penyebab kematian sebagai "dari konsekuensi tidak bahagia mata operasi tidak sukses sangat". [36] Beberapa sejarawan modern berspekulasi penyebab kematian adalah stroke rumit oleh pneumonia. [37] [38] [39] Nya Kebun senilai 1159 thalers dan termasuk lima Clavecins , dua kecapi-harpsichord, tiga biola, tiga violas, dua cello, sebuah biola da Gamba , sebuah kecapi dan spinet , dan 52 "buku suci" (banyak oleh Martin Luther , Muller dan Pfeiffer, termasuk Josephus Sejarah 'orang Yahudi dan sembilan volume's Leipzig Song Book Wagner Paulus). [40]
A modern reconstruction of Bach's head using computer modelling techniques, unveiled 3 March 2008 in Berlin, showed the composer as a strong-jawed man with a slight underbite, his large head topped with short, silver hair. [ 41 ] Sebuah rekonstruksi modern kepala Bach's menggunakan model teknik komputer, meluncurkan 3 Maret 2008 di Berlin, menunjukkan komposer sebagai rahang-orang kuat dengan underbite sedikit, kepalanya yang besar atasnya dengan pendek, rambut perak. [41]

Musical style Musik gaya

Bach's musical style arose from his extraordinary fluency in contrapuntal invention and motivic control, his flair for improvisation at the keyboard, his exposure to South German, North German, Italian and French music, and his apparent devotion to the Lutheran liturgy. gaya musik Bach berasal dari kefasihan yang luar biasa dalam penemuan kontrapungtal dan kontrol motivic, bakat nya untuk improvisasi di keyboard, paparan ke Jerman Selatan, Jerman Utara, musik Italia dan Perancis, dan pengabdian jelas kepada liturgi Lutheran. His access to musicians, scores and instruments as a child and a young man, combined with his emerging talent for writing tightly woven music of powerful sonority, appear to have set him on course to develop an eclectic, energetic musical style in which foreign influences were injected into an intensified version of the pre-existing German musical language. akses-Nya untuk musisi, skor dan instrumen sebagai anak dan seorang pemuda, dikombinasikan dengan bakatnya muncul untuk menulis musik anyaman rapat dari kemerduan kuat, tampaknya telah menetapkan dia di program untuk mengembangkan eklektik, gaya musik energik di mana pengaruh asing disuntikkan ke dalam versi intensif dari bahasa yang sudah ada sebelumnya musik Jerman. Throughout his teens and 20s, his output showed increasing skill in the large-scale organisation of musical ideas, and the enhancement of the Buxtehudian model of improvisatory preludes and counterpoint of limited complexity. Sepanjang remaja dan 20-an, output-nya menunjukkan peningkatan ketrampilan dalam organisasi skala besar ide musik, dan peningkatan model Buxtehudian dari Prelude improvisatory dan tandingan kompleksitas terbatas. The period 1713–14, when a large repertoire of Italian music became available to the Weimar court orchestra, was a turning point. Periode 1713-1714, ketika sebuah repertoar besar musik Italia menjadi tersedia untuk orkestra pengadilan Weimar, adalah titik balik. From this time onwards, he appears to have absorbed into his style the Italians' dramatic openings, clear melodic contours, the sharp outlines of their bass lines, greater motoric and rhythmic conciseness, more unified motivic treatment, and more clearly articulated schemes for modulation. [ 42 ] Dari seterusnya waktu, ia tampaknya telah diserap ke dalam gaya bukaan dramatis Italia ', kontur melodis jelas, tajam garis garis bass mereka, motorik yang lebih besar dan keringkasan berirama, pengobatan motivic lebih kompak, dan lebih jelas diartikulasikan skema untuk modulasi. [42]
There are several more specific features of Bach's style. Ada beberapa fitur yang lebih spesifik gaya Bach. The notation of Baroque melodic lines tended to assume that composers would write out only the basic framework, and that performers would embellish this framework by inserting ornamental notes and otherwise elaborating on it. Notasi garis melodi Barok cenderung untuk menganggap bahwa komponis akan menuliskan hanya kerangka dasar, dan bahwa pemain akan menghiasi kerangka ini dengan memasukkan catatan hias dan sebaliknya menjelaskan di atasnya. Although this practice varied considerably between the schools of European music, Bach was regarded at the time as being on one extreme end of the spectrum, notating most or all of the details of his melodic lines—particularly in his fast movements—thus leaving little for performers to interpolate. Meskipun praktek ini sangat bervariasi antara sekolah-sekolah musik Eropa, Bach dianggap pada waktu itu sebagai di salah satu ujung spektrum ekstrim, notating sebagian besar atau semua rincian garis melodi nya-terutama dalam gerakan-nya cepat sehingga meninggalkan sedikit pemain untuk interpolasi. This may have assisted his control over the dense contrapuntal textures that he favoured, which allow less leeway for the spontaneous variation of musical lines. Ini mungkin membantu kekuasaannya atas kontrapungtal tekstur padat yang ia disukai, yang memungkinkan ruang gerak lebih sedikit untuk variasi spontan garis musik. Bach's contrapuntal textures tend to be more cumulative than those of Händel and most other composers of the day, who would typically allow a line to drop out after it had been joined by two or three others. tekstur kontrapungtal Bach cenderung lebih kumulatif dibandingkan dengan Handel dan kebanyakan komponis lain hari, yang biasanya akan memungkinkan sebuah baris untuk drop out setelah itu telah bergabung dengan dua atau tiga orang lainnya. Bach's harmony is marked by a tendency to employ brief tonicisation —subtle references to another key that lasts for only a few beats at the longest—particularly of the supertonic , to add colour to his textures. Bach's harmoni ditandai dengan kecenderungan untuk mempekerjakan singkat tonicisation halus referensi-lain kunci yang hanya berlangsung selama beberapa ketukan di-terpanjang terutama dari supertonic , untuk menambah warna pada tekstur nya.
The opening of the six-part fugue from The Musical Offering , in Bach's hand Pembukaan-bagian fuga enam dari The Penawaran Musik, di tangan Bach
At the same time, Bach, unlike later composers, left the instrumentation of major works including The Art of Fugue and The Musical Offering open. Pada saat yang sama, Bach, tidak seperti komposer kemudian, meninggalkan instrumentasi karya-karya utama termasuk The Art of Fugue dan The Musical Penawaran terbuka. It is likely that his detailed notation was less an absolute demand on the performer and more a response to a 17th-century culture in which the boundary between what the performer could embellish and what the composer demanded to be authentic was being negotiated. Kemungkinan bahwa notasi rinci kurang permintaan absolut pada pelaku dan lebih merupakan respon terhadap budaya abad ke-17 di mana batas antara apa yang pemain bisa membumbui dan apa komposer dituntut untuk otentik sedang dinegosiasikan.
Bach's apparently devout, personal relationship with the Christian God in the Lutheran tradition and the high demand for religious music of his times inevitably placed sacred music at the centre of his repertory; more specifically, the Lutheran chorale hymn tune, the principal musical aspect of the Lutheran service, was the basis of much of his output. rupanya taat Bach, hubungan pribadi dengan Allah Kristen di Lutheran tradisi dan tingginya permintaan untuk musik religius nya kali pasti ditempatkan musik sakral di tengah-tengah repertoar-nya, lebih spesifik, nyanyian untuk paduan suara Lutheran himne lagu, aspek musik pokok layanan Lutheran, adalah dasar dari banyak dari output-nya. He invested the chorale prelude, already a standard set of Lutheran forms, with a more cogent, tightly integrated architecture, in which the intervallic patterns and melodic contours of the tune were typically treated in a dense, contrapuntal lattice against relatively slow-moving, overarching statements of the tune. Dia menginvestasikan awal nyanyian untuk paduan suara, sudah satu set standar bentuk Lutheran, dengan meyakinkan lebih, ketat arsitektur terpadu, di mana pola intervallic dan kontur melodi dari lagu itu biasanya dirawat di kisi, padat kontrapungtal terhadap relatif lambat bergerak, menyeluruh laporan nadanya.
Bach's theology informed his compositional structures: Sei Gegrüsset is perhaps the finest example where there is a theme with 11 variations (making 12 movements) that, while still one work, becomes two sets of six—to match Lutheran preaching principles of repetition. Bach's teologi informasi struktur komposisi nya: Sei Gegrüsset mungkin adalah contoh terbaik di mana ada tema dengan 11 variasi (membuat 12 gerakan) yang, sementara masih satu karya, menjadi dua set enam sampai pertandingan Lutheran khotbah prinsip pengulangan. At the same time the theological interpretation of 'master' and 11 disciples would not be lost on his contemporary audience. Pada saat yang sama penafsiran teologis dari 'master' dan 11 murid tidak akan hilang pada penonton kontemporer-nya. Further, the practical relationship of each variation to the next (in preparing registration and the expected textural changes) seems to show an incredible capacity to preach through the music using the musical forms available at the time. Selanjutnya, hubungan praktis dari setiap variasi ke depan (dalam mempersiapkan pendaftaran dan perubahan tekstur diharapkan) tampaknya menunjukkan kapasitas yang luar biasa untuk memberitakan melalui musik menggunakan bentuk musik yang tersedia pada saat itu.
Bach's seal, used throughout his Leipzig years. Bach segel, digunakan di seluruh bertahun-tahun Leipzig. It contains the letters JSB superimposed over their mirror image topped with a crown. Ini berisi huruf JSB ditumpangkan atas gambar cermin mereka atasnya dengan mahkota.
Bach's deep knowledge of and interest in the liturgy led to his developing intricate relationships between music and linguistic text. pengetahuan yang mendalam Bach dan minat dalam liturgi menyebabkan hubungan mengembangkan nya rumit antara musik dan teks linguistik. This was evident from the smallest to the largest levels of his compositional technique. Hal ini terbukti dari terkecil sampai tingkat terbesar teknik komposisi nya. On the smallest level, many of his sacred works contain short motifs that, by recurrent association, can be regarded as pictorial symbolism and articulations of liturgical concepts. Pada tingkat terkecil, banyak dari karya-Nya yang kudus yang mengandung motif singkat, oleh asosiasi yang berulang, dapat dianggap sebagai simbolisme bergambar dan artikulasi konsep liturgi. For example, the octave leap, usually in a bass line, represents the relationship between heaven and earth; the slow, repeated notes of the bass line in the opening movement of cantata Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit, BWV 106 ) depict the laboured trudging of Jesus as he was forced to drag the cross from the city to the crucifixion site. Sebagai contoh, lompatan oktaf, biasanya dalam garis bass, merupakan hubungan antara langit dan bumi, yang lambat, diulang catatan garis bass dalam gerakan pembukaan kantata ist die Zeit allerbeste Gottes Zeit, BWV 106 ) menggambarkan diusahakan berjalan dengan susah payah Yesus karena ia terpaksa menyeret salib dari kota ke tempat penyaliban.
On the largest level, the large-scale structure of some of his sacred vocal works is evidence of subtle, elaborate planning: for example, the overall form of the St Matthew Passion illustrates the liturgical and dramatic flow of the Easter story on a number of levels simultaneously; the text, keys and variations of instrumental and vocal forces used in the movements of the Ascension Oratorio Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen, BWV 11 ) may form a structure that resembles the cross. Pada tingkat terbesar, struktur skala besar beberapa vokal suci karyanya adalah bukti halus, perencanaan yang rumit: misalnya, bentuk keseluruhan dari St Matius Passion dan dramatis menggambarkan aliran liturgi cerita Paskah pada sejumlah tingkat secara simultan, teks, tombol dan variasi dan kekuatan vokal instrumental yang digunakan dalam gerakan Ascension Oratorio Lobet Gott di Seinen Reichen, BWV 11 ) bisa membentuk struktur yang menyerupai salib.
Beyond these specific musical features arising from Bach's religious affiliation is the fact that he was able to produce music for an audience that was committed to serious, regular worship, for which a concentrated density and complexity was accepted. Di luar fitur musik khusus yang timbul dari afiliasi keagamaan Bach adalah fakta bahwa ia mampu menghasilkan musik untuk audiens yang berkomitmen untuk serius, ibadah biasa, yang terkonsentrasi kepadatan dan kompleksitas diterima. His natural inclination may have been to reinvigorate existing forms, rather than to discard them and pursue more dramatic musical innovations. kecenderungan alami Nya mungkin telah untuk menghidupkan kembali bentuk-bentuk yang ada, bukan untuk menghapusnya dan mengejar inovasi musik yang lebih dramatis. Thus, Bach's inventive genius was almost entirely directed towards working within the structures he inherited, according to most critics and historians. Dengan demikian, jenius inventif Bach hampir seluruhnya diarahkan bekerja dalam struktur ia diwarisi, menurut kritikus yang paling dan sejarawan.
Frontispiece of Bach's Clavier-Büchlein vor Anna Magdalena Bach , composed in 1722 for his second wife Terdepan dari Bach -Büchlein vor Clavier Bach Anna Magdalena , disusun pada tahun 1722 untuk istri kedua
Bach's inner personal drive to display his musical achievements was evident in a number of ways. drive batin pribadi Bach untuk menampilkan prestasi musiknya terbukti dalam beberapa cara. The most obvious was his successful striving to become the leading virtuoso and improviser of the day on the organ. Yang paling jelas adalah yang sukses berjuang untuk menjadi virtuoso terkemuka dan improvisasi hari pada organ. Keyboard music occupied a central position in his output throughout his life, and he pioneered the elevation of the keyboard from continuo to solo instrument in his numerous harpsichord concertos and chamber movements with keyboard obbligato , in which he himself probably played the solo part. musik Keyboard menempati posisi sentral dalam output-nya sepanjang hidupnya, dan ia memelopori ketinggian keyboard dari continuo untuk instrumen solo di berbagai nya concerto piano dan gerakan ruang dengan keyboard obbligato , di mana dia sendiri mungkin memainkan bagian solo. Many of his keyboard preludes are vehicles for a free improvisatory virtuosity in the German tradition, although their internal organisation became increasingly more cogent as he matured. Banyak dari Prelude keyboard adalah kendaraan untuk keahlian improvisatory gratis dalam tradisi Jerman, meskipun organisasi internal mereka menjadi semakin lebih meyakinkan saat ia dewasa. Virtuosity is a key element in other forms, such as the fugal movement from Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 , in which Bach himself may have been the first to play the rapid solo violin passages. Keahlian merupakan elemen kunci dalam bentuk lain, seperti gerakan fugal dari Brandenburg Concerto No 4, di mana Bach sendiri mungkin telah orang pertama yang memainkan bagian solo biola cepat. Another example is in the organ fugue from BWV 548, a late work from Leipzig, in which virtuosic passages are mapped onto Italian solo-tutti alternation within the fugal development. Contoh lain adalah di fuga organ dari BWV 548, karya akhir dari Leipzig, di mana ayat-ayat virtuoso yang dipetakan ke alternasi solo-Tutti Italia dalam pengembangan fugal.
Related to his cherished role as teacher was his drive to encompass whole genres by producing collections of movements that thoroughly explore the range of artistic and technical possibilities inherent in those genres. Berhubungan dengan peran dihargai sebagai guru adalah drive untuk mencakup seluruh genre dengan memproduksi koleksi gerakan yang benar-benar mengeksplorasi berbagai kemungkinan artistik dan teknis yang melekat pada mereka genre. The most famous examples are the two books of the Well Tempered Clavier , each of which presents a prelude and fugue in every major and minor key, in which a variety of contrapuntal and fugal techniques are displayed. Contoh yang paling terkenal adalah dua buku dari Tempered Clavier Yah , masing-masing yang menyajikan pendahuluan dan fuga di setiap dan minor kunci utama, di mana berbagai teknik dan fugal kontrapungtal ditampilkan. The English and French Suites, and the Partitas, all keyboard works from the Köthen period, systematically explore a range of metres and of sharp and flat keys. Inggris dan Perancis Suites, dan Partitas, keyboard semua karya dari periode Köthen, sistematis mengeksplorasi berbagai meter dan kunci yang tajam dan datar. This urge to manifest structures is evident throughout his life: the Goldberg Variations (1746?), include a sequence of canons at increasing intervals (unison, seconds, thirds, etc.), and The Art of Fugue (1749) can be seen as a compendium of fugal techniques. Dorongan untuk mewujudkan struktur jelas sepanjang hidupnya: para Variasi Goldberg (1746?), termasuk urutan kanon pada interval meningkat (serempak, detik, pertiga, dll), dan The Art of Fugue (1749) dapat dilihat sebagai ringkasan teknik fugal.

Family members Anggota keluarga

Bach married his second cousin Maria Barbara Bach in 1707. Bach menikah sepupu kedua Maria Barbara Bach tahun 1707. They had seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood: Mereka memiliki tujuh anak, empat di antaranya selamat sampai dewasa:
Maria died in 1720, and Bach married Anna Magdalena Wilcke in 1721. Maria meninggal pada tahun 1720, dan Bach menikah dengan Anna Magdalena Wilcke di 1721. They had a further 13 children, six of whom survived to adulthood: Mereka memiliki 13 anak-anak lebih, enam di antaranya selamat sampai dewasa:
More than 250 years after Bach's death, there are still direct descendants of him living in Germany. [ 43 ] Lebih dari 250 tahun setelah kematian Bach, masih ada keturunan langsung dari dia tinggal di Jerman. [43]

Works Pekerjaan

JS Bach's works are indexed with BWV numbers, an initialism for Bach Werke Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue). Karya-karya JS Bach yang diindeks dengan nomor BWV, sebuah initialism untuk Bach Werke Verzeichnis (Bach Pekerjaan Katalog). The catalogue, published in 1950, was compiled by Wolfgang Schmieder . Katalog, diterbitkan pada tahun 1950, disusun oleh Wolfgang Schmieder . The catalogue is organised thematically, rather than chronologically: BWV 1–224 are cantatas ; BWV 225–249, the large-scale choral works; BWV 250–524, chorales and sacred songs; BWV 525–748, organ works; BWV 772–994, other keyboard works; BWV 995–1000, lute music; BWV 1001–40, chamber music ; BWV 1041–71, orchestral music; and BWV 1072–1126, canons and fugues . Katalog ini disusun secara tematis, bukan kronologis: BWV 1-224 adalah cantatas , BWV 225-249, skala paduan suara karya-besar; BWV 250-524, chorales dan lagu-lagu suci, BWV 525-748, organ bekerja; BWV 772 - 994, karya-karya keyboard lainnya; BWV 995-1000, kecapi musik; BWV 1001-1040, musik kamar , BWV 1041-1071, musik orkestra, dan BWV 1072-1126, kanon dan fugues . In compiling the catalogue, Schmieder largely followed the Bach Gesellschaft Ausgabe, a comprehensive edition of the composer's works that was produced between 1850 and 1905. Dalam menyusun katalog, Schmieder sebagian besar mengikuti Bach Gesellschaft Ausgabe, edisi lengkap karya-karya komposer yang diproduksi antara tahun 1850 dan 1905. For a list of works catalogued by BWV number, see List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach . Untuk daftar katalog menurut jumlah karya BWV, lihat Daftar komposisi oleh Johann Sebastian Bach .

Organ works Organ bekerja

Bach was best known during his lifetime as an organist, organ consultant, and composer of organ works in both the traditional German free genres—such as preludes , fantasias , and toccatas —and stricter forms, such as chorale preludes and fugues . Bach paling dikenal selama hidupnya sebagai organ, organ konsultan, dan karya komposer organ baik dalam tradisional Jerman bebas genre-seperti Prelude , fantasias , dan toccatas -dan bentuk-bentuk ketat, seperti Prelude nyanyian untuk paduan suara dan fugues . He established a reputation at a young age for his great creativity and ability to integrate foreign styles into his organ works. Dia mendirikan reputasi di usia muda untuk kreativitas yang besar dan kemampuan untuk mengintegrasikan gaya asing ke dalam karya organnya. A decidedly North German influence was exerted by Georg Böhm , with whom Bach came into contact in Lüneburg, and Dieterich Buxtehude in Lübeck , whom the young organist visited in 1704 on an extended leave of absence from his job in Arnstadt. Seorang Jerman Utara pengaruh jelas telah diberikan oleh Georg Bohm , dengan siapa Bach datang ke kontak dalam Lüneburg, dan Dieterich Buxtehude di Lübeck , siapa organis muda dikunjungi pada 1704 pada cuti diperpanjang dari ketidakhadiran dari pekerjaannya di Arnstadt. Around this time, Bach copied the works of numerous French and Italian composers to gain insights into their compositional languages, and later arranged violin concertos by Vivaldi and others for organ and harpsichord. Pada saat ini, Bach menyalin karya-karya komposer Perancis dan Italia banyak untuk memperoleh wawasan bahasa komposisi mereka, dan kemudian disusun concerto biola oleh Vivaldi dan lain-lain untuk organ dan harpsichord. His most productive period (1708–14) saw the composition of several pairs of preludes and fugues and toccatas and fugues, and of the Orgelbüchlein ("Little organ book"), an unfinished collection of 45 short chorale preludes that demonstrate compositional techniques in the setting of chorale tunes. Periode paling produktif-Nya (1708-1714) melihat komposisi dari beberapa pasang Prelude dan fugues dan toccatas dan fugues, dan dari Orgelbüchlein ("buku organ Little"), sebuah koleksi yang belum selesai dari 45 Prelude nyanyian untuk paduan suara pendek yang menunjukkan teknik komposisi dalam pengaturan nyanyian untuk paduan suara lagu. After he left Weimar, Bach's output for organ fell off, although his best-known works (the six trio sonatas , the "German Organ Mass" in Clavier-Übung III from 1739, and the " Great Eighteen " chorales, revised late in his life) were all composed after this time. Setelah ia pergi Weimar, output Bach untuk organ terjatuh, walaupun paling terkenal karya-karyanya (enam sonata trio , yang "Jerman Organ Misa" dalam Clavier-Ubung III dari 1739, dan " Great Delapan belas "chorales, direvisi akhir nya hidup) semua terdiri setelah waktu ini. Bach was extensively engaged later in his life in consulting on organ projects, testing newly built organs, and dedicating organs in afternoon recitals. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] One of the high points may be the third part of the Clavier-Übung , a setting of 21 chorale preludes uniting the traditional Catholic Missa with the Lutheran catechism liturgy, the whole set interpolated between the mighty "St. Anne" Prelude and Fugue on the theme of the Trinity. Bach ekstensif terlibat di kemudian hari di konsultan proyek organ, pengujian dibangun organ baru, dan mendedikasikan organ dalam resital sore. [44] [45] Salah satu poin yang tinggi mungkin merupakan bagian ketiga dari Clavier-Ubung, pengaturan dari 21 nyanyian untuk paduan suara Prelude menyatukan Katolik Missa tradisional dengan katekismus liturgi Lutheran, seluruh set interpolasi antara "Anne St" perkasa Prelude dan Fugue dengan tema Trinitas.

Other keyboard works keyboard lainnya bekerja

The title page of the third part of the Clavier-Übung , one of the few works by Bach that was published during his lifetime Halaman judul bagian ketiga dari Clavier-Ubung, salah satu karya beberapa karya Bach yang dipublikasikan selama masa hidupnya
Bach wrote many works for the harpsichord , some of which may have been played on the clavichord . Bach menulis banyak karya untuk harpsichord , beberapa di antaranya mungkin telah diputar pada clavichord . Many of his keyboard works are anthologies that show an eagerness to encompass whole theoretical systems in an encyclopaedic fashion. Banyak dari karya keyboard adalah antologi yang menunjukkan keinginan untuk mencakup keseluruhan sistem teoretis dalam mode ensiklopedik.
  • The Well-Tempered Clavier , Books 1 and 2 (BWV 846–893). The-Tempered Clavier Well , Buku 1 dan 2 (BWV 846-893). Each book comprises a prelude and fugue in each of the 24 major and minor keys in chromatic order from C major to B minor (thus, the whole collection is often referred to as 'the 48'). Setiap buku terdiri dari pendahuluan dan fuga di masing-masing dari 24 besar dan kecil kunci dalam rangka berwarna dari C mayor ke B minor (dengan demikian, seluruh koleksi sering disebut sebagai '48'). "Well-tempered" in the title refers to the temperament (system of tuning); many temperaments before Bach's time were not flexible enough to allow compositions to move through more than just a few keys. [ 46 ] "Yah-marah" di judul mengacu pada temperamen (sistem tuning); sebelum temperamen Bach waktu adalah tidak cukup fleksibel untuk memungkinkan komposisi untuk bergerak melalui lebih dari hanya beberapa. banyak kunci [46]
  • The 15 Inventions and 15 Sinfonias (BWV 772–801). The 15 Penemuan dan 15 Sinfonias (BWV 772-801). These short two- and three-part contrapuntal works are arranged in the same chromatic order as the Well-Tempered Clavier, omitting some of the less used keys. Kedua pendek dan tiga-bagian karya kontrapungtal disusun dalam urutan yang berwarna sama dengan Well-Tempered Clavier, menghilangkan beberapa tombol yang digunakan kurang. The pieces were intended by Bach for instructional purposes. Potongan-potongan tersebut dimaksudkan oleh Bach untuk tujuan pembelajaran.
  • Three collections of dance suites : the English Suites (BWV 806–811) , the French Suites (BWV 812–817) and the Partitas for keyboard (BWV 825–830). Tiga koleksi suite tari : ini Suites Inggris (BWV 806-811) , yang Suites Perancis (BWV 812-817) dan Partitas untuk keyboard (BWV 825-830). Each collection contains six suites built on the standard model ( AllemandeCouranteSarabande –(optional movement)– Gigue ). Setiap koleksi berisi enam suite yang dibangun pada model standar ( Allemande - Courante - Sarabande - (gerakan opsional) - Gigue ). The English Suites closely follow the traditional model, adding a prelude before the allemande and including a single movement between the sarabande and the gigue. Suites Inggris erat mengikuti model tradisional, menambahkan awal sebelum allemande dan termasuk gerakan tunggal antara sarabande dan gigue. The French Suites omit preludes, but have multiple movements between the sarabande and the gigue. Suites Prancis menghilangkan Prelude, tetapi memiliki beberapa gerakan antara sarabande dan gigue. The partitas expand the model further with elaborate introductory movements and miscellaneous movements between the basic elements of the model. Para partitas memperluas model lebih lanjut dengan gerakan pengantar rumit dan gerakan lain-lain antara unsur-unsur dasar model.
  • The Goldberg Variations (BWV 988), an aria with thirty variations . The Goldberg Variasi (BWV 988), sebuah aria dengan tiga puluh variasi . The collection has a complex and unconventional structure: the variations build on the bass line of the aria, rather than its melody, and musical canons are interpolated according to a grand plan. Koleksi ini memiliki struktur yang kompleks dan tidak konvensional: variasi membangun line bass dari aria, daripada melodi, dan musik kanon yang diinterpolasi berdasarkan suatu rencana besar. There are nine canons within the 30 variations, one placed every three variations between variations 3 and 27. Ada sembilan kanon dalam 30 variasi, satu ditempatkan setiap tiga variasi antara variasi 3 dan 27. These variations move in order from canon at the unison to canon at the ninth. Variasi ini bergerak dalam urutan dari kanon di serempak untuk kanon di kesembilan. The first eight are in pairs (unison and octave, second and seventh, third and sixth, fourth and fifth). Yang pertama delapan berpasangan (serempak dan oktaf, kedua dan ketujuh, ketiga dan keenam, keempat dan kelima). The ninth canon stands on its own due to compositional dissimilarities. Kanon kesembilan berdiri di dissimilarities sendiri komposisi karena.
  • Miscellaneous pieces such as the Overture in the French Style ( French Overture , BWV 831), Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue (BWV 903), and the Italian Concerto (BWV 971) . Miscellaneous potongan seperti Overture di Gaya Perancis (Perancis Overture, BWV 831), Chromatic Fantasia dan Fugue (BWV 903), dan Italia Concerto (BWV 971) .
Among Bach's lesser known keyboard works are seven toccatas (BWV 910–916), four duets (BWV 802–805) , sonatas for keyboard (BWV 963–967), the Six Little Preludes (BWV 933–938), and the Aria variata alla maniera italiana (BWV 989). Diantara kurang dikenal karya-karya Bach keyboard tujuh toccatas (BWV 910-916), empat duet (BWV 802-805) , sonata untuk keyboard (BWV 963-967), Enam Little Prelude (BWV 933-938), dan Aria variata alla maniera Italiana (BWV 989).

Orchestral and chamber music Orkestra dan musik kamar

Bach wrote music for single instruments, duets and small ensembles. Bach menulis musik untuk instrumen tunggal, duet dan ansambel kecil. Bach's works for solo instruments—the six sonatas and partitas for violin (BWV 1001–1006), the six cello suites (BWV 1007–1012) and the Partita for solo flute ( BWV 1013 )—may be listed among the most profound works in the repertoire. Bach-karya untuk instrumen solo-enam sonata dan partitas untuk biola (BWV 1001-1006), enam cello suite (BWV 1007-1012) dan Partita untuk flute solo ( BWV 1013 )-mungkin terdaftar di antara karya yang paling mendalam dalam repertoar. Bach composed a suite and several other works for solo lute. Bach menyusun sebuah suite dan beberapa karya lain kecapi solo. He wrote trio sonatas ; solo sonatas (accompanied by continuo ) for the flute and for the viola da gamba ; and a large number of canons and ricercare , mostly for unspecified instrumentation. Dia menulis sonata trio ; solo sonata (disertai continuo ) untuk suling dan untuk da Gamba biola , dan sejumlah besar kanon dan ricercare , kebanyakan untuk instrumentasi yang tidak ditentukan. The most significant examples of the latter are contained in The Art of Fugue and The Musical Offering . Contoh yang signifikan sebagian besar terakhir yang terkandung dalam The Art of Fugue dan The Penawaran Musical .
Bach's best-known orchestral works are the Brandenburg concertos , so named because he submitted them in the hope of gaining employment from Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt in 1721; his application was unsuccessful. dikenal orkestra terbaik-karya Bach adalah Brandenburg concerto , dinamakan demikian karena ia menyerahkan mereka dengan harapan mendapatkan pekerjaan dari Margrave Christian Ludwig dari Brandenburg-Schwedt di 1721; aplikasi nya tidak berhasil. These works are examples of the concerto grosso genre. Karya-karya ini adalah contoh dari concerto grosso genre. Other surviving works in the concerto form include two violin concertos ( BWV 1041 and BWV 1042 ); a Concerto for Two Violins in D Minor ( BWV 1043 ), often referred to as Bach's "double" concerto; and concertos for one, two, three and even four harpsichords . bekerja hidup lainnya dalam concerto bentuk termasuk concerto biola dua ( BWV 1041 dan BWV 1042 ), sebuah Concerto untuk Dua Violins dalam D Minor ( BWV 1043 ), sering disebut sebagai "konserto Bach" ganda, dan concerto untuk satu dua, tiga dan bahkan empat harpsichord . It is widely accepted that many of the harpsichord concertos were not original works, but arrangements of his concertos for other instruments now lost. Sudah diterima secara luas bahwa banyak concerto piano kuno itu tidak bekerja asli, tetapi pengaturan dari concerto nya untuk instrumen lainnya sekarang hilang. A number of violin, oboe and flute concertos have been reconstructed from these. Sejumlah biola, oboe dan flute concerto telah direkonstruksi dari ini. In addition to concertos, Bach wrote four orchestral suites , a series of stylised dances for orchestra, each preceded by a French overture . Selain concerto, Bach menulis empat suite orkestra , serangkaian tarian bergaya untuk orkestra, masing-masing diawali dengan pembukaan Perancis . The work now known as the Air on the G String is an arrangement for the violin made in the nineteenth century from the second movement of the Orchestral Suite No. 3. Karya yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Air di G String adalah suatu pengaturan untuk biola yang dibuat pada abad kesembilan belas dari gerakan kedua Suite Orkestra No 3. An arrangement of the Air for cello and piano was the very first piece of Bach's music to be recorded, in 1902 in Saint Petersburg , by the Russian cellist Aleksandr Verzhbilovich . Suatu pengaturan Air untuk cello dan piano adalah yang pertama bagian yang sangat organisasi-musik Bach untuk direkam, pada tahun 1902 di Saint Petersburg , oleh pemain cello Rusia Aleksandr Verzhbilovich .

Vocal and choral works Vokal dan karya paduan suara

Bach performed a cantata on Sunday at the Thomaskirche , on a theme corresponding to the lectionary readings of the week, as determined by the Lutheran Church Year calendar. Bach melakukan kantata pada hari Minggu di Thomaskirche , pada tema yang sesuai dengan lectionary bacaan minggu ini, sebagaimana ditentukan oleh kalender Tahun Gereja Lutheran. He did not perform cantatas during the seasons of Lent and Advent. Dia tidak melakukan cantatas selama musim Prapaskah dan Adven. Although he performed cantatas by other composers, he composed at least three entire sets of cantatas, one for each Sunday and holiday of the church year, at Leipzig, in addition to those composed at Mühlhausen and Weimar. Meskipun ia dilakukan cantatas oleh komposer lain, ia terdiri setidaknya tiga set seluruh cantatas, satu untuk setiap hari Minggu dan hari libur tahun gereja, di Leipzig, selain mereka terdiri di Mühlhausen dan Weimar. In total he wrote more than 300 sacred cantatas, of which approximately 195 survive. Secara total ia menulis lebih dari 300 cantatas suci, dimana sekitar 195 bertahan hidup.
His cantatas vary greatly in form and instrumentation. cantatas Nya sangat bervariasi dalam bentuk dan instrumentasi. Some of them are only for a solo singer; some are single choruses; some are for grand orchestras; some only a few instruments. Beberapa dari mereka hanya untuk penyanyi solo, beberapa paduan suara tunggal, beberapa adalah untuk orkestra grand, beberapa hanya beberapa instrumen. A common format consists of a large opening chorus followed by one or more recitative-aria pairs for soloists (or duets) and a concluding chorale . Sebuah format umum terdiri dari sebuah paduan suara pembukaan besar diikuti oleh satu atau lebih-aria pasang recitative untuk solois (atau duet) dan menyimpulkan nyanyian untuk paduan suara . The recitative is part of the corresponding Bible reading for the week and the aria is a contemporary reflection on it. The recitative merupakan bagian dari membaca Alkitab yang sesuai untuk seminggu dan aria adalah refleksi kontemporer di atasnya. The melody of the concluding chorale often appears as a cantus firmus in the opening movement. Melodi dari nyanyian untuk paduan suara penutup sering muncul sebagai firmus nyanyian dalam gerakan pembukaan. Among the best known cantatas are Christ lag in Todesbanden, BWV 4 , Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 21 , Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BWV 80 , Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit, BWV 106 ( Actus Tragicus ), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 and Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 . Di antara cantatas dikenal terbaik Kristus tertinggal di Todesbanden, BWV 4 , Ich hatte Bekümmernis Viel, BWV 21 , Ein feste Burg ist Unser Gott, BWV 80 , Gottes Zeit ist die Zeit allerbeste, BWV 106 (actus Tragicus), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 dan Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 .
In addition, Bach wrote a number of secular cantatas, usually for civic events such as council inaugurations. Selain itu, Bach menulis sejumlah cantatas sekuler, biasanya untuk acara sipil seperti inaugurations dewan. These include wedding cantatas, the Wedding Quodlibet , the Peasant Cantata and the Coffee Cantata , which concerns a girl whose father will not let her marry until she gives up her addiction to that extremely popular drink. Ini termasuk cantatas pernikahan, Wedding Quodlibet , yang Cantata Petani dan Cantata Kopi , yang menyangkut seorang gadis yang ayahnya tidak akan membiarkan dia menikah sampai dia menyerah dia kecanduan minuman yang sangat populer.
Bach's large choral-orchestral works include the grand scale St Matthew Passion and St John Passion , both written for Good Friday vespers services at St. Thomas and St. Nicholas Churches in alternate years, and the Christmas Oratorio (a set of six cantatas for use in the Liturgical season of Christmas). besar paduan suara's-orkestra karya Bach meliputi skala besar St Matthew Passion dan St John Passion, baik yang ditulis untuk kebaktian malam Jumat baik layanan di St Thomas dan St Nicholas Gereja-gereja di tahun alternatif, dan Oratorio Natal (satu set enam cantatas untuk penggunaan di musim Liturgi Natal). The Magnificat in two versions (one in E-flat major, with four interpolated Christmas-related movements, and the later and better-known version in D major), the Easter Oratorio , and the Ascension Oratorio compare to large, elaborate cantatas, of a lesser extent than the Passions and the Christmas Oratorio. The Magnificat dalam dua versi (satu di E-rata besar, dengan empat gerakan Natal terkait interpolasi, dan terkenal dan lebih baik versi kemudian di D besar), yang Oratorio Paskah , dan Kenaikan Oratorio dibandingkan dengan besar, cantatas rumit, dari tingkat yang lebih kecil daripada Passions dan Oratorio Natal.
Title page of the Calov Bible, with Bach's signature in the bottom right hand corner. Judul halaman dari Alkitab Calov, dengan tanda tangan Bach di sudut kanan bawah.
Bach's other large work, the Mass in B minor , was assembled by Bach near the end of his life, mostly from pieces composed earlier (such as cantata Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191 and Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 ). besar pekerjaan yang lain Bach, yang Misa dalam B minor , telah dirakit oleh Bach mendekati akhir hidupnya, sebagian besar dari potongan-potongan tersusun sebelumnya (seperti kantata Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191 dan Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 ) . It was never performed in Bach's lifetime, or even after his death, until the 19th century. Tidak pernah dilakukan dalam hidup Bach, atau bahkan setelah kematiannya, sampai abad ke-19.
All of these works, unlike the six motets ( Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied ; Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf ; Jesu, meine Freude ; Fürchte dich nicht ; Komm, Jesu, komm! ; and Lobet den Herrn alle Heiden ), have substantial solo parts as well as choruses. Semua karya, tidak seperti enam motets (Singet dem Herrn ein Neues Lied; Der Geist hilft auf Unser Schwachheit; Jesu, Meine Freude; Fürchte Dich nicht; Komm, Jesu, komm;! dan Lobet den Herrn alle Heiden), secara substansial solo bagian serta chorus.
Bach's signature in a copy of a three volume Bible commentary by the orthodox Lutheran theologian, Abraham Calov, was discovered in 1934 in a house in Frankenmuth, Michigan in the US. Bach tanda tangan dalam salinan komentar tiga volume Alkitab oleh teolog Lutheran ortodoks, Abraham Calov, ditemukan pada tahun 1934 di sebuah rumah di Frankenmuth, Michigan di Amerika Serikat. It is not known how the Bible came to America, but it was purchased in a used book store in Philadelphia in the 1830s or 1840s by an immigrant and taken to Michigan. Tidak diketahui bagaimana Alkitab datang ke Amerika, tapi itu dibeli di sebuah toko buku yang digunakan di Philadelphia pada tahun 1830-an atau 1840-an oleh seorang imigran dan dibawa ke Michigan. Its provenance was verified and it was subsequently deposited in the rare book holdings of Concordia Seminary in St. Its asalnya telah diverifikasi dan kemudian disimpan dalam kepemilikan buku langka Seminari Concordia di St Louis, Missouri . Louis, Missouri . It contains Bach's markings of texts for his cantatas and notes. Ini berisi tanda Bach teks untuk cantatas dan catatan. It is only rarely displayed to the public. Hanya jarang ditampilkan kepada publik. A study of the so-called Bach Bible was prepared by Robin Leaver, titled JS Bach and Scripture: Glosses from the Calov Bible Commentary (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1985). Sebuah studi tentang Alkitab Bach disebut disiapkan oleh Robin Leaver, berjudul JS Bach dan Kitab Suci: glosses dari Calov Bible Commentary (St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1985).

Performances Pertunjukan

Present-day Bach performers usually pursue either of two traditions: so-called " authentic performance practice", utilising historical techniques, or alternatively the use of modern instruments and playing techniques, with a tendency towards larger ensembles. Sekarang Bach penyanyi biasanya mengejar salah satu dari dua tradisi: apa yang disebut " kinerja otentik praktek ", menggunakan teknik historis, atau alternatif penggunaan instrumen modern dan teknik bermain, dengan kecenderungan ensemble yang lebih besar. In Bach's time orchestras and choirs were usually smaller than those known to, for example, Brahms , and even Bach's most ambitious choral works, such as his Mass in B minor and Passions, are composed for relatively modest forces. Pada saatnya orkestra dan paduan suara Bach biasanya lebih kecil dari yang dikenal, misalnya, Brahms , dan bahkan paduan suara yang paling ambisius karya Bach, seperti Misa dalam B minor dan Passions, terdiri atas pasukan yang relatif sederhana. Some of Bach's important chamber music does not indicate instrumentation, which gives greater latitude for variety of ensemble. Beberapa musik kamar penting Bach tidak menunjukkan instrumentasi, yang memberikan ruang yang lebih besar untuk berbagai ansambel.
Easy listening realisations of Bach's music and their use in advertising contributed greatly to Bach's popularisation in the second half of the twentieth century. Mudah mendengarkan realisasi's musik Bach dan penggunaannya dalam iklan memberikan kontribusi besar terhadap's popularisation Bach di paruh kedua abad kedua puluh. Among these were the Swingle Singers ' versions of Bach pieces that are now well-known (for instance, the Air on the G string , or the Wachet Auf chorale prelude) and Wendy Carlos 's 1968 groundbreaking recording Switched-On Bach , using the then recently invented Moog electronic synthesiser . Diantaranya adalah Swingle Singers 'versi potongan Bach yang sekarang terkenal (misalnya, Air pada string G , atau Auf nyanyian untuk paduan suara pendahuluan Wachet) dan Wendy Carlos 's 1968 rekaman terobosan Switched-On Bach , menggunakan kemudian baru-baru ini menemukan Moog synthesizer elektronik . Jazz musicians have adopted Bach's music, with Jacques Loussier , Ian Anderson , Uri Caine and the Modern Jazz Quartet among those creating jazz versions of Bach works. musisi Jazz telah mengadopsi's musik Bach, dengan Jacques Loussier , Ian Anderson , Uri Caine dan Modern Jazz Quartet di antara mereka versi jazz penciptaan karya Bach.

Legacy and modern reputation Warisan dan reputasi modern

Since being moved in 1938, the Donndorf statue of Bach now stands in the Frauenplan in Eisenach. Sejak pindah pada tahun 1938, Donndorf patung Bach sekarang berdiri di Frauenplan di Eisenach. The pedestal has been shortened and the relief is now at the wall in the background. alas ini telah diperpendek dan relief itu sekarang di dinding di latar belakang.
After his death, Bach's reputation as a composer declined; his work was regarded as old-fashioned in favour of the emerging classical style . [ 47 ] Initially he was remembered more as a player, teacher and as the father of his children, most notably Johann Christian and Carl Philipp Emanuel . Setelah kematiannya, reputasi Bach sebagai komposer menurun; karyanya dianggap sebagai kuno berpihak pada muncul gaya klasik . [47] Awalnya ia dikenang lebih sebagai guru, pemain dan sebagai ayah dari anak-anaknya, terutama Johann Christian dan Carl Philipp Emanuel . (Two other children, Wilhelm Friedmann and Johann Christoph Friedrich , were composers.) (Dua anak-anak lain, Wilhelm Friedmann dan Johann Christoph Friedrich , adalah komposer.)
During this time, his most widely known works were those for keyboard. Mozart , Beethoven , and Chopin were among his most prominent admirers. Selama waktu ini, paling banyak dikenal karya-karyanya adalah mereka untuk keyboard. Mozart , Beethoven , dan Chopin adalah di antara yang paling menonjol pengagumnya. On a visit to the Thomasschule, for example, Mozart heard a performance of one of the motets (BWV 225) and exclaimed "Now, here is something one can learn from!"; [ 48 ] on being given the motets' parts, "Mozart sat down, the parts all around him, held in both hands, on his knees, on the nearest chairs. Forgetting everything else, he did not stand up again until he had looked through all the music of Sebastian Bach". [ citation needed ] Beethoven was a devotee, learning the Well-Tempered Clavier as a child and later calling Bach the "Urvater der Harmonie" ("Original father of harmony") and, in a pun on the literal meaning of Bach's name, "nicht Bach, sondern Meer" ("not a brook, but a sea"). [ 49 ] Before performing a concert, Chopin used to lock himself away and play Bach's music. Pada kunjungan ke Thomasschule, misalnya, Mozart mendengar kinerja dari salah satu motets (BWV 225) dan berseru "Sekarang, di sini adalah sesuatu yang dapat belajar dari!"; [48] pada yang diberikan motets 'bagian itu, " Mozart duduk, bagian-bagian di sekelilingnya, diselenggarakan di kedua tangan, berlutut, di kursi terdekat,. Melupakan segala sesuatu yang lain dia tidak berdiri lagi sampai ia telah melihat melalui semua musik Sebastian Bach ". [ kutipan diperlukan ] Beethoven adalah hamba, belajar-Tempered Clavier Yah sebagai anak dan kemudian memanggil Bach yang "Urvater der Harmonie" ("Asli ayah dari harmoni") dan, dalam pun pada arti harfiah dari nama Bach, "nicht Bach, Meer sondern "(" tidak selokan, tetapi laut "). [49] Sebelum melakukan konser, Chopin digunakan untuk mengunci dirinya pergi dan drama musik Bach. Several notable composers, including Mozart, Beethoven, Robert Schumann , and Felix Mendelssohn began writing in a more contrapuntal style after being introduced to Bach's music. [ citation needed ] Beberapa komposer terkenal, termasuk Mozart, Beethoven, Robert Schumann , dan Felix Mendelssohn mulai menulis dalam gaya yang lebih kontrapungtal setelah diperkenalkan kepada's musik Bach. [ rujukan? ]
The revival of the composer's reputation among the wider public was prompted in part by Johann Nikolaus Forkel 's 1802 biography, Kebangkitan komposer reputasi di kalangan masyarakat yang lebih luas itu dipicu sebagian oleh Johann Nikolaus Forkel 's 1802 biografi,   which was read by Beethoven. Goethe became acquainted with Bach's works relatively late in life through a series of performances of keyboard and choral works at Bad Berka in 1814 and 1815; in a letter of 1827 he compared the experience of listening to Bach's music to "eternal harmony in dialogue with itself". [ 50 ] But it was Felix Mendelssohn who did the most to revive Bach's reputation with his 1829 Berlin performance of the St Matthew Passion . [ 51 ] Hegel , who attended the performance, later called Bach a "grand, truly Protestant, robust and, so to speak, erudite genius which we have only recently learned again to appreciate at its full value". [ 52 ] Mendelssohn's promotion of Bach, and the growth of the composer's stature, continued in subsequent years. dibacakan oleh Beethoven. yang Goethe berkenalan dengan Bach-karya relatif terlambat dalam hidup melalui serangkaian pertunjukan keyboard dan karya paduan suara di Bad Berka pada tahun 1814 dan 1815, dalam surat 1827 ia membandingkan pengalaman mendengarkan's musik Bach untuk " harmoni abadi dalam dialog dengan dirinya sendiri ". [50] Tapi ternyata Felix Mendelssohn yang melakukan paling untuk menghidupkan kembali reputasi Bach dengan kinerja Berlin 1829 dari St Matthew Passion. [51] Hegel , yang menghadiri kinerja, kemudian disebut Bach sebuah " grand, benar-benar Protestan, kuat dan, sehingga untuk berbicara, jenius ilmiah yang kita hanya baru-baru ini belajar lagi untuk menghargai nilai penuh ". [52] 's promosi Mendelssohn Bach, dan pertumbuhan komposer perawakannya, terus di tahun-tahun berikutnya. The Bach Gesellschaft (Bach Society) was founded in 1850 to promote the works; by 1899, the Society had published a comprehensive edition of the composer's works, with a conservative approach to editorial intervention. The Gesellschaft Bach (Bach Masyarakat) didirikan pada tahun 1850 untuk mempromosikan karya-karya; oleh 1899, Masyarakat telah menerbitkan edisi lengkap karya-karya komposer, dengan pendekatan konservatif untuk intervensi editorial.
Thereafter, Bach's reputation has remained consistently high. Setelah itu, reputasi Bach tetap konsisten tinggi. During the 20th century, the process of recognising the musical as well as the pedagogic value of some of the works has continued, perhaps most notably in the promotion of the Cello Suites by Pablo Casals . Selama abad ke-20, proses mengenali musik serta nilai pedagogik dari beberapa karya terus, mungkin terutama dalam promosi dari Cello Suites oleh Pablo Casals . Another development has been the growth of the "authentic" or period performance movement, which, as far as possible, attempts to present the music as the composer intended it. Pengembangan lainnya telah menjadi pertumbuhan "otentik" atau kinerja masa gerakan, yang sejauh mungkin, mencoba untuk menyajikan musik sebagai komposer yang dimaksudkan itu. Examples include the playing of keyboard works on the harpsichord rather than a modern grand piano and the use of small choirs or single voices instead of the larger forces favoured by 19th- and early 20th-century performers. Contohnya termasuk bermain karya keyboard pada harpsichord daripada yang modern grand piano dan penggunaan paduan suara kecil atau suara tunggal, bukan kekuatan yang lebih besar disukai oleh abad ke-20 penyanyi dan awal 19.
Bach's contributions to music—or, to borrow a term popularised by his student Lorenz Christoph Mizler , his "musical science"—are frequently bracketed with those by William Shakespeare in English literature and Isaac Newton in physics. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] Scientist and author Lewis Thomas once suggested how the people of Earth should communicate with the universe: "I would vote for Bach, all of Bach, streamed out into space, over and over again. We would be bragging, of course, but it is surely excusable to put the best possible face on at the beginning of such an acquaintance. We can tell the harder truths later." [ 55 ] Teman kontribusi Bach untuk musik-atau, meminjam istilah yang dipopulerkan oleh muridnya Lorenz Christoph Mizler , "nya musik" ilmu-sering tanda kurung dengan yang oleh William Shakespeare dalam literatur bahasa Inggris dan Isaac Newton dalam fisika. [53] [54] Scientist dan penulis Lewis Thomas pernah mengatakan bagaimana orang Bumi harus berkomunikasi dengan alam semesta: "Aku akan memilih Bach, semua Bach, mengalir keluar ke angkasa, lagi dan lagi dimaafkan. Kami akan membual, tentu saja, tapi itu pasti untuk menempatkan wajah yang mungkin terbaik di di awal seperti seorang kenalan.. Kita dapat mengatakan sulit kebenaran nanti " [55]
Street named after Johann Sebastian Bach in Wittenberg , Germany Street dinamai Johann Sebastian Bach di Wittenberg , Jerman
Some composers have paid tribute to Bach by setting his name in musical notes (B-flat, A, C, B-natural; B-natural is notated as "H" in German musical texts, while B-flat is just "B") or using contrapuntal derivatives. Liszt , for example, wrote a prelude and fugue on this BACH motif in versions for organ and piano). Beberapa komposer telah membayar upeti kepada Bach dengan menetapkan namanya dalam catatan musik (B-flat, A, C, B-alam; B-alam adalah dinotasikan sebagai "H" dalam teks-teks musik Jerman, sedangkan B-rata hanya "B" ) atau menggunakan turunan kontrapungtal. Liszt , misalnya, menulis pendahuluan dan fuga pada motif Bach dalam versi untuk organ dan piano). Bach himself set the precedent for this musical acronym, most notably in the final unfinished fugue from Art of Fugue , where it might be interpreted as a signature. Bach sendiri preseden untuk ini singkatan musik, terutama di fuga yang belum selesai akhir dari Art of Fugue , mana bisa diartikan sebagai tanda tangan. While Bach might have conceived this cruciform melody (among other similar ones) as a religious symbol of Christ and the cross [ citation needed ] , later composers have employed the BACH motif as a secular homage to the composer himself. Sementara Bach mungkin orang menganggap ini salib melodi (antara yang serupa lainnya) sebagai simbol agama Kristus dan [lintas rujukan? ], kemudian komponis telah mempekerjakan motif Bach sebagai penghormatan sekuler untuk komposer sendiri. Examples include Beethoven 's Diabelli Variations , Shostakovich 's Preludes and Fugues , Arthur Honegger 's Prelude, Arioso and Fughetta on the name BACH , and Brahms 's Cello Sonata in E , whose finale is based on themes from the Art of Fugue in general. Contohnya termasuk Beethoven 's Diabelli Variasi , Shostakovich 's Prelude dan Fugues , Arthur Honegger 's Prelude, Arioso dan Fughetta pada nama Bach, dan Brahms 's Cello Sonata di E , yang finale berdasarkan tema dari Art of Fugue dalam umum. Another work explicitly influenced by Bach is Villa-Lobos 's Bachianas Brasileiras . Karya lain secara eksplisit dipengaruhi oleh Bach adalah Villa-Lobos 's Bachianas Brasileiras .

Veneration Pemujaan

Bach is commemorated as a musician in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 28 July. Bach diperingati sebagai musikus di Kalender Orang-orang Suci dari Gereja Lutheran pada tanggal 28 Juli.
He is honored together with George Frideric Handel and Henry Purcell with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on 28 July. Dia dihormati bersama dengan George Frideric Handel dan Henry Purcell dengan hari raya di kalender liturgi Gereja Episkopal (AS) pada tanggal 28 Juli.

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