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Tuesday, 14 December 2010

JAZZ

Jazz adalah gaya musik yang berasal pada awal abad ke-20 di African American komunitas di Amerika Serikat Selatan dari pertemuan tradisi musik Eropa dan Afrika. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th century American popular music . [ 1 ] Its West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes , improvisation , polyrhythms , syncopation , and the swung note . [ 2 ] Dari pengembangan awal sampai jazz, kini telah memasukkan musik dari dan ke-20 abad ke-19 yang populer musik Amerika . [1] Afrika Barat silsilah adalah jelas dalam penggunaan catatan biru , improvisasi , polyrhythms , sinkopasi , dan catatan mengayunkan . [2 ]
The word "jazz" (in early years also spelled "jass") began as a West Coast slang term and was first used to refer to music in Chicago in about 1915. Ini kata "jazz" (dalam tahun-tahun awal juga dieja "Jass") dimulai sebagai Pantai Barat istilah slang dan pertama kali digunakan untuk merujuk kepada musik di Chicago sekitar tahun 1915.
From its beginnings in the early 20th century jazz has spawned a variety of subgenres: New Orleans Dixieland dating from the early 1910s, big band -style swing from the 1930s and 1940s, bebop from the mid-1940s, a variety of Latin jazz fusions such as Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz , free jazz from the 1950s and 1960s, jazz fusion from the 1970s, acid jazz from the 1980s (which added funk and hip-hop influences), and Nujazz in the 1990s. Dari permulaannya di abad ke 20 jazz awal telah melahirkan berbagai subgenre: New Orleans Dixieland berasal dari awal 1910-an, band besar gaya ayunan dari tahun 1930-an dan 1940-an, bebop dari pertengahan tahun 1940, berbagai jazz Latin fusi seperti sebagai Afro-Kuba dan Brasil jazz , free jazz dari tahun 1950-an dan 1960-an, jazz fusion dari tahun 1970-an, asam jazz dari 1980 (yang ditambahkan funk dan hip-hop pengaruh), dan Nujazz pada 1990-an. As the music has spread around the world it has drawn on local national and regional musical cultures, its aesthetics being adapted to its varied environments and giving rise to many distinctive styles. Ketika musik telah menyebar di seluruh dunia telah ditarik pada budaya lokal musik nasional dan regional, estetika yang disesuaikan dengan lingkungan yang bervariasi dan menimbulkan gaya yang khas banyak.

Contents Isi

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[ edit ] Definition [ sunting ] Definisi

Jazz can be very hard to define because it spans from Ragtime waltzes to 2000s-era fusion. Jazz bisa sangat sulit untuk menentukan karena membentang dari ragtime waltz ke-era fusion tahun 2000-an. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions—using the point of view of European music history or African music for example—but jazz critic Joachim Berendt argues that all such attempts are unsatisfactory. [ 3 ] One way to get around the definitional problems is to define the term "jazz" more broadly. Upaya-upaya telah dilakukan untuk mendefinisikan jazz dari perspektif tradisi musik lainnya dengan menggunakan sudut pandang sejarah musik Eropa atau musik Afrika misalnya-tapi jazz kritikus Joachim Berendt berpendapat bahwa semua upaya tersebut tidak memuaskan. [3] Salah satu cara untuk mendapatkan sekitar masalah definisi adalah untuk mendefinisikan "jazz" istilah yang lebih luas. Berendt defines jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of blacks with European music"; he argues that jazz differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time, defined as ' swing '", "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role"; and "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". [ 3 ] Berendt mendefinisikan jazz sebagai "bentuk seni musik yang berasal di Amerika Serikat melalui konfrontasi kulit hitam dengan musik Eropa", ia berpendapat jazz yang berbeda dari musik Eropa dalam jazz yang memiliki hubungan khusus "ke waktu, didefinisikan sebagai ' ayunan ' "," sebuah spontanitas dan vitalitas produksi musik di mana improvisasi memainkan peran ", dan" kemerduan dan cara kalimat yang cermin individualitas dari musisi jazz melakukan ". [3]
Double bassist Reggie Workman , tenor saxophone player Pharoah Sanders , and drummer Idris Muhammad performing in 1978 Double bassis Reggie Workman , pemain saksofon tenor Firaun Sanders , dan drummer Idris Muhammad tampil pada tahun 1978
Travis Jackson has also proposed a broader definition of jazz which is able to encompass all of the radically different eras: he states that it is music that includes qualities such as "swinging", improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being 'open' to different musical possibilities". [ 4 ] Krin Gabbard claims that “jazz is a construct” or category that, while artificial, still is useful to designate “a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition”. [ 5 ] Travis Jackson juga mengusulkan definisi yang lebih luas jazz yang mampu mencakup semua era sangat berbeda: ia menyatakan bahwa itu adalah musik yang mencakup kualitas seperti "mengayunkan", improvisasi, interaksi kelompok, mengembangkan 'suara individu, dan menjadi 'terbuka' untuk kemungkinan musik yang berbeda ". [4] Krin Gabbard mengklaim bahwa "jazz adalah membangun" atau kategori itu, sementara buatan, masih berguna untuk menunjuk "sejumlah musik dengan cukup umum dipahami sebagai bagian dari sebuah tradisi yang koheren ". [5]
While jazz may be difficult to define, improvisation is clearly one of its key elements. Sementara jazz mungkin sulit untuk mendefinisikan, improvisasi jelas salah satu elemen kunci. Early blues was commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, a common element in the African American oral tradition. Awal blues itu umumnya terstruktur sekitar berulang panggilan-dan-respons pola, elemen umum di Afrika Amerika tradisi lisan. A form of folk music which rose in part from work songs and field hollers of rural Blacks, early blues was also highly improvisational. Suatu bentuk musik rakyat yang naik sebagian dari lagu lapangan kerja dan berteriak Hitam pedesaan, blues awal juga sangat improvisasi. These features are fundamental to the nature of jazz. Fitur-fitur yang mendasar dengan sifat jazz. While in European classical music elements of interpretation, ornamentation and accompaniment are sometimes left to the performer's discretion, the performer's primary goal is to play a composition as it was written. Sementara di Eropa musik klasik unsur interpretasi, ornamen dan pendampingan kadang-kadang kiri ke pemain's kebijaksanaan, itu tujuan utama pelaku adalah untuk bermain komposisi seperti yang tertulis.
In jazz, however, the skilled performer will interpret a tune in very individual ways, never playing the same composition exactly the same way twice. Dalam jazz, Namun, pemain terampil akan menafsirkan sebuah lagu dengan cara yang sangat individu, tidak pernah memainkan komposisi yang sama persis dengan cara yang sama dua kali. Depending upon the performer's mood and personal experience, interactions with fellow musicians, or even members of the audience, a jazz musician/performer may alter melodies, harmonies or time signature at will. Tergantung pada mood pemain dan pengalaman pribadi, interaksi dengan sesama musisi, atau bahkan anggota penonton, seorang musisi jazz / pemain dapat mengubah melodi, harmoni atau tanda tangan waktu akan. The jazz soloist is supported by a rhythm section who "comp", by playing chords and rhythms that outline the song structure and complement the soloist. [ 6 ] European classical music has been said to be a composer's medium. The solis jazz ini didukung oleh rhythm section yang "comp", oleh chords bermain dan ritme yang menguraikan struktur lagu dan melengkapi pemain solo. [6] musik klasik Eropa telah dikatakan komposer media. Jazz, however, is often characterized as the product of egalitarian creativity, interaction and collaboration, placing equal value on the contributions of composer and performer, 'adroitly weigh[ing] the respective claims of the composer and the improviser'. [ 7 ] Jazz, bagaimanapun, adalah sering dicirikan sebagai produk dari interaksi egaliter kreativitas, dan kolaborasi, menempatkan nilai yang sama pada kontribusi dari komposer dan pemain, 'tangkas menimbang [ing] klaim masing-masing dari komposer dan improvisasi '. [7]
In New Orleans and Dixieland jazz, performers took turns playing the melody, while others improvised countermelodies. Di New Orleans dan Dixieland jazz, artis bergantian bermain melodi, sementara yang lain improvisasi countermelodies. By the swing era, big bands were coming to rely more on arranged music: arrangements were either written or learned by ear and memorized—many early jazz performers could not read music. Dengan ayunan era, band besar datang untuk lebih mengandalkan musik diatur: pengaturan entah ditulis atau dipelajari oleh telinga dan hafal-banyak penyanyi jazz awal tidak bisa membaca musik. Individual soloists would improvise within these arrangements. solois individu akan berimprovisasi dalam pengaturan ini. Later, in bebop the focus shifted back towards small groups and minimal arrangements; the melody (known as the "head") would be stated briefly at the start and end of a piece but the core of the performance would be the series of improvisations in the middle. Kemudian, di bebop fokus bergeser kembali ke arah kelompok-kelompok kecil dan pengaturan minimal; melodi (dikenal sebagai "kepala") akan dinyatakan secara singkat pada awal dan akhir sepotong tetapi inti dari kinerja akan menjadi serangkaian improvisasi di tengah. Later styles of jazz such as modal jazz abandoned the strict notion of a chord progression , allowing the individual musicians to improvise even more freely within the context of a given scale or mode. [ 8 ] The avant-garde and free jazz idioms permit, even call for, abandoning chords, scales, and rhythmic meters. Kemudian gaya jazz seperti modal jazz meninggalkan gagasan ketat dari akor , yang memungkinkan para musisi individu untuk berimprovisasi bahkan lebih leluasa dalam konteks skala tertentu atau mode. [8] The avant-garde dan free jazz idiom izin, bahkan memanggil, meninggalkan chords, timbangan, dan meter berirama.

[ edit ] Debates [ sunting ] Debat

There have long been debates in the jazz community over the definition and the boundaries of “jazz”. Ada telah lama perdebatan di komunitas jazz atas definisi dan batas-batas "jazz". Although alteration or transformation of jazz by new influences has often been initially criticized as a “debasement,” Andrew Gilbert argues that jazz has the “ability to absorb and transform influences” from diverse musical styles. [ 9 ] While some enthusiasts of certain types of jazz have argued for narrower definitions which exclude many other types of music also commonly known as "jazz", jazz musicians themselves are often reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington summed it up by saying, "It's all music." [ 10 ] Some critics have even stated that Ellington's music was not jazz because it was arranged and orchestrated. [ 11 ] On the other hand Ellington's friend Earl Hines 's twenty solo "transformative versions" of Ellington compositions (on Earl Hines Plays Duke Ellington recorded in the 1970s) were described by Ben Ratliff, the New York Times jazz critic, as "as good an example of the jazz process as anything out there." [ 12 ] Meskipun perubahan atau transformasi jazz dengan pengaruh baru telah sering awalnya dikritik sebagai "kehinaan," Gilbert berpendapat Andrew jazz yang memiliki "kemampuan untuk menyerap dan mengubah pengaruh" dari gaya musik yang beragam. [9] Sementara beberapa penggemar jenis tertentu jazz berpendapat untuk definisi sempit yang mengecualikan banyak jenis musik juga dikenal sebagai "jazz", musisi jazz sendiri sering enggan untuk mendefinisikan musik yang mereka mainkan. Duke Ellington menyimpulkan itu dengan mengatakan, "Ini semua musik." [10 ] Beberapa kritikus bahkan menyatakan bahwa itu musik Ellington tidak jazz karena diatur dan diatur. [11] Di sisi lain teman Ellington Earl Hines 's dua puluh solo "versi transformatif" dari komposisi Ellington (di Earl Hines Dimainkan Duke Ellington dicatat dalam 1970-an) yang digambarkan oleh Ben Ratliff, New York Times kritikus jazz, sebagai "baik contoh sebagai proses jazz sebagai sesuatu di luar sana." [12]
Commercially oriented or popular music-influenced forms of jazz have both long been criticized, at least since the emergence of Bop. Berorientasi komersial atau populer musik-bentuk dipengaruhi jazz memiliki keduanya lama dikritik, setidaknya sejak munculnya Bop. Traditional jazz enthusiasts have dismissed Bop, the 1970s jazz fusion era [and much else] as a period of commercial debasement of the music. penggemar jazz tradisional telah diberhentikan Bop, jazz fusion tahun 1970-an era [dan banyak hal lain] sebagai periode kehinaan komersial musik. According to Bruce Johnson, jazz music has always had a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form". [ 4 ] Gilbert notes that as the notion of a canon of jazz is developing, the “achievements of the past” may become "...privileged over the idiosyncratic creativity...” and innovation of current artists. Village Voice jazz critic Gary Giddins argues that as the creation and dissemination of jazz is becoming increasingly institutionalized and dominated by major entertainment firms, jazz is facing a "...perilous future of respectability and disinterested acceptance." David Ake warns that the creation of “norms” in jazz and the establishment of a “jazz tradition” may exclude or sideline other newer, avant-garde forms of jazz. [ 4 ] Menurut Bruce Johnson, musik jazz selalu memiliki "ketegangan antara jazz sebagai musik komersial dan suatu bentuk seni". [4] Gilbert mencatat bahwa sebagai gagasan tentang kanon jazz adalah berkembang, "prestasi masa lalu" mungkin menjadi "... istimewa atas kreativitas istimewa ..." dan inovasi seniman saat ini. Village Voice kritikus jazz Gary Giddins berpendapat bahwa sebagai ciptaan dan penyebarluasan jazz menjadi semakin dilembagakan dan didominasi oleh perusahaan-perusahaan hiburan utama, jazz sedang menghadapi "berbahaya masa depan ... yang bisa dihormati dan penerimaan tertarik." Ake memperingatkan Daud bahwa penciptaan "norma" dalam jazz dan pembentukan sebuah "tradisi jazz" dapat mengecualikan atau sampingan lainnya yang lebih baru, avant-garde bentuk jazz. [4 ]

[ edit ] Etymology of "Jazz" [ sunting ] Etimologi dari "Jazz"

The origin of the word jazz is one of the most sought-after word origins in modern American English . [ citation needed ] The word's intrinsic interest—the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century —has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well-documented. Asal jazz kata salah satu yang paling dicari asal-usul kata dalam modern bahasa Inggris Amerika [. rujukan yang's intrinsik bunga] Kata-the American Dialek Masyarakat menamakannya dengan Firman Twentieth Century -telah menghasilkan penelitian yang cukup besar, dan sejarahnya dengan baik didokumentasikan. The word began as West Coast slang around 1912, the meaning of which varied but did not refer to music or sex. Kata dimulai sebagai Pantai Barat gaul sekitar tahun 1912, makna yang bervariasi tetapi tidak merujuk pada musik atau seks. It came to refer to the music in Chicago around 1915. Ia datang untuk merujuk pada musik di Chicago sekitar tahun 1915. The music was played in New Orleans prior to that time but was not referred to by that name. Musik dimainkan di New Orleans sebelum waktu itu, tapi tidak disebut dengan nama itu.
The word jazz makes one of its earliest appearances in San Francisco baseball writing in 1913. [ 13 ] Jazz was introduced to San Francisco in 1913 by William (Spike) Slattery, sports editor of the Call , and propagated by a band-leader named Art Hickman. Para jazz Kata membuat salah satu awal penampilan dalam bisbol San Francisco menulis pada tahun 1913. [13] Jazz diperkenalkan ke San Francisco pada tahun 1913 oleh William (Spike) Slattery, olahraga Call editor, dan disebarkan oleh pemimpin-band bernama Seni Hickman. It reached Chicago by 1915 but was not heard of in New York until a year later. [ 14 ] One of the first known uses of the word appears in a March 3, 1913, baseball article in the San Francisco Bulletin by ET "Scoop" Gleeson. [ 15 ] Mencapai Chicago dengan 1915 namun tidak mendengar di New York sampai setahun kemudian. [14] Salah satu kegunaan yang dikenal pertama kata muncul di, 1913, bisbol pasal 3 Maret di San Francisco Bulletin oleh ET "Scoop" Gleeson. [15]

[ edit ] Origins [ sunting ] Asal-usul

In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation , African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion. Dalam lukisan abad ke-18 akhir The Old Perkebunan , Afrika-Amerika tari untuk banjo dan perkusi.
By 1808 the Atlantic slave trade had brought almost half a million Africans to the United States. Dengan 1808 dari perdagangan budak Atlantik telah membawa hampir setengah juta orang Afrika ke Amerika Serikat. The slaves largely came from West Africa and brought strong tribal musical traditions with them. [ 16 ] Lavish festivals featuring African dances to drums were organized on Sundays at Place Congo , or Congo Square , in New Orleans until 1843, as were similar gatherings in New England and New York . Budak-budak sebagian besar berasal dari Afrika Barat dan dibawa suku tradisi musik yang kuat dengan mereka. [16] festival mewah yang menampilkan tarian Afrika untuk drum yang diselenggarakan pada hari Minggu di Place Kongo, atau Kongo Square , di New Orleans sampai 1843, seperti juga pertemuan serupa di New Inggris dan New York . African music was largely functional, for work or ritual, and included work songs and field hollers . musik Afrika sebagian besar fungsional, untuk bekerja atau ritual, dan termasuk lagu kerja dan berteriak di lapangan . The African tradition made use of a single-line melody and call-and-response pattern, but without the European concept of harmony. Tradisi Afrika membuat penggunaan-line melodi tunggal dan panggilan-dan-respons pola, tetapi tanpa konsep Eropa harmoni. Rhythms reflected African speech patterns, and the African use of pentatonic scales led to blue notes in blues and jazz. [ 17 ] Irama tercermin pola pidato Afrika, dan penggunaan Afrika skala pentatonik menyebabkan catatan biru dalam blues dan jazz. [17]
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones . The Blackface Virginia penyanyi di tahun 1843, menampilkan rebana, biola dan banjo tulang .
In the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin , which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. Pada awal abad ke 19 peningkatan jumlah musisi hitam belajar memainkan alat Eropa, khususnya biola , yang mereka gunakan untuk Eropa musik dansa parodi dalam mereka sendiri cakewalk tarian. In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized such music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment. Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted African-American cakewalk music, South American, Caribbean and other slave melodies as piano salon music. Pada gilirannya, Eropa-Amerika menunjukkan penyanyi berprestasi di Blackface dipopulerkan musik seperti internasional, menggabungkan sinkopasi dengan iringan harmonik Eropa. Louis Moreau Gottschalk diadaptasi Amerika cakewalk musik-Afrika, Amerika Selatan, Karibia dan melodi budak lainnya sebagai salon musik piano. Another influence came from black slaves who had learned the harmonic style of hymns and incorporated it into their own music as spirituals . [ 18 ] The origins of the blues are undocumented, though they can be seen as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. Paul Oliver has drawn attention to similarities in instruments, music and social function to the griots of the West African savannah . [ 19 ] Pengaruh lainnya datang dari budak kulit hitam yang telah belajar gaya harmonik himne dan dimasukkan ke dalam musik mereka sendiri sebagai spiritual . [18] The blues asal-usul yang tidak berdokumen, meskipun mereka dapat dilihat sebagai mitra sekuler dari spiritual. Paul Oliver memiliki perhatian tertarik pada kesamaan dalam instrumen, musik dan fungsi sosial ke griots dari Afrika Barat savana . [19]

[ edit ] 1890s–1910s [ sunting ] 1890-an-1910-an

[ edit ] Ragtime [ sunting ] ragtime

Scott Joplin in 1907 Scott Joplin pada tahun 1907
The abolition of slavery led to new opportunities for the education of freed African-Americans. Penghapusan perbudakan menyebabkan peluang baru untuk pendidikan dibebaskan-Afrika Amerika. Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment. Meskipun segregasi ketat kesempatan kerja terbatas untuk sebagian besar orang kulit hitam, banyak yang bisa mendapatkan pekerjaan di dunia hiburan. Black musicians were able to provide "low-class" entertainment in dances, minstrel shows , and in vaudeville , by which many marching bands formed. musisi Black mampu memberikan "kelas rendah" hiburan di tarian, menunjukkan penyanyi , dan di vaudeville , di mana banyak marching band terbentuk. Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Black pianis bermain di bar, klub, dan pelacuran, seperti ragtime dikembangkan. [20] [21]
Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hogan , whose hit songs appeared in 1895; two years later Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo "Rag Time Medley". [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Also in 1897, the white composer William H. Krell published his "Mississippi Rag" as the first written piano instrumental ragtime piece, and Tom Turpin published his Harlem Rag, that was the first rag published by an African-American. Ragtime muncul sebagai lembaran musik, dipopulerkan oleh musisi Amerika Afrika seperti penghibur Ernest Hogan , lagu hit yang muncul pada tahun 1895, dua tahun kemudian Vess Ossman mencatat medley lagu-lagu sebagai banjo solo "Rag Time Medley". [22] [ 23] Juga pada tahun 1897, komposer putih William H. Krell menerbitkan bukunya "Mississippi Rag" sebagai instrumental piano ragtime ditulis potongan pertama, dan Tom Turpin menerbitkan bukunya Harlem Rag, itu adalah lap pertama kali diterbitkan oleh Afrika-Amerika. The classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his "Original Rags" in the following year, then in 1899 had an international hit with " Maple Leaf Rag ". Terlatih pianis klasik Scott Joplin dihasilkan nya "Original Rags" pada tahun berikutnya, kemudian pada tahun 1899 memiliki hit internasional dengan " Maple Leaf Rag ". He wrote numerous popular rags, including, " The Entertainer ", combining syncopation, banjo figurations and sometimes call-and-response, which led to the ragtime idiom being taken up by classical composers including Claude Debussy and Igor Stravinsky . Blues music was published and popularized by WC Handy , whose " Memphis Blues " of 1912 and " St. Louis Blues " of 1914 both became jazz standards . [ 19 ] Ia menulis banyak kain populer, termasuk, " The Entertainer ", menggabungkan sinkopasi, figurations banjo dan kadang-kadang panggilan-dan-respons, yang menyebabkan ungkapan ragtime yang diambil oleh komposer klasik termasuk Claude Debussy dan Igor Stravinsky . Blues musik diterbitkan dan dipopulerkan oleh WC Handy , yang " Memphis Blues "dari tahun 1912 dan" St Louis Blues "tahun 1914 kedua menjadi standar jazz . [19]

[ edit ] New Orleans music [ sunting ] New Orleans musik

The music of New Orleans had a profound effect on the creation of early jazz. Para musik dari New Orleans telah berpengaruh besar pada penciptaan jazz awal. Many early jazz performers played in venues throughout the city; the brothels and bars of the red-light district around Basin Street , called " Storyville ". [ 24 ] was only one of numerous neighborhoods relevant to the early days of New Orleans jazz. Banyak musisi jazz awal bermain di tempat-tempat di seluruh kota, rumah bordil dan bar dari distrik lampu merah di sekitar Cekungan Street , yang disebut " Storyville ". [24] hanya salah satu lingkungan banyak yang relevan dengan hari-hari awal New Orleans jazz. In addition to dance bands, numerous marching bands played at lavish funerals arranged by the African American and European American community. Selain tari band, marching band banyak bermain di pemakaman mewah diatur oleh orang Afrika Amerika dan masyarakat Amerika Eropa. The instruments used in marching bands and dance bands became the basic instruments of jazz: brass and reeds tuned in the European 12-tone scale and drums. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam marching band dan band tarian menjadi instrumen dasar jazz: kuningan dan buluh dicari dalam skala 12-nada Eropa dan drum. Small bands mixing self-taught and well educated African American musicians, many of whom came from the funeral-procession tradition of New Orleans , played a seminal role in the development and dissemination of early jazz, traveling throughout Black communities in the Deep South and, from around 1914 on, Afro-Creole and African American musicians playing in vaudeville shows took jazz to western and northern US cities. [ 25 ] band Kecil pencampuran otodidak dan berpendidikan musisi Amerika Afrika, banyak di antaranya berasal dari tradisi-prosesi pemakaman New Orleans , memainkan peran mani dalam pengembangan dan diseminasi jazz awal, perjalanan seluruh masyarakat Black di Deep South dan, dari sekitar 1914 pada, Afro-Creole dan musisi Amerika Afrika bermain di vaudeville menunjukkan membawa jazz ke utara kota di AS dan barat. [25]
The Bolden Band around 1905. The Bolden Band sekitar tahun 1905.
The cornetist Buddy Bolden led a band often mentioned as one of the prime movers of the style later to be called "jazz". The cornetist Buddy Bolden memimpin sebuah band sering disebut-sebut sebagai salah satu penggerak utama dari gaya kemudian disebut "jazz". He played in New Orleans around 1895–1906. Ia bermain di New Orleans sekitar 1895-1906. No recordings remain of Bolden. Tidak ada rekaman tetap dari Bolden. Several tunes from the Bolden band repertory, including "Buddy Bolden Blues", have been recorded by many other musicians. Beberapa lagu dari repertoar band Bolden, termasuk "Buddy Bolden Blues", telah dicatat oleh musisi lainnya. (Bolden became mentally ill and spent his later decades in a mental institution.) (Bolden menjadi sakit jiwa dan menghabiskan dekade kemudian di sebuah rumah sakit jiwa.)
Morton published "Jelly Roll Blues" in 1915, the first jazz work in print. Morton menerbitkan "Jelly Roll Blues" pada 1915, karya jazz pertama di cetak.
Afro-Creole pianist Jelly Roll Morton began his career in Storyville. Afro-Kreol pianis Jelly Roll Morton memulai karirnya di Storyville. From 1904, he toured with vaudeville shows around southern cities, also playing in Chicago and New York . Dari tahun 1904, ia melakukan tur dengan vaudeville menunjukkan sekitar kota selatan, juga bermain di Chicago dan New York . His " Jelly Roll Blues ", which he composed around 1905, was published in 1915 as the first jazz arrangement in print, introducing more musicians to the New Orleans style. [ 26 ] In the northeastern United States, a "hot" style of playing ragtime had developed, notably James Reese Europe 's symphonic Clef Club orchestra in New York which played a benefit concert at Carnegie Hall in 1912. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The Baltimore rag style of Eubie Blake influenced James P. Johnson 's development of " Stride " piano playing, in which the right hand plays the melody, while the left hand provides the rhythm and bassline. [ 29 ] Nya " Jelly Roll Blues ", yang terdiri sekitar 1905, diterbitkan pada tahun 1915 sebagai pengaturan jazz pertama di cetak, memperkenalkan lebih banyak musisi dengan gaya New Orleans. [26] Di Amerika Serikat timur laut, yang "panas" gaya bermain ragtime telah dikembangkan, terutama James Reese Eropa 's simfoni Clef Club orkestra di New York yang memainkan konser di Carnegie Hall pada tahun 1912. [27] [28] The Baltimore kain gaya Eubie Blake dipengaruhi James P. Johnson 'perkembangan dari " Stride "bermain piano, di mana tangan kanan memainkan melodi, sementara tangan kiri memberikan ritme dan bassline. [29]
The Original Dixieland Jass Band made the music's first recordings early in 1917, and their " Livery Stable Blues " became the earliest released jazz record . [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] That year numerous other bands made recordings featuring "jazz" in the title or band name, mostly ragtime or novelty records rather than jazz. The Original Dixieland Jass Band membuat pertama rekaman musik awal tahun 1917, dan mereka " Livery Stable Blues "menjadi dirilis jazz paling awal catatan . [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] Itu tahun band lain banyak membuat rekaman yang menampilkan "jazz" dalam judul atau nama band, kebanyakan ragtime atau catatan kebaruan daripada jazz. In September 1917 WC Handy 's Orchestra of Memphis recorded a cover version of "Livery Stable Blues." [ 37 ] In February 1918 James Reese Europe 's "Hellfighters" infantry band took ragtime to Europe during World War I , [ 38 ] then on return recorded Dixieland standards including " Darktown Strutters' Ball ". [ 28 ] Pada September 1917 WC Handy 's Orchestra dari Memphis merekam versi cover dari "Livery Stable Blues." [37] Pada Februari 1918 James Reese Eropa 's Hellfighters "infanteri band" mengambil ragtime ke Eropa selama Perang Dunia I , [38] kemudian pada kembali mencatat Dixieland standar termasuk " Darktown Strutters 'Ball ". [28]

[ edit ] 1920s and 1930s [ sunting ] 1920-an dan 1930-an

[ edit ] The Jazz Age [ sunting ] The Age Jazz

Prohibition in the United States (from 1920 to 1933) banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies becoming lively venues of the " Jazz Age ", an era when popular music included current dance songs, novelty songs, and show tunes. Larangan di Amerika Serikat (1920-1933) melarang penjualan minuman beralkohol, sehingga gelap speakeasies menjadi tempat hidup dari " Jazz Age ", era ketika musik populer termasuk lagu-lagu tari saat ini, lagu kebaruan, dan lagu-lagu show. Jazz started to get a reputation as being immoral and many members of the older generations saw it as threatening the old values in culture and promoting the new decadent values of the Roaring 20s . Jazz mulai mendapatkan reputasi sebagai tidak bermoral dan banyak anggota dari generasi tua melihatnya sebagai mengancam nilai-nilai lama dalam budaya dan mempromosikan nilai-nilai dekaden baru dari 20-an Roaring . Professor Henry Van Dyck of Princeton University wrote “...it is not music at all. Profesor Henry Van Dyck dari Princeton University menulis "... itu bukan musik sama sekali. It's merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion.” [ 39 ] Ini hanyalah sebuah iritasi pada saraf pendengaran, yang menggoda sensual dari string gairah fisik. " [39]
Even the media began to denigrate jazz. Bahkan media mulai merendahkan jazz. The New York Times took stories and altered headlines to pick at Jazz. The New York Times mengambil cerita dan headline diubah untuk memilih di Jazz. For instance, villagers used pots and pans in Siberia to scare off bears, and the newspaper stated that it was Jazz that scared the bears away. Sebagai contoh, penduduk desa digunakan panci dan wajan di Siberia untuk menakut-nakuti beruang, dan surat kabar menyatakan bahwa Jazz yang takut beruang pergi. Another story claims that Jazz caused the death of a celebrated conductor. Cerita lain mengklaim Jazz yang menyebabkan kematian seorang konduktor dirayakan. The actual cause of death was a fatal heart attack (natural cause). [ 39 ] From 1919 Kid Ory 's Original Creole Jazz Band of musicians from New Orleans played in San Francisco and Los Angeles where in 1922 they became the first black jazz band of New Orleans origin to make recordings. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] However, the main centre developing the new " Hot Jazz " was Chicago , where King Oliver joined Bill Johnson . Penyebab sebenarnya kematian adalah serangan jantung fatal (menyebabkan alam). [39] Dari 1919 Kid Ory 's Original Creole Jazz Band dari musisi dari New Orleans bermain di San Francisco dan Los Angeles di mana pada tahun 1922 mereka menjadi band jazz kulit hitam pertama asal New Orleans untuk membuat rekaman. [40] [41] Namun, pusat utama mengembangkan "baru Jazz Hot "adalah Chicago , di mana Raja Oliver bergabung Bill Johnson . That year also saw the first recording by Bessie Smith , the most famous of the 1920s blues singers. [ 42 ] Tahun itu juga melihat rekaman pertama oleh Bessie Smith , yang paling terkenal dari penyanyi blues tahun 1920-an. [42]
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921. Raja & Carter Jazzing Orchestra difoto di Houston, Texas, Januari 1921.
Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in 1924. Bix Beiderbecke membentuk The serigala pada tahun 1924. Also in 1924 Louis Armstrong joined the Fletcher Henderson dance band as featured soloist for a year, then formed his virtuosic Hot Five band, also popularizing scat singing . [ 43 ] Jelly Roll Morton recorded with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings in an early mixed-race collaboration, then in 1926 formed his Red Hot Peppers . Juga pada tahun 1924 Louis Armstrong bergabung dengan Fletcher Henderson band dansa sebagai pemain solo ditampilkan selama setahun, kemudian membentuk virtuoso-nya Hot Lima band, juga mempopulerkan bernyanyi hujan deras . [43] Jelly Roll Morton direkam dengan New Orleans Rhythm Kings dalam sebuah-campuran ras awal kolaborasi, kemudian pada tahun 1926 terbentuk nya Red Hot Peppers . There was a larger market for jazzy dance music played by white orchestras, such as Jean Goldkette 's orchestra and Paul Whiteman 's orchestra. Ada pasar yang lebih besar untuk musik dansa jazzy yang dimainkan oleh orkestra putih, seperti Jean Goldkette 's dan orkestra Paul Whiteman 'orkestra s. In 1924 Whiteman commissioned Gershwin 's Rhapsody in Blue , which was premièred by Whiteman's Orchestra. Pada tahun 1924 ditugaskan Whiteman Gershwin 's Rhapsody in Blue , yang ditayangkan oleh Whiteman Orchestra. Other influential large ensembles included Fletcher Henderson 's band, Duke Ellington 's band (which opened an influential residency at the Cotton Club in 1927) in New York, and Earl Hines 's Band in Chicago (who opened in The Grand Terrace Cafe there in 1928). Lain yang berpengaruh besar ansambel termasuk Fletcher Henderson 'band, Duke Ellington 'band (yang membuka residensi berpengaruh di Cotton Club pada tahun 1927) di New York, dan Earl Hines 's Band di Chicago (yang dibuka di Grand Terrace Cafe ada pada tahun 1928). All significantly influenced the development of big band-style swing jazz. [ 44 ] Semua secara signifikan mempengaruhi perkembangan gaya jazz swing big band. [44]

[ edit ] Swing [ sunting ] Swing

The 1930s belonged to popular swing big bands , in which some virtuoso soloists became as famous as the band leaders. 1930-an milik populer ayunan band besar , di mana beberapa solois virtuoso menjadi setenar pemimpin band. Key figures in developing the "big" jazz band included bandleaders and arrangers Count Basie , Cab Calloway , Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey , Duke Ellington , Benny Goodman , Fletcher Henderson , Earl Hines , Glenn Miller , and Artie Shaw . tokoh kunci dalam mengembangkan "besar" band jazz termasuk bandleaders dan pengatur Count Basie , Cab Calloway , Jimmy dan Tommy Dorsey , Duke Ellington , Benny Goodman , Fletcher Henderson , Earl Hines , Glenn Miller , dan Artie Shaw .
Trumpeter, bandleader and singer Louis Armstrong was a much-imitated innovator of early jazz. Trompet, pemimpin band dan penyanyi Louis Armstrong adalah seorang-ditiru banyak inovator jazz awal.
Swing was also dance music. Swing juga musik dansa. It was broadcast on the radio 'live' nightly across America for many years especially by Hines and his Grand Terrace Cafe Orchestra broadcasting coast-to-coast from Chicago, well placed for 'live' time-zones. Ini disiarkan di radio 'hidup' setiap malam di seluruh Amerika selama bertahun-tahun terutama oleh Hines dan gelar Grand Terrace Cafe Orchestra penyiaran pantai-ke-pantai dari Chicago, baik ditempatkan untuk 'hidup'-zona waktu. Although it was a collective sound, swing also offered individual musicians a chance to 'solo' and improvise melodic, thematic solos which could at times be very complex and 'important' music. Meskipun suara kolektif, swing juga menawarkan musisi individu kesempatan untuk 'solo' dan berimprovisasi melodi, solo tematik yang dapat pada waktu yang sangat kompleks dan 'penting' musik. Over time, social strictures regarding racial segregation began to relax in America: white bandleaders began to recruit black musicians and black bandleaders white ones. Seiring waktu, penyempitan sosial yang berkaitan dengan segregasi rasial mulai bersantai di Amerika: bandleaders putih mulai merekrut musisi bandleaders hitam hitam dan yang putih. In the mid-1930s, Benny Goodman hired pianist Teddy Wilson , vibraphonist Lionel Hampton , and guitarist Charlie Christian to join small groups. Pada pertengahan 1930, Benny Goodman menyewa pianis Teddy Wilson , vibraphonist Lionel Hampton , dan gitaris Charlie Christian untuk bergabung dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil. An early 1940s style known as "jumping the blues" or jump blues used small combos, uptempo music, and blues chord progressions. Gaya awal 1940-an dikenal sebagai "melompat blues" atau blues jump digunakan combo kecil, uptempo musik, dan chord progresi blues. Jump blues drew on boogie-woogie from the 1930s. Kansas City Jazz in the 1930s as exemplified by tenor saxophonist Lester Young marked the transition from big bands to the bebop influence of the 1940s. Langsung blues menarik pada boogie-woogie dari tahun 1930-an. Kansas City Jazz tahun 1930 sebagaimana dicontohkan oleh tenor saxophonis Lester Young menandai transisi dari band besar untuk pengaruh bebop tahun 1940-an.

[ edit ] Beginnings of European jazz [ sunting ] Awal jazz Eropa

Outside of the United States the beginnings of a distinct European style of jazz emerged in France with the Quintette du Hot Club de France which began in 1934. Di luar Amerika Serikat awal dari gaya Eropa berbeda jazz muncul di Perancis dengan kwintet du Hot Club de France yang dimulai pada tahun 1934. Belgian guitar virtuoso Django Reinhardt popularized gypsy jazz , a mix of 1930s American swing , French dance hall " musette " and Eastern European folk with a languid, seductive feel. Belgia virtuoso gitar Django Reinhardt dipopulerkan gipsi jazz , campuran dari tahun 1930-an Amerika ayunan , balai Prancis tarian " musette "dan rakyat Eropa Timur dengan menggoda, merasa lesu. The main instruments are steel stringed guitar, violin , and double bass . Instrumen utama adalah baja senar gitar, biola , dan double bass . Solos pass from one player to another as the guitar and bass play the role of the rhythm section . Solo lulus dari satu pemain lain sebagai gitar dan bass memainkan peran rhythm section . Some music researchers hold that it was Philadelphia's Eddie Lang (guitar) and Joe Venuti (violin) who pioneered the gypsy jazz form, [ 45 ] which was brought to France after they had been heard live or on Okeh Records in the late 1920s. [ 46 ] Beberapa peneliti musik berpendapat bahwa itu adalah Philadelphia Eddie Lang (gitar) dan Joe Venuti (biola) yang memelopori jazz gipsi bentuk, [45] yang dibawa ke Prancis setelah mereka telah didengar langsung atau di Okeh Records pada akhir tahun 1920. [ 46]

[ edit ] 1940s and 1950s [ sunting ] 1940-an dan 1950-an

[ edit ] Dixieland revival [ sunting ] kebangunan rohani Dixieland

Louis Armstrong in 1953 Louis Armstrong pada 1953
In the late 1940s there was a revival of " Dixieland " music, harkening back to the original contrapuntal New Orleans style. Pada akhir 1940-an ada kebangkitan kembali " Dixieland musik ", harkening kembali ke yang asli kontrapungtal gaya New Orleans. This was driven in large part by record company reissues of early jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 1930s. Hal ini didorong sebagian besar oleh perusahaan rekaman reissues klasik jazz awal oleh band Oliver, Morton, dan Armstrong tahun 1930-an. There were two populations of musicians involved in the revival. Ada dua populasi musisi yang terlibat dalam kebangkitan. One group consisted of players who had begun their careers playing in the traditional style, and were either returning to it, or continuing what they had been playing all along, such as Bob Crosby 's Bobcats, Max Kaminsky , Eddie Condon , and Wild Bill Davison . Satu kelompok terdiri dari pemain yang telah memulai karir mereka bermain dalam gaya tradisional, dan entah kembali ke sana, atau melanjutkan apa yang mereka telah bermain selama ini, seperti Bob Crosby 's Bobcats, Max Kaminsky , Eddie Condon , dan Wild Bill Davison . Most of this group were originally Midwesterners, although there were a small number of New Orleans musicians involved. Kebanyakan dari kelompok ini awalnya Midwesterners, meskipun ada sejumlah kecil musisi New Orleans yang terlibat. The second population of revivalists consisted of young musicians such as the Lu Watters band. Populasi kedua revivalis terdiri dari musisi muda seperti Lu Watters band. By the late 1940s, Louis Armstrong 's Allstars band became a leading ensemble. Pada akhir 1940-an, Louis Armstrong 'band Allstars menjadi ansambel terkemuka. Through the 1950s and 1960s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it. [ 47 ] Melalui tahun 1950-an dan 1960-an, Dixieland adalah salah satu yang populer jazz gaya komersial di Amerika Serikat, Eropa, dan Jepang, meskipun kritikus membayar sedikit perhatian untuk itu. [47]

[ edit ] Bebop [ sunting ] Bebop

In the early 1940s bebop performers helped to shift jazz from danceable popular music towards a more challenging "musician's music." Pada awal 1940-an pemain bebop membantu pergeseran jazz dari musik populer danceable ke arah yang lebih menantang "musik musisi." Differing greatly from swing, early bebop divorced itself from dance music, establishing itself more as an art form but lessening its potential popular and commercial value. Berbeda jauh dari swing, bebop awal bercerai diri dari musik dansa, membangun dirinya lebih sebagai sebuah bentuk seni tetapi mengurangi nilai potensi populer dan komersial. Since bebop was meant to be listened to, not danced to, it used faster tempos. Karena bebop ini dimaksudkan untuk didengarkan, tidak menari, itu digunakan tempo lebih cepat. Beboppers introduced new forms of chromaticism and dissonance into jazz; the dissonant tritone (or "flatted fifth") interval became the "most important interval of bebop" [ 48 ] and players engaged in a more abstracted form of chord-based improvisation which used "passing" chords, substitute chords , and altered chords . Beboppers memperkenalkan bentuk-bentuk baru chromaticism dan disonansi ke jazz, sedangkan disonan tritone (atau "datar kelima") interval menjadi "penting interval sebagian besar bebop" [48] dan pemain terlibat dalam bentuk disarikan lebih berbasis improvisasi chord yang digunakan " lewat "akord, akord pengganti , dan akord diubah . The style of drumming shifted as well to a more elusive and explosive style, in which the ride cymbal was used to keep time, while the snare and bass drum were used for accents. Gaya drum bergeser juga untuk suatu sulit dipahami dan eksplosif lebih gaya, di mana simbal ride digunakan untuk menjaga waktu, sementara snare dan bass drum digunakan untuk aksen.
Thelonious Monk at Expo 67 , 1967, Montreal , Quebec . Bassist Larry Gales seen in background. Thelonious Monk di Expo 67 , 1967, Montreal , Quebec . Bassist Larry Gales terlihat di latar belakang.
These divergences from the jazz mainstream of the time initially met with a divided, sometimes hostile response among fans and fellow musicians, especially established swing players, who bristled at the new harmonic sounds. Ini perbedaan dari mainstream jazz dari waktu awalnya bertemu dengan sebuah respon, kadang-kadang bermusuhan dibagi antara para penggemar dan sesama musisi, khususnya pemain swing mapan, yang berbulu pada suara harmonis baru. To hostile critics, bebop seemed to be filled with "racing, nervous phrases". [ 49 ] Despite the initial friction, by the 1950s bebop had become an accepted part of the jazz vocabulary. Untuk kritik bermusuhan, bebop tampaknya diisi dengan "racing, frase gugup". [49] Meskipun gesekan awal, oleh bebop tahun 1950 telah menjadi bagian yang diterima dari kosa kata jazz. The most influential bebop musicians included saxophonist Charlie Parker , pianists Bud Powell and Thelonious Monk , trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie and Clifford Brown , and drummer Max Roach . The bebop musisi paling berpengaruh termasuk saxophonist Charlie Parker , pianis Bud Powell dan Thelonious Monk , pemain trompet Dizzy Gillespie dan Clifford Brown , dan drummer Max Roach .

[ edit ] Cool jazz [ sunting ] Cool jazz

By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension of bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm and smoothness, with the sounds of cool jazz , which favoured long, linear melodic lines. Pada akhir 1940-an, energi gugup dan tegangan bebop diganti dengan kecenderungan tenang dan halus, dengan suara jazz keren , yang mengabulkan panjang, garis melodi linier. It emerged in New York City , as a result of the mixture of the styles of predominantly white jazz musicians and black bebop musicians, and it dominated jazz in the first half of the 1950s. Ini muncul di New York City , sebagai hasil dari campuran gaya didominasi musisi musisi jazz putih dan hitam bebop, dan mendominasi jazz di paruh pertama tahun 1950-an. The starting point were a series of singles on Capitol Records in 1949 and 1950 of a nonet led by trumpeter Miles Davis , collected and released first on a ten-inch and later a twelve-inch as the Birth of the Cool . Titik awalnya adalah serangkaian single di Capitol Records pada tahun 1949 dan 1950 dari nonet dipimpin oleh pemain trompet Miles Davis , dikumpulkan dan dirilis pertama kali pada sepuluh inci dan kemudian dua belas inci sebagai Lahirnya Cool . Cool jazz recordings by Chet Baker , Dave Brubeck , Bill Evans , Gil Evans , Stan Getz and the Modern Jazz Quartet usually have a "lighter" sound which avoided the aggressive tempos and harmonic abstraction of bebop. rekaman jazz Cool oleh Chet Baker , Dave Brubeck , Bill Evans , Gil Evans , Stan Getz dan Modern Jazz Quartet biasanya memiliki "ringan" suara yang menghindari tempo agresif dan abstraksi harmonik bebop. Cool jazz later became strongly identified with the West Coast jazz scene, but also had a particular resonance in Europe, especially Scandinavia, with emergence of such major figures as baritone saxophonist Lars Gullin and pianist Bengt Hallberg . Cool jazz kemudian menjadi kuat diidentifikasi dengan jazz Pantai Barat adegan, tetapi juga memiliki resonansi tertentu di Eropa, khususnya Skandinavia, dengan munculnya tokoh-tokoh besar seperti saksofon bariton Lars Gullin dan pianis Bengt Hallberg . The theoretical underpinnings of cool jazz were set out by the blind Chicago pianist Lennie Tristano , and its influence stretches into such later developments as Bossa nova , modal jazz, and even free jazz. Dasar-dasar teoritis jazz keren ditetapkan oleh pianis buta Chicago Lennie Tristano , dan pengaruhnya membentang ke perkembangan kemudian seperti Bossa nova , modal jazz, dan bahkan jazz gratis. See also the list of cool jazz and West Coast musicians for further detail. Lihat juga daftar jazz keren dan Pantai Barat musisi untuk detail lebih lanjut.

[ edit ] Hard bop [ sunting ] Hard bop

Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from rhythm and blues , gospel music , and blues , especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop adalah perpanjangan dari bebop (atau "bop") musik yang menggabungkan pengaruh dari rhythm and blues , musik gospel , dan blues , terutama di saksofon dan piano bermain. Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s. Hard bop dikembangkan pada pertengahan tahun 1950, sebagian sebagai tanggapan terhadap adat istiadat untuk jazz dingin di awal 1950-an. The hard bop style coalesced in 1953 and 1954, paralleling the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis ' performance of "Walkin'" the title track of his album of the same year, at the very first Newport Jazz Festival in 1954, announced the style to the jazz world. Gaya bop keras bersatu pada tahun 1953 dan 1954, paralel munculnya rhythm and blues. Miles Davis 'kinerja "Walkin' judul lagu"-nya album tahun yang sama, di bagian paling pertama Newport Jazz Festival pada tahun 1954, mengumumkan gaya ke dunia jazz. The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers , fronted by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown , were leaders in the hard bop movement along with Davis. Kwintet Art Blakey dan Rasul Jazz , fronted oleh Blakey dan menampilkan pianis Horace Silver dan trompet Clifford Brown , adalah pemimpin dalam gerakan bop keras bersama dengan Davis. (See also List of Hard bop musicians ) (Lihat juga Daftar musisi bop Hard )

[ edit ] Modal jazz [ sunting ] Modal jazz

Modal jazz is a development beginning in the later 1950s which takes the mode , or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Modal jazz merupakan pengembangan dimulai pada tahun 1950 nanti yang mengambil mode , atau skala musik, sebagai dasar struktur musik dan improvisasi. Previously, the goal of the soloist was to play a solo that fit into a given chord progression . Sebelumnya, tujuan solois adalah untuk bermain solo yang sesuai dengan yang diberikan akor . However, with modal jazz, the soloist creates a melody using one or a small number of modes. Namun, dengan modal jazz, solois yang menciptakan melodi menggunakan satu atau sejumlah kecil mode. The emphasis in this approach shifts from harmony to melody [ 50 ] . Penekanan dalam pergeseran pendekatan dari harmoni melodi [50] . The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell , but again Miles Davis unveiled this shift to the rest of the jazz world with Kind of Blue , an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz and the best selling jazz album of all time. Teori modal berasal dari sebuah karya oleh George Russell , tapi sekali lagi Miles Davis mengumumkan pergeseran ini ke seluruh dunia jazz dengan Kind of Blue , sebuah eksplorasi kemungkinan modal jazz dan jazz penjualan album terbaik sepanjang masa. Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean [ 51 ] , John Coltrane and Bill Evans , also present on Kind of Blue , as well as later musicians such as Herbie Hancock . inovator lain dalam gaya ini termasuk Jackie McLean [51] , John Coltrane , dan Bill Evans , juga hadir pada Kind of Blue, serta musisi kemudian seperti Herbie Hancock .

[ edit ] Free jazz [ sunting ] jazz gratis

A shot from a 2006 performance by Peter Brötzmann , a key figure in European free jazz Sebuah tembakan dari kinerja 2006 oleh Peter Brötzmann , tokoh kunci dalam free jazz Eropa
Free jazz and the related form of avant-garde jazz broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of World music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing. [ 52 ] While loosely inspired by bebop, free jazz tunes gave players much more latitude; the loose harmony and tempo was deemed controversial when this approach was first developed. Free jazz dan bentuk terkait avant-garde jazz menerobos ke ruang terbuka "nada suara bebas" di mana meter, mengalahkan, dan simetri formal semua menghilang, dan berbagai musik Dunia dari India, Afrika, dan Arab telah menyatu ke dalam intens bahkan, agama atau orgiastic gaya bermain gembira. suatu [52] Sementara longgar terinspirasi oleh bebop, lagu-lagu free jazz memberi lebih banyak pemain lintang banyak; yang longgar harmoni dan tempo dianggap kontroversial ketika pendekatan ini pertama kali dikembangkan. The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres. Bassis Charles Mingus juga sering dikaitkan dengan avant-garde dalam jazz, walaupun komposisi menarik dari berbagai gaya dan genre. The first major stirrings came in the 1950s, with the early work of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor . Yang kepeduliannya besar pertama datang pada 1950-an, dengan karya awal Ornette Coleman dan Cecil Taylor . In the 1960s, performers included John Coltrane , Archie Shepp , Sun Ra , Albert Ayler , Pharoah Sanders , and others. Pada tahun 1960, pemain termasuk John Coltrane , Archie Shepp , Sun Ra , Albert Ayler , Firaun Sanders , dan lain-lain. Free jazz quickly found a foothold in Europe – in part because musicians such as Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy and Eric Dolphy spent extended periods in Europe. Free jazz dengan cepat menemukan pijakan di Eropa - sebagian karena musisi seperti Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy dan Eric Dolphy menghabiskan diperpanjang masa di Eropa. A distinctive European contemporary jazz (often incorporating elements of free jazz but not limited to it) flourished also because of the emergence of musicians (such as John Surman , Zbigniew Namyslowski , Albert Mangelsdorff , Kenny Wheeler and Mike Westbrook ) anxious to develop new approaches reflecting their national and regional musical cultures and contexts. Keith Jarrett has been prominent in defending free jazz from criticism by traditionalists in the 1990s and 2000s. Sebuah kontemporer jazz khas Eropa (sering memasukkan unsur jazz bebas tapi tidak terbatas pada itu) berkembang juga karena munculnya musisi (seperti Yohanes Surman , Zbigniew Namyslowski , Albert Mangelsdorff , Kenny Wheeler dan Mike Westbrook ) ingin mengembangkan pendekatan baru yang mencerminkan musik nasional dan regional dan konteks budaya mereka. Keith Jarrett telah menonjol dalam mempertahankan jazz bebas dari kritik oleh tradisionalis pada 1990-an dan 2000-an.

[ edit ] 1960s and 1970s [ sunting ] 1960-an dan 1970-an

[ edit ] Latin jazz [ sunting ] jazz Latin

Latin jazz combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries, often played on instruments such as conga , timbale , güiro , and claves , with jazz and classical harmonies played on typical jazz instruments (piano, double bass, etc.). jazz menggabungkan irama Latin dari negara-negara Amerika Latin dan Afrika, sering bermain pada instrumen seperti conga , timbale , güiro , dan kastanyet , dengan harmoni jazz dan klasik memainkan instrumen jazz khas (piano, double bass, dll). There are two main varieties: Afro-Cuban jazz was played in the US right after the bebop period, while Brazilian jazz became more popular in the 1960s. Ada dua varietas utama: jazz Afro-Kuba dimainkan di kanan AS setelah periode bebop, sedangkan jazz Brasil menjadi lebih populer di tahun 1960-an. Afro-Cuban jazz began as a movement in the mid-1950s as bebop musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Billy Taylor started Afro-Cuban bands influenced by such Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians as Xavier Cugat , Tito Puente , and Arturo Sandoval . Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba , with influences from jazz and other 20th century classical and popular music styles. Jazz Afro-Kuba dimulai sebagai sebuah gerakan pada pertengahan tahun 1950-sebagai musisi bebop seperti Dizzy Gillespie dan Billy Taylor mulai Afro-Kuba band tersebut dipengaruhi oleh Kuba dan Puerto Rico musisi seperti Xavier Cugat , Tito Puente , dan Arturo Sandoval . jazz Brazil seperti seperti bossa nova yang berasal dari samba , dengan pengaruh dari jazz dan abad ke-20 gaya musik populer lainnya dan klasik. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English. Bossa umumnya sedang mondar-mandir, dengan melodi dinyanyikan dalam bahasa Portugis atau Inggris. The style was pioneered by Brazilians João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim . Gaya ini dipelopori oleh Brasil João Gilberto dan Antônio Carlos Jobim . The related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of bossa nova compositions to the jazz idiom by American performers such as Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd . Istilah samba terkait-jazz menggambarkan sebuah adaptasi dari komposisi bossa nova ke idiom jazz oleh artis Amerika seperti Stan Getz dan Charlie Byrd .
Bossa nova was made popular by Elizete Cardoso 's recording of Chega de Saudade on the Canção do Amor Demais LP , composed by Vinícius de Moraes (lyrics) and Antonio Carlos Jobim (music). Bossa nova dipopulerkan oleh Elizete Cardoso perekaman s ' Chega de Saudade pada Canção melakukan Amor Demais LP , disusun oleh Vinicius de Moraes (lirik) dan Antonio Carlos Jobim (musik). The initial releases by Gilberto and the 1959 film Black Orpheus brought significant popularity in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America , which spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. Rilis awal oleh Gilberto dan 1959 film Black Orpheus membawa popularitas yang signifikan di Brazil dan tempat lain di Amerika Latin , yang menyebar ke Amerika Utara melalui mengunjungi musisi jazz Amerika. The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented its popularity and led to a worldwide boom with 1963's Getz/Gilberto , numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald ( Ella Abraça Jobim ) and Frank Sinatra ( Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim ), and the entrenchment of the bossa nova style as a lasting influence in world music for several decades and even up to the present. Rekaman yang dihasilkan oleh Charlie Byrd dan Stan Getz disemen popularitasnya dan menyebabkan ledakan di seluruh dunia dengan 1963's Getz / Gilberto , rekaman banyak dengan artis jazz terkenal seperti Ella Fitzgerald ( Ella Abraça Jobim ) dan Frank Sinatra ( Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim ), dan digali dari gaya bossa nova sebagai pengaruh yang abadi di dunia musik selama beberapa dekade dan bahkan sampai sekarang.

[ edit ] Post bop [ sunting ] bop Post

Post-bop jazz is a form of small-combo jazz derived from earlier bop styles. Post-bop jazz adalah sebuah bentuk kecil-combo jazz yang berasal dari gaya bop sebelumnya. The genre's origins lie in seminal work by John Coltrane , Miles Davis , Bill Evans , Charles Mingus , Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancock . genre asal Kebohongan dalam pekerjaan mani oleh John Coltrane , Miles Davis , Bill Evans , Charles Mingus , Wayne Shorter dan Herbie Hancock . Generally, the term post-bop is taken to mean jazz from the mid-sixties onward that assimilates influence from hard bop , modal jazz , the avant-garde , and free jazz , without necessarily being immediately identifiable as any of the above. Umumnya, istilah-post bop diambil untuk berarti jazz dari enam puluhan dan seterusnya pertengahan yang asimilasi pengaruh dari hard bop , modal jazz , yang avant-garde , dan free jazz , tanpa harus menjadi segera diidentifikasi sebagai apapun di atas.
Much "post-bop" was recorded on Blue Note Records . Banyak "post-bop" telah dibukukan pada Blue Note Records . Key albums include Speak No Evil by Wayne Shorter ; The Real McCoy by McCoy Tyner ; Maiden Voyage by Herbie Hancock ; Miles Smiles by Miles Davis; and Search for the New Land by Lee Morgan (an artist not typically associated with the post-bop genre). album utama meliputi Speak No Evil oleh Wayne Shorter ; The Real McCoy oleh McCoy Tyner ; Maiden Voyage oleh Herbie Hancock , Miles Smiles oleh Miles Davis, dan Mencari Tanah Baru oleh Lee Morgan (seorang seniman tidak biasanya terkait dengan genre post-bop ). Most post-bop artists worked in other genres as well, with a particularly strong overlap with later hard bop . Sebagian besar pasca-bop seniman bekerja di genre lain juga, dengan sangat kuat tumpang tindih dengan kemudian bop keras .

[ edit ] Soul jazz [ sunting ] Soul jazz

Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong influences from blues , gospel and rhythm and blues in music for small groups, often the organ trio , which partnered a Hammond organ player with a drummer and a tenor saxophonist. Soul jazz adalah pengembangan bop keras yang dimasukkan pengaruh kuat dari blues , Injil dan rhythm and blues dalam musik untuk kelompok-kelompok kecil, sering trio organ , yang bermitra dengan Hammond organ pemain dengan seorang drumer dan pemain saksofon tenor. Unlike hard bop , soul jazz generally emphasized repetitive grooves and melodic hooks, and improvisations were often less complex than in other jazz styles. Horace Silver had a large influence on the soul jazz style, with songs that used funky and often gospel -based piano vamps . Tidak seperti hard bop , jazz jiwa umumnya menekankan berulang-ulang alur dan melodi kait, dan improvisasi sering kurang kompleks dibandingkan dengan gaya jazz lainnya. Horace Silver memiliki pengaruh besar pada gaya jazz jiwa, dengan lagu-lagu yang digunakan funky dan sering Injil berdasarkan piano- VAMPS . It often had a steadier "funk" style groove, different from the swing rhythms typical of much hard bop. Ini sering memiliki mantap "funk" alur gaya, berbeda dengan irama ayunan khas bop keras banyak. Important soul jazz organists included Jimmy McGriff and Jimmy Smith and Johnny Hammond Smith , and influential tenor saxophone players included Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis and Stanley Turrentine . jazz jiwa organists Penting termasuk Jimmy McGriff dan Jimmy Smith dan Johnny Hammond Smith , dan tenor berpengaruh saksofon pemain termasuk Eddie "kejang mulut" Davis dan Stanley Turrentine . (See also List of soul-jazz musicians .) (Lihat juga Daftar-musisi jazz jiwa .)

[ edit ] Jazz fusion [ sunting ] Jazz fusion

Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989 Fusion terompet Miles Davis pada tahun 1989
In the late 1960s and early 1970s the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments, and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix . Pada akhir 1960-an dan awal 1970-an bentuk hibrida jazz-rock fusion dikembangkan dengan mengkombinasikan improvisasi Jazz dengan irama rock, instrumen listrik, dan tahap suara yang sangat diperkuat musisi rock seperti Jimi Hendrix . All Music Guide states that "..until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate." Semua Musik Panduan menyatakan bahwa ".. sampai sekitar tahun 1967, dunia jazz dan rock hampir benar-benar terpisah." However, "...as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-garde music , the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces." [ 53 ] Miles Davis made the breakthrough into fusion in 1970s with his album Bitches Brew . Namun, "... seperti batu menjadi lebih kreatif dan musisi yang baik, dan karena beberapa di dunia jazz menjadi bosan dengan bop keras dan tidak ingin bermain ketat -musik avant garde , dua idiom yang berbeda mulai perdagangan ide dan kadang-kadang menggabungkan kekuatan. " [53] Miles Davis melakukan terobosan ke dalam fusi di tahun 1970 dengan album Bitches Brew . Musicians who worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra emerged in 1971 and were soon followed by Return to Forever and The Headhunters . Musisi yang bekerja dengan Davis membentuk empat fusi kelompok yang paling berpengaruh: Weather Report dan Mahavishnu Orchestra muncul pada tahun 1971 dan segera diikuti oleh Return to Forever dan The headhunter . Although jazz purists protested the blend of jazz and rock, some of jazz's significant innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. Meskipun puritan jazz memprotes perpaduan jazz dan rock, beberapa inovator signifikan jazz's menyeberang dari adegan bop kontemporer keras ke fusi. Jazz fusion music often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, and complex chords and harmonies. Musik jazz fusion sering menggunakan meter dicampur, tanda tangan waktu aneh, sinkopasi, dan akord kompleks dan harmoni. In addition to using the electric instruments of rock, such as the electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano, and synthesizer keyboards, fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals , wah-wah pedals , and other effects used by 1970s-era rock bands. Selain menggunakan instrumen listrik batu, seperti gitar listrik, bass listrik, piano listrik, dan keyboard synthesizer, fusi juga menggunakan amplifikasi kuat, "bulu halus" pedal , wah-wah pedal , dan efek lain yang digunakan oleh 1970-an- era rock band. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis , keyboardists Joe Zawinul , Chick Corea , Herbie Hancock , vibraphonist Gary Burton , drummer Tony Williams , violinist Jean-Luc Ponty , guitarists Larry Coryell , Al Di Meola , John McLaughlin and Frank Zappa , saxophonist Wayne Shorter , and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke . artis Terkemuka dari jazz fusion termasuk Miles Davis , keyboardists Joe Zawinul , Chick Corea , Herbie Hancock , vibraphonist Gary Burton , drummer Tony Williams , pemain biola Jean-Luc Ponty , gitaris Larry Coryell , Al Di Meola , John McLaughlin dan Frank Zappa , pemain saksofon Wayne Shorter , dan bassist Jaco Pastorius dan Stanley Clarke . Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan where the band Casiopea released over thirty albums praising Jazz Fusion. fusi Jazz yang juga populer di Jepang di mana band Casiopea dirilis lebih dari tiga puluh album memuji Jazz Fusion.

[ edit ] Jazz funk [ sunting ] Jazz funk

Developed by the mid-1970s, is characterized by a strong back beat ( groove ), electrified sounds, [ 54 ] and often, the presence of the first electronic analog synthesizers . Dikembangkan oleh pertengahan tahun 1970-an, ditandai dengan kuat kembali mengalahkan ( alur ), listrik suara, [54] dan sering, kehadiran pertama elektronik synthesizer analog . The integration of Funk , Soul , and R&B music and styles into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is indeed quite wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs , and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals. [ 55 ] Integrasi Funk , Soul , dan R & B musik dan gaya dalam jazz menghasilkan penciptaan genre yang spektrum ini memang cukup luas dan berkisar dari yang kuat improvisasi jazz jiwa, funk atau disko dengan pengaturan jazz, jazz riff , dan solo jazz, dan kadang-kadang vokal jiwa. [55]
At the jazz end of the spectrum, jazz-funk characteristics include a departure from ternary rhythm (near-triplet), ie the "swing", to the more danceable and unfamiliar binary rhythm, known as the " groove ". Pada akhir spektrum jazz, jazz-funk karakteristik termasuk keberangkatan dari ritme terner (dekat-triplet), yaitu "swing", untuk dan asing biner ritme lebih danceable, yang dikenal sebagai " alur ". Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Latin American rhythms, and Jamaican reggae , most notably Kingston band leader Sonny Bradshaw . Jazz-funk juga menarik pengaruh dari musik tradisional Afrika, Amerika Latin irama, dan Jamaika reggae , terutama Kingston pemimpin band Sonny Bradshaw . A second characteristic of Jazz-funk music is the use of electric instruments, and the first use of analogue electronic instruments notably by Herbie Hancock , whose jazz-funk period saw him surrounded on stage or in the studio by several Moog synthesizers . Karakteristik kedua-funk musik Jazz adalah penggunaan instrumen listrik, dan penggunaan pertama dari elektronik instrumen analog terutama oleh Herbie Hancock , yang jazz-funk periode melihatnya dikelilingi di atas panggung atau di studio oleh beberapa synthesizer Moog . The ARP Odyssey , ARP String Ensemble , and Hohner D6 Clavinet also became popular at the time. The Odyssey ARP , ARP String Ensemble , dan Hohner D6 Clavinet juga menjadi populer pada saat itu. A third feature is the shift of proportions between composition and improvisation. Sebuah fitur ketiga adalah pergeseran proporsi antara komposisi dan improvisasi. Arrangements, melody, and overall writing were heavily emphasized. Pengaturan, melodi, dan menulis secara keseluruhan yang sangat ditekankan.

[ edit ] Other trends [ sunting ] tren Lain

There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the early 1970s. Ada kebangkitan kepentingan dalam jazz dan bentuk lain dari ekspresi budaya Afrika Amerika selama Gerakan Seni Hitam dan Hitam nasionalis masa awal 1970-an. Musicians such as Pharoah Sanders , Hubert Laws and Wayne Shorter began using African instruments such as kalimbas , cowbells, beaded gourds and other instruments not traditional to jazz. Musisi seperti Firaun Sanders , Hubert Hukum dan Wayne Shorter mulai menggunakan instrumen Afrika seperti kalimbas , cowbells, labu manik-manik dan instrumen lainnya yang tidak tradisional untuk jazz. Musicians began improvising jazz tunes on unusual instruments, such as the jazz harp ( Alice Coltrane ), electrically amplified and wah-wah pedaled jazz violin ( Jean-Luc Ponty ), and even bagpipes ( Rufus Harley ). Musisi mulai improvisasi lagu-lagu jazz pada instrumen yang tidak biasa, seperti jazz kecapi ( Alice Coltrane ), elektrik diperkuat dan wah-wah mengayuh biola jazz ( Jean-Luc Ponty ), dan bahkan bagpipe ( Rufus Harley ). Jazz continued to expand and change, influenced by other types of music, such as world music , avant garde classical music , and rock and pop music. Jazz terus berkembang dan berubah, dipengaruhi oleh jenis musik lain, seperti musik dunia , musik klasik avant garde , dan rock dan musik pop. Guitarist John McLaughlin 's Mahavishnu Orchestra played a mix of rock and jazz infused with East Indian influences. Gitaris John McLaughlin 's Mahavishnu Orchestra memainkan campuran rock dan jazz diresapi dengan Hindia Timur pengaruh. The ECM record label began in Germany in the 1970s with artists including Keith Jarrett , Paul Bley , the Pat Metheny Group , Jan Garbarek , Ralph Towner , Kenny Wheeler , John Taylor , John Surman and Eberhard Weber , establishing a new chamber music aesthetic, featuring mainly acoustic instruments, and sometimes incorporating elements of world music and folk music . The ECM label rekaman dimulai di Jerman pada tahun 1970-an dengan seniman termasuk Keith Jarrett , Paul Bley , yang Pat Metheny Group , Jan Garbarek , Ralph Towner , Kenny Wheeler , John Taylor , John Surman dan Eberhard Weber , mendirikan yang baru musik kamar estetika, menampilkan terutama instrumen akustik, dan kadang-kadang menggabungkan elemen dari musik dunia dan musik rakyat .

[ edit ] 1980s–2010s [ sunting ] 1980-2010-an

In 1987, the US House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic Representative John Conyers, Jr. to define jazz as a unique form of American music stating, among other things, "...that jazz is hereby designated as a rare and valuable national American treasure to which we should devote our attention, support and resources to make certain it is preserved, understood and promulgated." [ 56 ] Pada tahun 1987, DPR AS dan Senat meloloskan RUU yang diusulkan oleh Wakil Demokrat John Conyers, Jr untuk mendefinisikan jazz sebagai bentuk unik musik Amerika menyatakan, antara lain, "... jazz yang dengan ini ditetapkan sebagai langka dan Amerika harta nasional yang berharga yang kita harus mencurahkan perhatian kita, dukungan dan sumberdaya untuk memastikan itu diawetkan, dipahami dan diundangkan ". [56]

[ edit ] Traditionalist and Experimental divide [ sunting ] tradisionalis dan membagi Eksperimental

In the 1980s, the jazz community shrank dramatically and split. Pada 1980-an, komunitas jazz menyusut secara dramatis dan split. A mainly older audience retained an interest in traditional and straight-ahead jazz styles. Wynton Marsalis strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, creating extensions of small and large forms initially pioneered by such artists as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington . Seorang penonton yang lebih tua terutama saldo suatu kepentingan tradisional dan -depan jazz lurus gaya. Wynton Marsalis berusaha untuk menciptakan musik dalam apa yang dia yakini tradisi, menciptakan ekstensi dari bentuk besar dan kecil pada awalnya dipelopori oleh artis-artis seperti Louis Armstrong dan Duke Ellington . In the 2000s, straight-ahead jazz continues to appeal to a core group of listeners. Pada tahun 2000-an, langsung ke depan jazz terus menarik bagi kelompok inti pendengar. Well-established jazz musicians, such as Dave Brubeck , Wynton Marsalis , Sonny Rollins , Wayne Shorter and Jessica Williams , continue to perform and record. didirikan musisi jazz-Yah, seperti Dave Brubeck , Wynton Marsalis , Sonny Rollins , Wayne Shorter dan Jessica Williams , terus melakukan dan merekam. In the 1990s and 2000s, a number of young musicians emerged, including US pianists Brad Mehldau , Jason Moran and Vijay Iyer , guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel , vibraphonist Stefon Harris , trumpeters Roy Hargrove and Terence Blanchard , saxophonists Chris Potter and Joshua Redman , and bassist Christian McBride . Pada 1990-an dan 2000-an, sejumlah musisi muda muncul, termasuk pianis US Brad Mehldau , Jason Moran dan Vijay Iyer , gitaris Kurt Rosenwinkel , vibraphonist Stefon Harris , pemain trompet Roy Hargrove dan Terence Blanchard , pemain saksofon Chris Potter dan Joshua Redman , dan bassis Kristen McBride .
In the United States, several musicians and groups explored the more experimental end of the spectrum, including trumpeters Rob Mazurek and Cuong Vu , saxophonist Ken Vandermark , guitarist Nels Cline , bassist Todd Sickafoose , keyboardist Craig Taborn , drummer/percussionist John Hollenbeck , guitarist John Scofield , and the groups Medeski Martin & Wood and The Bad Plus . Di Amerika Serikat, beberapa musisi dan kelompok mengeksplorasi eksperimen lebih akhir spektrum, termasuk pemain trompet Rob Mazurek dan Cuong Vu , saksofon Ken Vandermark , gitaris Nels Cline , bassis Todd Sickafoose , keyboardist Craig Taborn , drummer / percussionist John Hollenbeck , gitaris John Scofield , dan kelompok Medeski Martin & Wood dan The Bad Plus . Outside of the US, the Swedish group EST and British groups Acoustic Ladyland , Led Bib , and Polar Bear gained popularity with their progressive takes on jazz. Di luar AS, kelompok Swedia EST dan Inggris kelompok Acoustic Ladyland , Led Bib , dan Polar Bear mendapatkan popularitas dengan mereka progresif mengambil jazz. A number of new vocalists have achieved popularity with a mix of traditional jazz and pop/rock forms, such as Diana Krall , Norah Jones , Cassandra Wilson , Kurt Elling , and Jamie Cullum . Sejumlah vokalis baru telah mencapai popularitas dengan campuran jazz tradisional dan bentuk pop rock /, seperti Diana Krall , Norah Jones , Cassandra Wilson , Kurt Elling , dan Jamie Cullum .

[ edit ] Smooth jazz [ sunting ] Smooth jazz

In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called pop fusion or "smooth jazz" became successful and garnered significant radio airplay. Pada awal 1980-an, suatu bentuk komersial dari jazz fusion disebut fusion pop atau "smooth jazz" menjadi sukses dan mengumpulkan penyiaran radio signifikan. Smooth jazz saxophonists include Grover Washington, Jr. , Kenny G , Kirk Whalum , Boney James , and David Sanborn . Smooth jazz pemain saksofon termasuk Grover Washington, Jr , Kenny G , Kirk Whalum , Boney James , dan David Sanborn . Smooth jazz received frequent airplay with more straight-ahead jazz in " quiet storm " time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the US, helping to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau , Anita Baker , Chaka Khan , and Sade . Smooth jazz sering diputar dengan lebih straight-ahead jazz di " tenang badai "slot waktu di stasiun radio di pasar perkotaan di Amerika Serikat, membantu membangun atau meningkatkan karir vokalis termasuk Al Jarreau , Anita Baker , Chaka Khan , dan Sade . In this same time period Chaka Khan released Echoes of an Era , which featured Joe Henderson , Freddie Hubbard , Chick Corea , Stanley Clarke , and Lenny White . Dalam periode waktu yang sama Chaka Khan merilis Gaung Era , yang menampilkan Joe Henderson , Freddie Hubbard , Chick Corea , Stanley Clarke , dan Lenny White . She also released the song "And the Melody Still Lingers On (Night in Tunisia)" with Dizzy Gillespie reviving the solo break from " Night in Tunisia ". Dia juga merilis lagu "Dan Melody masih menempel pada (Malam di Tunisia)" dengan Dizzy Gillespie menghidupkan kembali istirahat solo dari " Night di Tunisia ".
In general, smooth jazz is downtempo (the most widely played tracks are in the 90–105 BPM range), layering a lead, melody-playing instrument ( saxophones –especially soprano and tenor –are the most popular, with legato electric guitar playing a close second) over a backdrop that typically consists of programmed electronic drum rhythms, synth pads and samples [ citation needed ] . Secara umum, smooth jazz adalah downtempo (yang banyak dimainkan kebanyakan lagu di 90-105 BPM rentang), layering memimpin, melodi-memainkan alat musik ( saksofon -terutama sopran dan tenor -yang paling populer, dengan legato gitar listrik memainkan menutup kedua) atas latar belakang yang biasanya terdiri dari diprogram irama drum elektronik, bantalan synth dan sampel [ rujukan? ]. In his Newsweek article "The Problem With Jazz Criticism" [ 57 ] Stanley Crouch considers Miles Davis ' playing of fusion as a turning point that led to smooth jazz. Dalam karyanya Newsweek artikel "Masalah Dengan Kritik Jazz" [57] Stanley Crouch menganggap Miles Davis bermain 'fusi sebagai titik balik yang mengarah ke halus jazz. In Aaron J. West's introduction to his analysis of smooth jazz, "Caught Between Jazz and Pop" he states, Dalam pengantar Harun J. Barat analisis nya smooth jazz, "tertangkap Antara Jazz dan Pop" ia menyatakan,
I challenge the prevalent marginalization and malignment of smooth jazz in the standard jazz narrative. Saya menantang marginalisasi lazim dan malignment jazz halus dalam narasi jazz standar. Furthermore, I question the assumption that smooth jazz is an unfortunate and unwelcomed evolutionary outcome of the jazz-fusion era. Selain itu, saya mempertanyakan asumsi bahwa smooth jazz merupakan hasil evolusi malang dan tak diharapkan dari era jazz-fusion. Instead, I argue that smooth jazz is a long-lived musical style that merits multi-disciplinary analyses of its origins, critical dialogues, performance practice, and reception. [ 58 ] Sebaliknya, saya berpendapat bahwa smooth jazz adalah gaya hidup musik-panjang yang manfaat multi-disiplin analisis asal-usulnya, dialog kritis, praktek kinerja, dan penerimaan. [58]

[ edit ] Acid jazz, nu jazz and jazz rap [ sunting ] Acid jazz, jazz dan rap nu jazz

Acid jazz developed in the UK over the 1980s and 1990s and influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music . Acid jazz yang dikembangkan di Inggris selama tahun 1980-an dan 1990-an dan dipengaruhi oleh jazz-funk dan musik dansa elektronik . Jazz-funk musicians such as Roy Ayers and Donald Byrd are often credited as forerunners of acid jazz. [ 59 ] While acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including sampling or live DJ cutting and scratching), it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance. Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, there are usually no improvisational aspects. -Funk musisi Jazz seperti Roy Ayers dan Donald Byrd sering dikreditkan sebagai pelopor jazz asam. [59] Sementara acid jazz sering mengandung berbagai jenis komposisi elektronik (kadang-kadang termasuk sampling atau DJ tinggal memotong dan menggaruk), hal itu sama mungkin untuk dimainkan live oleh musisi, yang sering menampilkan interpretasi jazz sebagai bagian dari kinerja mereka. Nu jazz dipengaruhi oleh harmoni jazz dan melodi, biasanya tidak ada aspek improvisasi. It ranges from combining live instrumentation with beats of jazz house , exemplified by St Germain , Jazzanova and Fila Brazillia , to more band-based improvised jazz with electronic elements such as that of The Cinematic Orchestra , Kobol , and the Norwegian "future jazz" style pioneered by Bugge Wesseltoft , Jaga Jazzist , Nils Petter Molvær , and others. Mulai dari menggabungkan instrumentasi hidup dengan irama jazz rumah , dicontohkan oleh St Germain , Jazzanova dan Fila Brazillia , lebih band berbasis jazz improvisasi dengan unsur-unsur elektronik seperti yang dari The Cinematic Orchestra , Kobol , dan Norwegia "jazz masa depan" gaya dipelopori oleh Bugge Wesseltoft , Jaga Jazzist , Nils Petter Molvær , dan lain-lain. Nu jazz can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept. Nu jazz bisa sangat eksperimental di alam dan dapat sangat bervariasi dalam suara dan konsep.
Jazz rap developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and incorporates jazz influence into hip hop . Jazz rap dikembangkan pada akhir 1980-an dan awal 1990-an, dan memasukkan pengaruh jazz ke hip hop . In 1988, Gang Starr released the debut single "Words I Manifest", sampling Dizzy Gillespie 's 1962 "Night in Tunisia", and Stetsasonic released "Talkin' All That Jazz", sampling Lonnie Liston Smith . Pada tahun 1988, Gang Starr merilis debut single "Kata-kata saya Manifest", sampling Dizzy Gillespie 's 1962 "Night di Tunisia", dan Stetsasonic merilis "Talkin 'All That Jazz", sampling Lonnie Liston Smith . Gang Starr's debut LP, No More Mr. Nice Guy ( Wild Pitch , 1989), and their track "Jazz Thing" ( CBS , 1990) for the soundtrack of Mo' Better Blues , sampling Charlie Parker and Ramsey Lewis . Gang Starr debut LP, No More Mr Nice Guy ( Wild Pitch , 1989), dan lagu mereka "Thing Jazz" ( CBS , 1990) untuk soundtrack 'Better Blues Mo , sampling Charlie Parker dan Ramsey Lewis . Gang Starr also collaborated with Branford Marsalis and Terence Blanchard .Groups making up the collective known as the Native Tongues Posse tended towards jazzy releases; these include the Jungle Brothers ' debut Straight Out the Jungle (Warlock, 1988) and A Tribe Called Quest 's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm ( Jive , 1990) and The Low End Theory (Jive, 1991). The Low End Theory has become one of hip hop's most acclaimed albums , and earned praise too from jazz bassist Ron Carter , who played double bass on one track. Gang Starr juga bekerja sama dengan Branford Marsalis dan Terence Blanchard tersebut. Grup yang membentuk kolektif yang dikenal sebagai Bahasa Lidah Posse cenderung terhadap rilis jazzy, ini termasuk Jungle Brothers 'debut Straight Out the Jungle (Warlock, 1988) dan A Tribe Called Quest 's Rakyat Naluriah Travels dan Jalan Irama ( Jive , 1990) dan The Low End Theory (Jive, 1991). The Low End Teori telah menjadi salah satu hip hop acclaimed album yang paling , dan memperoleh pujian juga dari jazz bassist Ron Carter , yang bermain double bass di satu lagu. Beginning in 1993, rapper Guru 's Jazzmatazz series used jazz musicians during the studio recordings. Awal tahun 1993, rapper Guru s ' Jazzmatazz seri digunakan musisi jazz selama rekaman studio. Though jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, jazz legend Miles Davis ' final album (released posthumously in 1992), Doo-Bop , was based around hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee . Meskipun rap jazz telah mencapai kesuksesan mainstream sedikit, legenda jazz Miles Davis album terakhir '(dirilis secara anumerta pada 1992), Doo-Bop , didasarkan sekitar hip hop beats dan kolaborasi dengan produser Easy Mo Bee . Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock returned to hip hop influences in the mid-nineties, releasing the album Dis Is Da Drum in 1994. -Bandmate Davis 'mantan Herbie Hancock kembali ke pengaruh hip hop pada pertengahan sembilan puluhan, merilis album Dis Is Da Drum pada tahun 1994.

[ edit ] Punk jazz and jazzcore [ sunting ] Punk dan jazzcore jazz

John Zorn performing in 2006. John Zorn tampil di 2006.
The relaxation of orthodoxy concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation for jazz. Relaksasi ortodoksi bersamaan dengan post-punk di London dan New York City menyebabkan apresiasi baru untuk jazz. In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz, along with dub reggae, into their brand of punk rock. [ 60 ] In NYC, No Wave took direct inspiration from both free jazz and punk. Di London, Grup Pop mulai campuran jazz gratis, bersama dengan reggae dub, menjadi merek mereka punk rock. [60] Di NYC, No Wave mengambil inspirasi langsung dari kedua free jazz dan punk. Examples of this style include Lydia Lunch 's Queen of Siam , [ 61 ] the work of James Chance and the Contortions , who mixed Soul with free jazz and punk , [ 61 ] Gray, and the Lounge Lizards , [ 61 ] who were the first group to call themselves " punk jazz ". Contoh gaya ini termasuk Lydia Lunch 's Queen of Siam, [61] karya James Chance dan contortions , yang dicampur Soul dengan free jazz dan punk , [61] Gray, dan Lizards Lounge , [61] yang merupakan Kelompok pertama menyebut diri mereka " punk jazz ".
John Zorn began to make note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock and incorporated this into free jazz. John Zorn mulai membuat catatan dari penekanan pada kecepatan dan disonansi yang menjadi lazim di punk rock dan dimasukkan ini ke free jazz. This began in 1986 with the album Spy vs. Spy , a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style. [ 62 ] The same year, Sonny Sharrock , Peter Brötzmann , Bill Laswell, and Ronald Shannon Jackson recorded the first album under the name Last Exit, a similarly aggressive blend of thrash and free jazz. [ 63 ] These developments are the origins of jazzcore , the fusion of free jazz with hardcore punk. Ini dimulai pada tahun 1986 dengan album Spy vs Spy , koleksi Ornette Coleman lagu-lagu dilakukan di kontemporer thrashcore gaya. [62] Pada tahun yang sama, Sonny Sharrock , Peter Brötzmann , Bill Laswell, dan Ronald Shannon Jackson merekam album pertama di bawah nama Terakhir Keluar, sebuah campuran yang sama agresif thrash dan free jazz. [63] Perkembangan ini adalah asal-usul jazzcore, fusi jazz gratis dengan hardcore punk.
In the 1990s, punk jazz and jazzcore began to reflect the increasing awareness of elements of extreme metal (particularly thrash metal and death metal ) in hardcore punk. Pada 1990-an, punk jazz dan jazzcore mulai mencerminkan meningkatnya kesadaran elemen logam ekstrim (terutama thrash metal dan death metal ) pada hardcore punk. A new style of "metallic jazzcore" was developed by Iceburn , from Salt Lake City, and Candiria , from New York City, though anticipated by Naked City and Pain Killer. Sebuah gaya baru "jazzcore logam" yang dikembangkan oleh Iceburn , dari Salt Lake City, dan Candiria , dari New York City, meskipun diantisipasi oleh Naked Kota dan Pain Killer. This tendency also takes inspiration from jazz inflections in technical death metal , such as the work of Cynic and Atheist . Kecenderungan ini juga mengambil inspirasi dari infleksi jazz di death metal teknis , seperti karya Sinis dan Atheist .

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