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Tuesday, 14 December 2010

CELLO

Selo

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Cello Selo
Cello depan side.png
Cello, front and side view Cello, depan dan samping
String instrument String Instrumen
Other names Nama lainnya Violoncello Selo
Hornbostel-Sachs classification Hornbostel-Sachs klasifikasi 321.322-71 321.322-71
(Composite chordophone sounded by a bow ) (Komposit chordophone terdengar oleh busur )
Developed Dikembangkan about 1660 from the bass violin tentang 1660 dari biola bass
Playing range Bermain kisaran
Range cello.png
Related instruments Instrumen terkait
Musicians Musisi
The cello (pronounced /ˈtʃɛloʊ/ CHEL -oh ; plural cellos or celli ) is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. The cello (diucapkan / tʃɛloʊ / Chel-oh ; cello jamak atau cello) adalah membungkuk instrumen string dengan empat senar disetel di perlima sempurna. It is a member of the violin family of music instruments, which also includes the violin , viola and the contrabass . Ini adalah anggota dari keluarga biola instrumen musik, yang juga termasuk biola , biola dan kontrabas .
The word derives from the Italian 'violoncello'. Kata ini berasal dari Italia 'selo'. The word derives ultimately from vitula , meaning a stringed instrument. Kata ini berasal akhirnya dari vitula, yang berarti sebuah alat musik gesek. A person who plays a cello is called a cellist. Seseorang yang memainkan cello disebut pemain cello sebuah. The cello is used as a solo instrument, in chamber music , in a string orchestra and as a member of the string section of an orchestra . cello ini digunakan sebagai instrumen solo, dalam musik kamar , dalam sebuah orkestra string dan sebagai anggota bagian string dari sebuah orkestra . It is the second largest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra , the double bass being the largest. Ini adalah terbesar kedua membungkuk instrumen string dalam modern orkestra simfoni itu, double bass menjadi yang terbesar.
Cellos were derived from other mid-to-large sized bowed instruments in the 16th century, such as the viola da gamba , and the generally smaller and squarer viola da braccio , and such instruments were made by members of the Amati family of luthiers . Cello berasal dari lain pertengahan sampai besar berukuran membungkuk instrumen pada abad ke 16, seperti da Gamba biola , dan umumnya lebih kecil dan persegi da braccio viola , dan instrumen tersebut dibuat oleh anggota Amati keluarga luthiers . The invention of wire-wrapped strings in Bologna gave the cello greater versatility. Penemuan senar kawat-terbungkus di Bologna memberikan fleksibilitas cello yang lebih besar. By the 18th century the cello had largely replaced other mid-sized bowed instruments. Pada abad ke-18 cello sebagian besar telah digantikan lain menengah membungkuk instrumen.

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[ edit ] Description [ sunting ] Deskripsi

A cello Sebuah cello
The name Cello is an abbreviation of the Italian violoncello , which means "little violone ",or referring to the violone ("big viol"), the lowest-pitched instrument of the viol family, the group of string instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except France, where they survived another half-century or so before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country too. Nama Cello adalah singkatan dari Italia selo, yang berarti "kecil violone ", atau merujuk pada violone ("biola besar"), yang bernada instrumen terendah dari biola keluarga, kelompok instrumen string yang keluar dari mode sekitar akhir abad ke-17 di kebanyakan negara kecuali Perancis, di mana mereka selamat lain setengah abad atau lebih sebelum keras biola keluarga datang ke menguntungkan lebih besar di negara itu juga. The viols have enjoyed a vigorous revival in the 20th and 21st centuries. Para viols telah menikmati kebangkitan kuat pada abad 20 dan 21. Thus, the name carries both an augmentative "-one" ("big") and a diminutive "-cello" ("little"). Jadi, nama baik membawa sebuah augmentatif "satu" ("besar") dan kecil "-cello" ("kecil"). By the turn of the 20th century, it had grown customary to abbreviate the name violoncello to 'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the six missing prefix letters. [ 1 ] It now is acceptable to use the name "cello" without the apostrophe and as a full designation [ 1 ] . Dengan pergantian abad ke-20, itu telah tumbuh kebiasaan untuk menyingkat nama selo untuk 'cello, dengan tanda kutip menunjukkan enam huruf awalan hilang. [1] Sekarang dapat diterima menggunakan nama "cello" tanpa tanda kutip dan sebagai penunjukan penuh [1] . Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2 (two octaves below middle C ) as the lowest string, followed by G2, D3, and A3. Cello yang disetel di perlima, dimulai dengan C2 (dua oktaf dibawah C tengah ) sebagai string terendah, diikuti oleh G2, D3, dan A3. It is tuned the same way as the viola , but an octave lower. Itu disetel dengan cara yang sama seperti biola , tapi satu oktaf lebih rendah.
The cello is most closely associated with European classical music, and has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. [ 2 ] The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra and is the bass voice of the string quartet , as well as being part of many other chamber groups. cello yang paling erat hubungannya dengan musik klasik Eropa, dan telah digambarkan sebagai instrumen terdengar terdekat dengan suara manusia. [2] Instrumen merupakan bagian dari standar orkestra dan suara bass dari kuartet gesek , serta menjadi bagian dari banyak lainnya ruang kelompok. A large number of concertos and sonatas have been written for the cello. Sejumlah besar concerto dan sonata telah ditulis untuk cello.
Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach 's six unaccompanied Suites . Di antara yang paling terkenal Baroque bekerja untuk cello adalah Johann Sebastian Bach 's enam ditemani Suites . The Prelude from the First Suite is particularly famous. The Prelude dari Suite Pertama sangat terkenal. From the Classical era , the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven , which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. Romantic era repertoire includes the Robert Schumann Concerto , the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms . Dari zaman Klasik , dua concerto oleh Joseph Haydn dalam C mayor dan D utama menonjol, seperti melakukan lima sonata untuk cello dan pianoforte dari Ludwig van Beethoven , yang rentang periode penting tiga evolusi komposisi nya. era Romantic repertoar termasuk Robert Schumann Concerto , yang Antonín Dvořák Concerto serta dua sonata dan Double Concerto oleh Johannes Brahms . Compositions from the early 20th century include Edward Elgar 's Cello Concerto in E minor , Claude Debussy 's Sonata for Cello and Piano and unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith . Komposisi dari abad ke-20 awal termasuk Edward Elgar 's Cello Concerto dalam E minor , Claude Debussy 's Sonata untuk Cello dan Piano dan sonata cello tanpa ditemani oleh Zoltán Kodály dan Paul Hindemith . The cello's versatility made it popular with composers in the mid- to late 20th century such as Sergei Prokofiev , Dmitri Shostakovich , Benjamin Britten , György Ligeti and Henri Dutilleux , encouraged by soloists who specialized in contemporary music (such as Siegfried Palm and Mstislav Rostropovich ) commissioning from and collaborating with composers. cello's fleksibilitas yang membuatnya populer dengan komponis di pertengahan sampai akhir abad 20 seperti Sergei Prokofiev , Dmitri Shostakovich , Benjamin Britten , György Ligeti dan Henri Dutilleux , didorong oleh penyanyi solo yang mengkhususkan diri dalam musik kontemporer (seperti Siegfried Palm dan Mstislav Rostropovich ) komisioning dari dan berkolaborasi dengan komposer.
Today the instrument is less common in popular music , but was commonly used in 1970's pop and disco music. [ citation needed ] Today it is still sometimes featured in pop and rock recordings, examples of which are noted later in this article. instrumen Hari ini kurang umum di musik populer , tetapi umumnya digunakan dalam pop 1970 dan disko musik. [ rujukan? ] Hari ini masih kadang-kadang ditampilkan dalam pop dan rock rekaman, contoh yang disebutkan selanjutnya dalam artikel ini. The cello has also recently appeared in major hip-hop and R & B performances, such as singers Rihanna and Ne-Yo 's performance at the American Music Awards . [ citation needed ] The instrument has also been modified for Indian classical music by Nancy Lesh and Saskia Rao-de Haas . [ 3 ] cello juga telah baru-baru ini muncul di besar -hip hop dan R & B pertunjukan, seperti penyanyi Rihanna dan Ne-Yo kinerja 'di American Music Awards . [ rujukan? ] Instrumen juga telah dimodifikasi untuk musik klasik India oleh Nancy Lesh dan Saskia Rao-de Haas . [3]

[ edit ] History [ sunting ] Sejarah

The history of bowed string musical instruments in Europe dates back to the 9th century with the lira ( Greek: λύρα, Latin: lūrā ), The violoncello is a descendant of the viola de braccio (like the violin and viola ) despite the fact the it is played between the legs, like the viola de gamba . Sejarah membungkuk string alat musik di Eropa tanggal kembali ke abad ke-9 dengan lira (Yunani: λύρα, Latin: lūrā), selo adalah keturunan dari biola de braccio (seperti biola dan biola ) meskipun yang itu dimainkan antara kaki, seperti biola de Gamba .

[ edit ] Current use [ sunting ] menggunakan Lancar

[ edit ] Orchestral [ sunting ] Orkestra

Cellos are part of the standard symphony orchestra , which usually includes eight to twelve players. Cello adalah bagian dari standar orkestra simfoni , yang biasanya mencakup delapan sampai dua belas pemain. The cello section, in standard orchestral seating, is located on stage left (the audience's right) in the front, opposite the first violin section. Bagian cello, di tempat duduk standar orkestra, terletak di atas panggung kiri (kanan penonton) di depan, berlawanan bagian biola pertama. However, some orchestras and conductors prefer switching the positioning of the viola and cello sections. Namun, beberapa orkestra dan konduktor lebih memilih switching posisi bagian viola dan cello. The principal cellist is the section leader, determining bowings for the section in conjunction with other string principals, and playing solos. Pemain cello utama adalah pemimpin bagian, menentukan bowings untuk bagian dalam kaitannya dengan pelaku string lain, dan bermain solo. Principal players always sit closest to the audience. pemain utama selalu duduk paling dekat dengan penonton.
The cellos are a critical part of orchestral music; all symphonic works involve the cello section, and many pieces require cello soli or solos. The cello adalah bagian penting dari musik orkestra; semua karya simfoni melibatkan bagian cello, dan banyak potongan-potongan memerlukan cello soli atau solo. Much of the time, cellos provide part of the harmony for the orchestra. Sebagian besar waktu, cello memberikan bagian dalam harmoni untuk orkestra. On many occasions, the cello section will play the melody for a brief period of time, before returning to the harmony. Pada banyak kesempatan, bagian cello akan bermain melodi untuk jangka waktu singkat, sebelum kembali ke harmoni tersebut. There are also cello concertos , which are orchestral pieces in which a featured, solo cellist is accompanied by an entire orchestra. Ada juga cello concerto , yang potongan orkestra di mana solo, pemain cello fitur ini disertai oleh seluruh orkestra.

[ edit ] Solo [ sunting ] Solo

There are numerous cello concertos - where a solo cello is accompanied by an orchestra - notably 25 by Vivaldi , 12 by Boccherini , 4 by Haydn , 3 by CPE Bach , 2 by Saint-Saëns , 2 by Dvořák , and one each by Schumann , Lalo , and Elgar . Beethoven 's Triple Concerto for Cello, Violin and Piano and Brahms ' Double Concerto for Cello and Violin are also part of the concertante repertoire although in both cases the cello shares solo duties with at least one other instrument. Ada banyak cello concerto - mana cello solo disertai oleh orkestra - terutama 25 oleh Vivaldi , 12 oleh Boccherini , 4 oleh Haydn , 3 oleh CPE Bach , 2 oleh Saint-Saens , 2 oleh Dvořák , dan masing-masing oleh Schumann , Lalo , dan Elgar . Beethoven 's Triple Concerto untuk Cello, Biola dan Piano dan Brahms ' Double Concerto untuk Cello dan Violin juga merupakan bagian dari repertoar concertante meskipun dalam kedua kasus saham cello tugas solo dengan setidaknya satu instrumen lainnya. Moreover, several composers wrote large-scale pieces for cello and orchestra, which are concertos in all but name. Selain itu, beberapa komposer menulis potongan besar-besaran untuk cello dan orkestra, yang concerto di semua nama tapi. Some familiar "concertos" are Strauss ' tone poem Don Quixote , Tchaikovsky 's Variations on a Rococo Theme , Bloch 's Schelomo and Bruch 's Kol Nidrei . Beberapa akrab "concerto" adalah Strauss ' nada puisi Don Quixote , Tchaikovsky 's Variasi pada Tema Rococo , Bloch 's Schelomo dan Bruch 's Nidrei Kol .
In the 20th century, the cello repertoire grew immensely. Pada abad ke-20, repertoar cello tumbuh sangat. This was partly due to the influence of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich who inspired, commissioned and/or premiered dozens of new works. Hal ini sebagian disebabkan oleh pengaruh pemain cello virtuoso Mstislav Rostropovich yang terinspirasi, menugaskan dan / atau perdana puluhan karya baru. Among these, Prokofiev 's Symphonia Concertante , Britten 's Cello Symphony and the concertos of Shostakovich , Lutosławski and Dutilleux have already become part of the standard repertoire. Di antaranya, Prokofiev 's Symphonia concertante, Britten 's Cello Symphony dan concerto dari Shostakovich , Lutosławski dan Dutilleux telah menjadi bagian dari repertoar standar. In addition, Hindemith , Barber , Honegger , Villa-Lobos , Myaskovsky , Walton , Glass , Rodrigo , Arnold , Penderecki and Ligeti also wrote major concertos for other cellists, notably for Gregor Piatigorsky , Siegfried Palm and Julian Lloyd Webber . Selain itu, Hindemith , Barber , Honegger , Villa-Lobos , Myaskovsky , Walton , Glass , Rodrigo , Arnold , Penderecki dan Ligeti juga menulis besar concerto untuk pemain cello lain, terutama untuk Gregor Piatigorsky , Siegfried Palm dan Julian Lloyd Webber .
There are also many sonatas for cello and piano . Ada juga banyak sonata untuk cello dan piano . Those written by Beethoven , Mendelssohn , Chopin , Brahms , Grieg , Rachmaninoff , Debussy , Fauré , Shostakovich , Prokofiev , Poulenc , Carter , and Britten are the most famous. Mereka ditulis oleh Beethoven , Mendelssohn , Chopin , Brahms , Grieg , Rachmaninoff , Debussy , Faure , Shostakovich , Prokofiev , Poulenc , Carter , dan Britten adalah yang paling terkenal. Other important pieces for cello and piano include Schumann 's five Stücke im Volkston and transcriptions like Schubert 's sonata in a minor (originally for arpeggione and piano), Stravinsky 's Suite Italienne (transcribed by the composer from his ballet Pulcinella ) and Bartók 's first rhapsody (also transcribed by the composer, originally for violin and piano) bagian penting lainnya untuk cello dan piano termasuk Schumann 'lima im Stücke Volkston dan transkripsi seperti Schubert 's sonata dalam minor (awalnya untuk arpeggione dan piano), Stravinsky 's Suite Italienne (ditranskripsi oleh komposer dari balet nya Pulcinella) dan Bartók 's rhapsody pertama (juga ditulis oleh komposer, awalnya untuk biola dan piano)
Finally, there are several pieces for cello solo , most importantly JS Bach 's six Suites for Cello (arguably the most important cello pieces), Kodály 's Sonata for Solo Cello and Britten 's three Cello Suites . Akhirnya, ada beberapa potongan untuk solo cello , yang paling penting JS Bach 's enam Suites untuk Cello (arguably cello bagian paling penting), Kodály 's Sonata untuk Solo Cello dan Britten 's tiga Cello Suites . Other notable examples include Hindemith 's Sonata for Solo Cello , Dutilleux ' Trois Strophes sur le Nom de Sacher , Berio 's Les Mots Sont Allés (both part of a series of twelve compositions for solo cello commissioned by Rostropovich for Swiss conductor Paul Sacher 's 70th birthday), Ligeti 's Sonata , Carter 's two Figment s, Joseph Hallman 's "Three Monologues" and "sixsolopieces" and Xenakis ' Nomos Alpha and Kottos . Contoh terkenal lainnya termasuk Hindemith 'Sonata s untuk Solo Cello, Dutilleux 'Trois pupuh sur le Nom de Sacher, Berio 's Les Mots Sont Alles (keduanya bagian dari rangkaian dua belas komposisi untuk cello solo ditugaskan oleh Rostropovich untuk Swiss konduktor Paulus Sacher ' s ulang tahun ke-70), Ligeti 's Sonata , Carter 's dua s isapan jempol, Yusuf Hallman 's "Tiga Monologues" dan "sixsolopieces" dan Xenakis ' Nomos Alpha dan Kottos.

[ edit ] Quartets and other ensembles [ sunting ] kuartet dan lainnya ansambel

The cello is a member of the traditional string quartet as well as string quintets , sextet or trios and other mixed ensembles. cello adalah anggota tradisional kuartet string maupun string quintets , musik untuk enam orang atau trio dan ansambel campuran lainnya. There are also pieces written for two, three, four or more cellos; this type of ensemble is also called a "cello choir" and its sound is familiar from the introduction to Rossini 's William Tell Overture as well as Zaccharias' prayer scene in Verdi 's Nabucco . Ada juga potongan ditulis untuk dua, tiga, empat atau lebih cello, ini jenis ansambel ini juga disebut "cello paduan suara" dan suara yang sangat familiar dari pengantar untuk Rossini 's William Tell Overture serta Zaccharias 'adegan doa Verdi 's Nabucco . As a self-sufficient ensemble, its most famous repertoire is Villa-Lobos ' first of his Bachianas Brasileiras for cello ensemble (the fifth is for soprano and 8 cellos). Sebagai ensemble yang cukup-diri, yang paling terkenal adalah repertoar Villa-Lobos 'pertama nya Bachianas Brasileiras untuk cello ensemble (kelima adalah untuk soprano dan 8 cello). Other examples are Offenbach 's cello duets, quartet, and sextet, Pärt 's Fratres for 8 cellos and Boulez ' Messagesquisse for 7 cellos, or even Villa-Lobos' rarely played Fantasia Concertante (1958) for 32 cellos. Contoh lain adalah Offenbach 's cello duet, kwartet, dan musik untuk enam orang, Pärt 's Fratres untuk 8 cello dan Boulez 'Messagesquisse selama 7 cello, atau bahkan Villa-Lobos' jarang bermain Fantasia concertante (1958) untuk 32 cello. The Twelve Cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (or "the Twelve" as they have since taken to being called) specialize in this repertoire and have commissioned many works, including arrangements of well-known popular songs. The Dua Belas pemain cello dari Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (atau "Dua Belas" karena mereka telah sejak diambil untuk disebut) spesialis dalam repertoar ini dan telah menugaskan banyak karya, termasuk pengaturan yang dikenal populer lagu-baik.

[ edit ] Popular music, jazz and neoclassical [ sunting ] Populer musik, jazz dan neoklasik

Though the cello is less common in popular music than in classical music, it is sometimes featured in pop and rock recordings. Meskipun cello kurang umum di musik populer daripada musik klasik, kadang-kadang ditampilkan dalam pop dan rock rekaman. The cello is rarely part of a group's standard lineup but like its cousin the violin it is becoming more common in mainstream pop (ie the baroque rock band Arcade Fire uses the cello in their songs). cello ini jarang bagian dari standar lineup's grup tetapi seperti sepupunya biola itu menjadi lebih umum di pop mainstream (yaitu baroque rock band Arcade Fire menggunakan cello dalam lagu mereka).
In the 1960s, artists such as the Beatles and Cher used the cello in popular music, in songs such as " Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down) ", " Eleanor Rigby " and " Strawberry Fields Forever ". Pada tahun 1960, artis-artis seperti The Beatles dan Cher digunakan cello dalam musik populer, dalam lagu seperti " Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down) "," Eleanor Rigby "dan" Strawberry Fields Forever ". Bass guitarist Jack Bruce , who had originally studied music on a performance scholarship for cello, played a prominent cello part in "As You Said" on Cream 's Wheels of Fire studio album (1968). Gitaris bass Jack Bruce , yang awalnya belajar musik dengan beasiswa kinerja untuk cello, memainkan cello bagian menonjol dalam "As You Said" di Cream 's Roda Api studio album (1968). In the 1970s, the Electric Light Orchestra enjoyed great commercial success taking inspiration from so-called "Beatlesque" arrangements, adding the cello (and violin) to the standard rock combo line-up and in 1978 the UK based rock band, Colosseum II , collaborated with cellist Julian Lloyd Webber on the recording Variations . Pada 1970-an, Electric Light Orchestra menikmati sukses komersial yang besar mengambil inspirasi dari apa yang disebut "Beatlesque" pengaturan, menambahkan cello (dan biola) ke standar rock combo line-up dan di tahun 1978 berdasarkan band rock Inggris, Colosseum II , berkolaborasi dengan pemain selo Julian Lloyd Webber pada rekaman Variasi . Most notably, Pink Floyd included a cello solo in their 1970 epic instrumental Atom Heart Mother . Terutama, Pink Floyd termasuk solo cello dalam wiracarita mereka 1970 instrumental Atom Heart Mother . Bass guitarist Mike Rutherford of Genesis was originally a cellist and included some cello parts in their Foxtrot album. Bass gitaris Mike Rutherford dari Kejadian awalnya pemain cello dan termasuk bagian cello beberapa di mereka Foxtrot album.
Established non-traditional cello groups include Apocalyptica , a group of Finnish cellists best known for their versions of Metallica songs, Rasputina , a group of cellists committed to an intricate cello style intermingled with Gothic music, Von Cello , a cello fronted rock power trio, Break of Reality who mix elements of classical music with the more modern rock and metal genre, and Jelloslave ( [1] ) a Minneapolis based Cello duo with two percussionists. Didirikan cello tradisional termasuk kelompok non- Apocalyptica , sekelompok pemain cello terkenal Finlandia versi mereka Metallica lagu, Rasputina , sekelompok pemain cello berkomitmen untuk gaya cello rumit bercampur dengan musik Gothic, Von Cello , sebuah cello fronted rock trio kekuasaan, Break Realitas yang campuran unsur musik klasik dengan modern rock lebih dan genre logam, dan Jelloslave ( [1] ) sebuah Minneapolis berdasarkan Cello duo dengan dua perkusionis. These groups are examples of a style that has become known as cello rock . Kelompok-kelompok ini adalah contoh sebuah gaya yang telah menjadi dikenal sebagai batu cello . The crossover string quartet bond also includes a cellist. Crossover string kuartet obligasi juga termasuk pemain cello sebuah. Silenzium and Vivacello are Russian (Novosibirsk) groups playing rock and metal and having more and more popularity in Siberia. Cold Fairyland from Shanghai China is using a cello along a Pipa as the main solo instrument to create East meets West progressive (folk) rock. Silenzium dan Vivacello adalah Rusia (Novosibirsk) kelompok bermain rock dan metal dan memiliki popularitas yang lebih banyak dan lebih di Siberia. Cold Fairyland dari Shanghai Cina adalah menggunakan cello sepanjang Pipa sebagai instrumen solo utama untuk membuat Timur bertemu Barat progresif (kaum) rock.
More recent bands using the cello are Aerosmith , Nirvana , Oasis , Murder by Death , Cursive , A Genuine Freakshow , Smashing Pumpkins , James , and OneRepublic . band baru Lebih menggunakan cello yang Aerosmith , Nirvana , Oasis , Pembunuhan oleh Kematian , Kursif , A Genuine Freakshow , Smashing Pumpkins , James , dan OneRepublic . An Atlanta-based trio, King Richard's Sunday Best, also uses a cellist in their lineup. Sebuah trio yang berbasis di Atlanta, Raja Richard Terbaik Minggu, juga menggunakan pemain cello dalam lineup mereka. So-called "chamber pop" artists like Kronos Quartet , The Vitamin String Quartet and Margot and the Nuclear So and So's have also recently made cello common in modern alternative rock. Jadi yang disebut "ruang pop" artis seperti Kronos Quartet , The Vitamin String Quartet dan Margot dan Nuklir Jadi dan Jadi Teman baru ini juga membuat cello telah umum dalam rock alternatif modern. Heavy metal band System of a Down has also made use of the cello's rich sound. Heavy metal band System of a Down juga memanfaatkan kaya suara cello. The indie rock band The Stiletto Formal are known for using a cello as a major staple of their sound, similarly, the indie rock band Canada employs two cello players in their lineup. Band indie rock The Stiletto Formal dikenal karena menggunakan cello sebagai bahan pokok utama dari suara mereka, demikian juga indie rock band Kanada mempekerjakan pemain cello dua di lineup mereka. The orch-rock group, The Polyphonic Spree , which has pioneered the use of stringed and symphonic instruments, employs the cello in very creative ways for many of their "psychedelic-esque" melodies. The-grup rock orch, The Polyphonic Spree , yang telah mempelopori penggunaan dan simfoni instrumen senar, mempekerjakan cello dalam cara yang sangat kreatif bagi banyak dari mereka "psychedelic-esque" melodi. The first wave screamo band I Would Set Myself On Fire For You featured a cello as well as a viola to create a more folk -oriented sound. Gelombang pertama screamo band saya Apakah Set Myself On Fire Untuk Anda menampilkan cello serta biola untuk menciptakan lebih rakyat berorientasi suara. The band, Panic! Band, Panic! At the Disco uses a cello in their song, "Build God, Then We'll Talk." Pada Disco menggunakan cello dalam lagu mereka, "Bangun Allah, Kemudian Kami akan Bicara." The lead vocalist of the band, Brendon Urie , also did the recording of the cello solo. Para vokalis dari band, Brendon Urie , juga melakukan rekaman solo cello.
In jazz , bassists Oscar Pettiford and Harry Babasin were among the first to use the cello as a solo instrument; both tuned their instrument in fourths, an octave above the double bass. Fred Katz (who was not a bassist) was one of the first notable jazz cellists to use the instrument's standard tuning and arco technique. Dalam jazz , bassists Oscar Pettiford dan Harry Babasin adalah di antara yang pertama menggunakan cello sebagai instrumen solo; baik dicari instrumen mereka di perempat, satu oktaf di atas double bass. Fred Katz (yang bukan bassis) adalah salah satu yang pertama pemain cello jazz terkemuka untuk menggunakan standar tuning instrumen dan teknik Arco. Contemporary jazz cellists include Abdul Wadud , Diedre Murray , Ron Carter , Dave Holland , David Darling , Lucio Amanti , Akua Dixon , Ernst Reijseger , Fred Lonberg-Holm , Tom Cora , Vincent Courtois, Jean-Charles Capon, Erik Friedlander , and James Hinkley of jazz combo Billet-Deux . jazz pemain cello Kontemporer termasuk Abdul Wadud , Diedre Murray , Ron Carter , Dave Holland , David Darling , Lucio Amanti , Akua Dixon , Ernst Reijseger , Fred Lonberg-Holm , Tom Cora , Vincent Courtois, Jean-Charles ayam kebiri, Erik Friedlander , dan James Hinkley jazz combo Billet-Deux.
Modern musical theatre pieces like Jason Robert Brown's The Last Five Years , Duncan Sheik's Spring Awakening , Adam Guettel's Floyd Collins , and Ricky Ian Gordon's My Life with Albertine use small string ensembles (including solo cellos) to a prominent extent. Modern teater musikal potongan seperti Jason Robert Brown Lima Tahun Terakhir , Duncan Sheik's Spring Awakening , Adam Guettel's Floyd Collins , dan Ricky Ian Gordon Hidupku dengan Albertine kecil menggunakan string ansambel (termasuk cello solo) untuk tingkat menonjol.
The cello can also be used in bluegrass and folk music, with notable players including Ben Sollee of the Sparrow Quartet and the "Cajun cellist" Sean Grissom as well as Damien Rice . Lindsay Mac is becoming well known for playing the cello like a guitar, with her cover of The Beatles Blackbird a big hit on The Bob & Tom Show . cello juga dapat digunakan dalam dan rakyat musik bluegrass, dengan pemain terkenal termasuk Ben Sollee dari Sparrow Quartet dan "pemain cello Cajun" Sean Grissom serta Damien Rice . Lindsay Mac menjadi terkenal dengan memainkan cello seperti gitar, dengan cover nya The Beatles Blackbird hit besar di The & Tom Show Bob .

[ edit ] Chinese orchestra [ sunting ] orkestra China

The cello also appear frequently in the Chinese orchestra as a member of the bowed strings family. cello juga sering muncul dalam orkestra Cina sebagai anggota dari keluarga membungkuk string.

[ edit ] Construction [ sunting ] Konstruksi

The cello is typically made from wood, although other materials such as carbon fibre or aluminum may be used. cello ini biasanya terbuat dari kayu, meskipun bahan lain seperti serat karbon atau aluminium dapat digunakan. A traditional cello has a spruce top, with maple for the back, sides, and neck. Sebuah cello tradisional memiliki cemara atas, dengan maple untuk bagian belakang, samping, dan leher. Other woods, such as poplar or willow , are sometimes used for the back and sides. hutan lainnya, seperti poplar atau willow , kadang-kadang digunakan untuk bagian belakang dan samping. Less expensive cellos frequently have tops and backs made of laminated wood . Kurang cello mahal sering memiliki puncak dan punggung yang terbuat dari kayu lamina .
The top and back are traditionally hand-carved, though less expensive cellos are often machine-produced. Bagian atas dan kembali secara tradisional tangan-ukiran, meskipun cello yang lebih murah seringkali mesin diproduksi. The sides, or ribs, are made by heating the wood and bending it around forms. Sisi, atau tulang rusuk, dibuat dengan memanaskan kayu dan lentur di sekitar bentuk. The cello body has a wide top bout, narrow middle formed by two C-bouts, and wide bottom bout, with the bridge and F holes just below the middle. Tubuh cello memiliki pertarungan atas lebar, tengah sempit yang dibentuk oleh dua-buti C, dan pertarungan bawah lebar, dengan jembatan dan lubang F tepat di bawah tengah.
The top and back of the cello has decorative border inlay known as purfling . Bagian atas dan belakang cello telah tatahan perbatasan dekoratif dikenal sebagai purfling . While purfling is attractive, it is also functional: if the instrument is struck, the purfling can prevent cracking of the wood. Sementara purfling menarik, juga fungsional: jika instrumen yang dipukul, purfling bisa mencegah cracking dari kayu. A crack may form at the rim of the instrument, but will spread no further. retak mungkin terbentuk di tepi instrumen, tetapi akan menyebar lebih jauh lagi. Without purfling, cracks can spread up or down the top or back. Tanpa purfling, retak dapat menyebar ke atas atau bawah bagian atas atau punggung. Playing, traveling and the weather all affect the cello and can increase a crack if purfling is not in place. Bermain, bepergian dan cuaca semua mempengaruhi cello dan dapat meningkatkan retak jika purfling tidak pada tempatnya. Less expensive instruments typically have painted purfling. Kurang instrumen mahal biasanya memiliki dicat purfling.

[ edit ] Alternate materials [ sunting ] bahan alternatif

Cello manufacturer Luis & Clark constructs cellos from carbon fibre . Produsen cello Luis & Clark konstruksi cello dari serat karbon . Carbon fibre instruments are particularly suitable for outdoor playing because of the strength of the material and its resistance to humidity and temperature fluctuations. instrumen serat karbon sangat cocok untuk bermain di luar ruangan karena kekuatan material dan ketahanannya terhadap fluktuasi kelembaban dan suhu. Luis & Clark has produced over 600 such cellos, some of which are owned by cellists such as Yo-Yo Ma [ 4 ] and Josephine van Lier [ 5 ] . Luis & Clark telah menghasilkan lebih dari 600 cello tersebut, beberapa di antaranya dimiliki oleh pemain cello seperti Yo-Yo Ma [4] dan Josephine van Lier [5] .
In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) as well as German luthier GA Pfretzschner produced an unknown number of aluminum cellos (in addition to aluminum double basses and violins). Pada akhir 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, Perusahaan Aluminium Amerika (Alcoa) serta Jerman luthier GA Pfretzschner menghasilkan yang tidak diketahui jumlahnya cello aluminium (selain Basses aluminium ganda dan biola). An advertisement published in NY Music Service catalogue (1930) reads: "...made entirely of aluminum with the exception of the fingerboard. They have many advantages over the wood basses and violoncellos, as they cannot crack, split or warp and are made to last forever ... possessing a tone quality that is deep, resonant and responsive to the utmost degree. Violoncello $150." Sebuah iklan yang diterbitkan di NY Katalog layanan Musik (1930) berbunyi: "... yang seluruhnya terbuat dari aluminium dengan pengecualian fingerboard Mereka memiliki banyak keuntungan atas Basses kayu dan violoncellos, karena mereka tidak dapat retak, split atau warp dan dibuat. berlangsung selamanya ... memiliki kualitas nada yang mendalam, resonansi dan responsif terhadap tingkat paling selo $ 150.. " Only a handful of aluminum cellos exist today including a Pfretzschner played by modern classical cellist Frances-Marie Uitti , another played by bluegrass cellist Stan Young. Hanya segelintir cello aluminium ada sampai sekarang termasuk Pfretzschner dimainkan oleh pemain cello klasik modern Frances-Marie Uitti , lain dimainkan oleh pemain cello bluegrass Stan Young.

[ edit ] Neck, pegbox, and scroll [ sunting ] Leher, pegbox, lalu gulir

Above the main body is the carved neck, which leads to a pegbox and the scroll . Di atas tubuh utama adalah leher berukir, yang mengarah pada pegbox dan gulir . The neck, pegbox, and scroll are normally carved out of a single piece of wood. Leher, pegbox, lalu gulir biasanya diukir dari sepotong kayu. Attached to the neck and extending over the body of the instrument is the fingerboard. Melekat pada leher dan memperluas atas tubuh dari instrumen yang fingerboard. The nut is a raised piece of wood, where the fingerboard meets the pegbox, which the strings rest on. Ini kacang adalah bagian mengangkat kayu, dimana fingerboard memenuhi pegbox, yang sisanya string pada. The pegbox houses four tuning pegs , one for each string. pegbox Rumah-rumah empat tuning pasak , satu untuk setiap string. The pegs are used to tune the cello by either tightening or loosening the string. Pasak yang digunakan untuk menyetel cello dengan baik mengencangkan atau melonggarkan string. The scroll is a traditional part of the cello and all other members of the violin family . Ebony is usually used for the tuning pegs, fingerboard, and nut, but other hard woods, such as boxwood or rosewood , can be used. Gulir merupakan bagian tradisional dari cello dan semua anggota lain dari keluarga biola . Ebony biasanya digunakan untuk tuning pasak, fingerboard, dan kacang, tetapi kayu keras lain, seperti boxwood atau rosewood , dapat digunakan.

[ edit ] Strings [ sunting ] String

Strings on a cello have cores made out of gut (sheep or goat), metal, or synthetic materials, such as Perlon . String pada cello telah core terbuat dari usus (domba atau kambing), logam, atau bahan sintetik, seperti Perlon . Most modern strings used today are also wound with metallic materials like aluminum, titanium and chromium. Paling modern string digunakan saat ini adalah juga luka dengan bahan logam seperti aluminium, titanium dan kromium. Cellists may mix different types of strings on their instruments. Pemain cello mungkin campuran berbagai jenis string pada instrumen mereka. The pitches of the open strings are C, G, D, and A (black note heads in the playing range figure above), unless alternate tuning ( scordatura ) is used. Para pitches dari string terbuka C, G, D, dan A (catatan hitam kepala pada gambar di kisaran bermain di atas), kecuali tuning alternatif ( scordatura ) digunakan.

[ edit ] Tailpiece and endpin [ sunting ] tailpiece dan endpin

The tailpiece and endpin are found in the lower part of the cello. Para tailpiece dan endpin ditemukan di bagian bawah cello. The tailpiece is traditionally made of ebony or another hard wood, but can also be made of plastic or steel . tailpiece secara tradisional terbuat dari kayu hitam atau kayu keras yang lain, tetapi juga bisa terbuat dari plastik atau baja . It attaches the strings to the lower end of the cello, and can have one or more fine tuners. Mengikat tali ke ujung bawah cello, dan dapat memiliki satu atau lebih tuner halus. The endpin or spike is made of wood, metal or rigid carbon fibre and supports the cello in playing position. The endpin atau spike terbuat dari kayu, logam atau serat karbon kaku dan mendukung cello dalam bermain posisi. In the Baroque period the cello was held between the calves. Dalam periode Baroque cello diadakan antara betis. Around the 1830s, the Belgian cellist Auguste Adrien Servais introduced the endpin and propagated its use. Sekitar tahun 1830-an, pemain cello Auguste Belgia Adrien Servais endpin memperkenalkan dan menyebarkan penggunaannya. Modern endpins are retractable and adjustable; older ones were removed when not in use. endpins modern ditarik dan disesuaikan; yang lebih tua telah dihapus bila tidak digunakan. (The word "endpin" sometimes also refers to the button of wood located at this place in all instruments in the violin family, but this is usually called "tailpin". [2] ) The sharp tip of the cello's endpin is sometimes capped with a rubber tip that protects the tip from dulling and prevents the cello from slipping on the floor. (Kata "endpin" kadang-kadang juga merujuk ke tombol dari kayu terletak di tempat ini di semua instrumen dalam keluarga biola, tetapi ini biasanya disebut "tailpin". [2] ) Ujung tajam cello's endpin ini kadang-kadang ditutup dengan tip tip karet yang melindungi dari menumpulkan dan mencegah cello dari tergelincir di lantai.

[ edit ] Bridge and f-holes [ sunting ] Jembatan dan f-lubang

The bridge of a cello, with a mute (the mute is not in use) Jembatan cello, dengan bisu (yang bisu sedang tidak digunakan)
The bridge holds the strings above the cello and transfers their vibrations to the top of the instrument and the soundpost inside (see below). Para jembatan memegang senar di atas cello dan transfer getaran mereka ke atas instrumen dan bagian dalam soundpost (lihat di bawah). The bridge is not glued, but rather held in place by the tension of the strings. Jembatan tidak terpaku, melainkan diadakan di tempat oleh ketegangan senar. The f-holes , named for their shape, are located on either side of the bridge, and allow air to move in and out of the instrument as part of the sound-production process. The -f lubang , nama untuk bentuk mereka, yang terletak di kedua sisi jembatan, dan memungkinkan udara untuk bergerak masuk dan keluar dari instrumen tersebut sebagai bagian dari proses produksi suara. The f-holes also act as access points to the interior of the cello for repairs or maintenance. F-lubang juga bertindak sebagai titik akses ke bagian dalam cello untuk perbaikan atau pemeliharaan. Sometimes a small hose containing a water-soaked sponge, called a Dampit , is inserted through the f-holes, and serves as a humidifier. Kadang-kadang selang kecil berisi-spons direndam air, yang disebut Dampit , dimasukkan melalui lubang f-, dan berfungsi sebagai humidifier.

[ edit ] Internal features [ sunting ] Fitur Internal

Internally, the cello has two important features: a bass bar , which is glued to the underside of the top of the instrument, and a round wooden sound post , which is wedged between the top and bottom plates. Secara internal, cello memiliki dua fitur penting: sebuah bar bass , yang menempel pada bagian bawah bagian atas instrumen, dan kayu bulat suara posting , yang terselip di antara pelat atas dan bawah. The bass bar, found under the bass foot of the bridge, serves to support the cello's top and distribute the vibrations. Bar bass, ditemukan di bawah kaki jembatan bass, berfungsi untuk mendukung atas cello dan mendistribusikan getaran. The sound post, found under the treble side of the bridge, connects the back and front of the cello. Pos suara, ditemukan di bawah sisi treble jembatan, menghubungkan bagian belakang dan depan cello. Like the bridge, the sound post is not glued, but is kept in place by the tensions of the bridge and strings. Seperti jembatan, pos suara tidak direkatkan, tetapi disimpan di tempat oleh ketegangan dari jembatan dan string. Together, the bass bar and sound post transfer the strings' vibrations to the top (front) of the instrument (and to a lesser extent the back), acting as a diaphragm to produce the instrument's sound. Bersama-sama, bar bass dan pasca mentransfer suara string 'getaran ke) atas (depan instrumen (dan sampai batas tertentu belakang), bertindak sebagai diafragma untuk menghasilkan instrumen suara.

[ edit ] Glue [ sunting ] Lem

Cellos are constructed and repaired using hide glue , which is strong but reversible, allowing for disassembly when needed. Cello yang dibangun dan diperbaiki dengan menggunakan lem menyembunyikan , yang kuat, tetapi reversibel, memungkinkan untuk pembongkaran bila diperlukan. Tops may be glued on with diluted glue, since some repairs call for the removal of the top. Tops mungkin terpaku pada dengan lem diencerkan, karena beberapa perbaikan panggilan untuk menghilangkan bagian atas. Theoretically, hide glue is weaker than the body's wood, so as the top or back shrinks side-to-side, the glue holding it will let go, avoiding a crack in the plate. Secara teoritis, menyembunyikan lem lebih lemah dari kayu tubuh, sehingga sisi atas atau menyusut kembali-sisi ke-, lem memegangnya akan membiarkan pergi, menghindari celah di piring.

[ edit ] Bow [ sunting ] Bow

A cello French bow held with the palm facing down, [ nb 1 ] sul ponticello Sebuah busur Perancis cello diselenggarakan dengan telapak tangan menghadap ke bawah, [nb 1] ponticello sul
Traditionally, bows are made from pernambuco or brazilwood . Secara tradisional, busur dibuat dari Pernambuco atau brazilwood . Both come from the same species of tree ( Caesalpina echinata ), but pernambuco, used for higher-quality bows, is the heartwood of the tree and is darker in color than brazilwood (which is sometimes stained to compensate). Keduanya berasal dari spesies yang sama pohon (Caesalpina echinata), tetapi Pernambuco, digunakan untuk busur berkualitas tinggi, adalah kayu batang pohon dan lebih gelap dalam warna dari brazilwood (yang kadang-kadang diwarnai untuk mengkompensasi). Pernambuco is a heavy, resinous wood with great elasticity, which makes it an ideal wood for instrument bows. Pernambuco adalah kayu, berat resinous dengan elastisitas besar, yang membuatnya menjadi kayu ideal untuk busur instrumen.
Bows are also made from other materials, such as carbon-fibre—stronger than wood—and fiberglass (often used to make inexpensive, low-quality student bows). Busur juga dibuat dari bahan lain, seperti karbon-fiber-kuat dari kayu dan fiberglass (sering digunakan untuk membuat murah, busur siswa berkualitas rendah). An average cello bow is 73 cm long (shorter than a violin or viola bow) 3 cm high (from the frog to the stick) and 1.5 cm wide. Sebuah busur cello rata-rata adalah 73 cm (lebih pendek daripada biola atau viola busur) 3 cm tinggi (dari katak ke tongkat) dan 1,5 cm lebar. The frog of a cello bow typically has a rounded corner like that of a viola bow, but is wider. Katak dari busur cello biasanya memiliki sudut bulat seperti itu dari busur viola, tapi lebih luas. A cello bow is roughly 10 grams heavier than a viola bow, which in turn is roughly 10 grams heavier than a violin bow. Sebuah busur cello kira-kira 10 gram lebih berat dari busur biola, yang pada gilirannya kira-kira 10 gram lebih berat dari busur biola.
Bow hair is traditionally horsehair , though synthetic hair, in varying colors, is also used. Bow rambut secara tradisional bulu kuda , meskipun rambut sintetis, dalam warna berbeda-beda, juga digunakan. Prior to playing, the musician tightens the bow by turning a screw to pull the frog (the part of the bow under the hand) back, and increase the tension of the hair. Rosin is applied by the player to make the hairs sticky. Sebelum bermain, musisi mengencangkan busur dengan memutar sekrup untuk menarik katak (bagian dari busur di bawah tangan) kembali, dan meningkatkan ketegangan rambut. rosin diterapkan oleh pemain untuk membuat rambut lengket. Bows need to be re-haired periodically. Bows perlu kembali berambut periodik.
Baroque style (1600–1750) cello bows were much thicker and were formed with a larger outward arch when compared to modern cello bows. Baroque style (1600-1750) busur cello jauh lebih tebal dan dibentuk dengan sebuah lengkungan luar yang lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan busur cello modern. The inward arch of a modern cello bow produces greater tension, which in turn gives off a louder sound. Lengkungan batin busur cello modern menghasilkan ketegangan yang lebih besar, yang pada gilirannya memberi dari suara keras.
The cello bow, though not made conventionally for the use, has also been used to play guitars . Busur cello, meskipun tidak dibuat secara konvensional untuk penggunaan, juga telah digunakan untuk bermain gitar . The post-rock Icelandic band Sigur Rós ' lead singer often plays a guitar using a cello bow. The post-rock Islandia band Sigur Ros vokalis 'sering memainkan gitar menggunakan busur cello.

[ edit ] Physics [ sunting ] Fisika

[ edit ] Physical Aspects [ sunting ] Fisik Aspek

When a string is bowed or plucked, it vibrates, or moves the air around it, producing sound waves. Ketika sebuah string membungkuk atau dipetik, bergetar, atau bergerak udara di sekitarnya, menghasilkan gelombang suara. Because the string is quite thin, not as much air as moved, and consequently the sound is weak. Karena string cukup tipis, tidak sebanyak udara bergerak, dan akibatnya suara lemah. In acoustic stringed instruments such as the cello, this lack of volume is solved by mounting the vibrating string on a larger body. Dalam instrumen senar akustik seperti cello, kurangnya volume diselesaikan dengan me-mount string bergetar pada tubuh yang lebih besar. The vibrations are transmitted to the larger body, which can move more air and produce a louder sound. Getaran yang ditransmisikan ke tubuh yang lebih besar, yang dapat bergerak lebih banyak udara dan menghasilkan suara yang lebih keras. The design of the instrument produces variations in the instrument's vibrational patterns and thus changes the character of the sound produced. [ 6 ] Desain instrumen menghasilkan variasi's getaran pola instrumen dan dengan demikian mengubah karakter suara yang dihasilkan. [6]
A string's fundamental pitch can be adjusted by changing its stiffness, which depends on tension and length. pitch dasar String bisa disesuaikan dengan mengubah kekakuan, yang tergantung pada ketegangan dan panjang. Tightening a string stiffens it by increasing both the outward forces along its length and the net forces it experiences during a distortion. [ 7 ] A cello can be tuned by adjusting the tension in its strings using pegs in its neck and tension adjusters (fine tuners) on the tail piece. Memperketat string menegang itu dengan meningkatkan baik kekuatan lahiriah sepanjang panjangnya dan pasukan bersih itu pengalaman selama distorsi. [7] cello A dapat disetel dengan menyesuaikan ketegangan dalam string dengan menggunakan pasak di leher dan adjuster ketegangan (tuner halus ) di bagian ekor.
A string's length also affects its fundamental pitch. Panjang string juga mempengaruhi pitch fundamentalnya. Shortening a string stiffens it by increasing its curvature during a distortion and subjecting it to larger net forces. Shortening string menegang itu dengan meningkatkan kelengkungan selama distorsi dan menundukkan untuk pasukan bersih lebih besar. Shortening the string also reduces its mass. Shortening string juga mengurangi massa. Since a stiffer string with a smaller mass vibrates faster, shortening a string increases the pitch. Karena string kaku dengan massa yang lebih kecil bergetar lebih cepat, memperpendek string meningkatkan lapangan. Because of this effect, you can raise and change the pitch of a string by pressing it against the fingerboard in the cello's neck and effectively shortening it. [ 7 ] Karena efek ini, Anda dapat meningkatkan dan mengubah pitch string dengan menekan itu terhadap fingerboard di cello's leher dan efektif pemendekan itu. [7]

[ edit ] Subjective Aspects [ sunting ] Subyektif Aspek

Spectogram of a D chord arpeggiated on the cello. Spectogram dari chord D arpeggiated pada cello tersebut. Yellow bands at the same level indicate the same harmonics excited by the bowing of different notes. band Kuning pada tingkat yang sama menunjukkan harmonisa yang sama senang dengan membungkuk catatan yang berbeda. Notes played from left to right: DF# AF# D. Catatan diputar dari kiri ke kanan: DF # AF # D.
When a string is bowed or plucked to produce a note, the note is accompanied by other higher, resonant frequencies. Ketika sebuah string membungkuk atau dipetik untuk menghasilkan catatan, catatan disertai dengan tinggi lainnya, frekuensi resonansi. You actually hear a superposition of these frequencies. Anda benar-benar mendengar superposisi frekuensi ini. The reason you can distinguish among the sources is that each sound has a unique combination of intensities of the various harmonics. Alasan Anda dapat membedakan antara sumber adalah bahwa setiap suara memiliki kombinasi unik intensitas dari berbagai harmonisa. One sound might be composed of a strong fundamental frequency and weaker higher harmonics, and another may have a particularly strong second harmonic. Satu suara mungkin terdiri dari frekuensi dasar yang kuat dan harmonik yang lebih tinggi lebih lemah, dan lain mungkin memiliki yang sangat kuat harmonik kedua. Each sound has a particular recipe of resonant frequencies that combine to make the total sound. [ 8 ] Setiap suara memiliki resep tertentu dari frekuensi resonansi yang menggabungkan untuk membuat suara total. [8]
For the cello, the main wood resonance generally appears very close to the note F# 2 , often with serious consequences. Untuk cello, resonansi kayu utama yang umumnya muncul sangat dekat dengan catatan F # 2, sering kali dengan konsekuensi serius. When the cellist plays the note F# 2 , the main wood resonance vibrates at its frequency as the cello sounds the frequency of the note F# 2 . Ketika pemain cello memainkan F catatan # 2, resonansi kayu utama bergetar pada frekuensi sebagai cello suara frekuensi F catatan # 2. A loud beating sound results between these nearby frequencies; this is known as the “wolf tone” because it is an unpleasant growling sound. Sebuah hasil suara keras pemukulan antara frekuensi dekatnya; ini dikenal sebagai "nada serigala" karena itu adalah suara menggeram yang tidak menyenangkan. The wood resonance appears to be split into two frequencies by the driving force of the sounding string. Resonansi kayu tampaknya dipecah menjadi dua frekuensi oleh kekuatan pendorong dari string terdengar. These two periodic resonances beat with each other. Kedua resonansi periodik mengalahkan satu sama lain. This wolf tone must be eliminated or significantly reduced for the cello to play the nearby notes with a pleasant tone. Ini nada serigala harus dihilangkan atau dikurangi secara signifikan untuk cello untuk memainkan not dekatnya dengan nada yang menyenangkan. This can be accomplished by modifying the cello front plate, attaching a wolf eliminator, or moving the sound post. [ 9 ] Ini bisa dicapai dengan memodifikasi pelat depan cello, melampirkan eliminator serigala, atau memindahkan pos suara. [9]

[ edit ] Harmonics [ sunting ] Harmonisa

The modes of a vibrating cello string are harmonics. Modus cello string bergetar adalah harmonisa.
A vibrating string subdivides itself into many parts vibrating at the same time. Sebuah string bergetar untuk membagi dirinya menjadi banyak bagian bergetar pada waktu yang sama. Each part produces a pitch of its own, called a partial. Setiap bagian menghasilkan pitch sendiri, disebut parsial. A vibrating string has one fundamental and a series of partials. Sebuah string bergetar memiliki satu dasar dan serangkaian parsial. The most pure combination of two pitches is when one is double the frequency of the other. [ 9 ] Murni kombinasi yang paling dari dua lapangan adalah ketika satu dua kali lipat frekuensi yang lain. [9]
For a repeating wave, the velocity, v, equals the wavelength, λ, times the frequency, f. Untuk gelombang mengulang, kecepatan, v, sama dengan panjang gelombang, λ, kali frekuensi, f. v = λf On a cello string, waves reflect from both ends. v = λf Pada string cello, gelombang mencerminkan dari kedua ujungnya. The superposition of reflecting waves results in a standing wave pattern, but only for wavelengths λ = 2L, L, L/2, … = 2L/n, where L is the length of the string. Yang mencerminkan hasil superposisi gelombang dalam pola gelombang berdiri, tapi hanya untuk panjang gelombang λ = 2L, L, L / 2, ... = 2L / n, di mana L adalah panjang string. Therefore the only frequencies produced on a single string are f = nv/(2L). Oleh karena itu frekuensi hanya diproduksi pada tali tunggal f = nv / (2L). Timbre is largely determined by the content of these harmonics. Timbre sangat ditentukan oleh isi dari harmonik. Different instruments have different harmonic content for the same pitch. instrumen yang berbeda memiliki konten harmonis berbeda untuk pitch yang sama. A real string vibrates at harmonics that are not perfect multiples of the fundamental. String sebenarnya bergetar pada harmonik yang tidak kelipatan sempurna dari fundamental. This results in a little in-harmonicity, which gives richness to the tone and covers up slight de-tunings of different notes in a chord. [ 10 ] Hal ini menghasilkan-di harmonicity kecil, yang memberikan kekayaan untuk nada dan menutupi sedikit de-laras catatan yang berbeda dalam akord. [10]

[ edit ] Playing technique [ sunting ] Memainkan teknik

[ edit ] Body position [ sunting ] posisi Tubuh

The cello is played while seated. cello ini dimainkan sambil duduk. Its weight is supported mainly by its endpin or spike, which rests on the floor. Bobotnya didukung terutama oleh anak endpin atau spike, yang terletak di lantai. Sometimes, an endpin support is needed to prevent the endpin from slipping on smooth surfaces called a rock stop. Kadang-kadang, suatu dukungan endpin diperlukan untuk mencegah endpin dari tergelincir pada permukaan yang halus disebut berhenti rock. The cello is steadied on the lower bout between the knees of the seated player, and on the upper bout against the upper chest. cello ini mantap pada pertarungan yang lebih rendah antara lutut pemain duduk, dan di atas pertarungan melawan dada bagian atas. The neck of the cello is above the player's left shoulder, and the C-String tuning peg is just behind the left ear. Leher cello di atas bahu kiri pemain, dan tuning C-String pasak hanya di belakang telinga kiri. The bow is drawn horizontally across the strings. The busur digambar secara horizontal di senar. In early times, female cellists sometimes played side-saddle, since it was considered improper for a lady to part her knees in public. Pada zaman awal, pemain cello wanita kadang-kadang bermain samping sadel, karena dianggap tidak layak untuk wanita ke bagian berlutut di depan umum. A player's handedness does not alter the way the cello is held or used. Seorang pemain wenangan tidak mengubah cara cello dipegang atau digunakan. In rare cases, a player has used a mirror-image posture—usually because of a physical disability of one an arm or hand that makes the required technique impossible for that side of the body. Dalam kasus yang jarang terjadi, seorang pemain telah menggunakan cermin-image postur-biasanya karena cacat fisik dari satu tangan atau tangan yang membuat teknik mungkin diperlukan untuk sisi tubuh. In such a situation, the player must decide whether or not to reverse the set-up of the cello (the string positions, bass-bar, sound post, fingerboard shape, and bridge carving are all asymmetrical). Dalam situasi seperti ini, pemain harus memutuskan apakah atau tidak untuk membalikkan set-up dari selo (posisi string, bass-bar, pasca suara, bentuk fingerboard, dan jembatan ukiran semua asimetris).

[ edit ] Left hand technique [ sunting ] teknik tangan Waktu

The position of the left hand fingers along the strings determine the pitch of the note. Posisi jari-jari tangan kiri di sepanjang senar menentukan pitch dari catatan. The closer to the bridge that the string is depressed, the higher in pitch will be the resulting sound, because the vibrating string length has been shortened. Semakin dekat untuk menjembatani bahwa string ditekan, semakin tinggi di lapangan akan menjadi suara yang dihasilkan, karena panjang string bergetar telah dipersingkat. In the neck positions (which use just less than half of the fingerboard, nearest the top of the instrument), the thumb rests on the back of the neck; in thumb position (a general name for notes on the remainder of the fingerboard) the thumb usually rests alongside the fingers on the string and the side of the thumb is used to play notes. Dalam posisi leher (yang menggunakan hanya kurang dari setengah fingerboard, terdekat bagian atas instrumen), ibu jari terletak di bagian belakang leher, dalam posisi thumb (nama umum untuk catatan pada sisa fingerboard) yang thumb biasanya terletak berdampingan dengan jari pada string dan sisi ibu jari digunakan untuk memainkan not. The fingers are normally held curved with each knuckle bent, with the fingertips in contact with the string. Jari-jari biasanya diadakan setiap bengkok melengkung dengan buku jari, dengan ujung jari di kontak dengan string. If a finger is required on two (or more) strings at once to play perfect fifths (in double stops or chords) it is used flat. In slower, or more expressive playing, the contact point can move slightly away from the nail to the pad of the finger, allowing a fuller vibrato.

[ edit ] Vibrato [ sunting ] Vibrato

Vibrato is a small oscillation in the pitch of a note, usually considered expressive. It is not created by an upper arm motion; rather, it is more of forearm motion. The fixed point of contact of the fingertip on the string absorbs this motion by rocking back and forth. This change in the attitude of the fingertip to the string varies the pitch. Since vibrato is usually considered a key expressive device, a well-developed vibrato technique is an essential element of a modern cellist's skill. In some styles of music, such as that of the Romantic period, vibrato may be used on almost every note. However, in other styles, such as Baroque repertoire, vibrato is used only rarely, as an ornament. In any case, the choice of whether to use vibrato, and how much, is normally a stylistic decision on the part of the player. Typically, the lower the pitch of the note played, the wider and slower the vibrato.

[ edit ] Harmonics

Harmonics played on the cello fall into two classes; natural and artificial. Natural harmonics are produced by lightly touching (but not depressing) the string with the finger at certain places, and then bowing (or, rarely, plucking) the string. For example, the halfway point of the string will produce a harmonic that is one octave above the unfingered (open) string. Natural harmonics only produce notes that are part of the harmonic series on a particular string. Artificial harmonics (also called false harmonics or stopped harmonics), in which the player depresses the string fully with one finger while touching the same string lightly with another finger, can produce any note above middle C. They usually appear with the touching note a perfect fourth above the stopped note , which produces a sound two octaves above the stopped note, although other intervals are available. All harmonics produce a distinctive flute-like sound, and are usually performed without vibrato.

[ edit ] Glissando

Glissando ("sliding", in Italian) is an effect played by sliding the finger up or down the fingerboard without releasing the string. This causes the pitch to rise and fall smoothly, without separate, discernible steps.

[ edit ] Right hand technique

In cello playing, the bow is much like the breath of a wind instrument player. Arguably, it is the major determinant in the expressiveness of the playing. The right hand holds the bow and controls the duration and character of the notes. The bow is drawn across the strings roughly halfway between the end of the fingerboard and the bridge, in a direction perpendicular to the strings. The bow is held with all five fingers of the right hand, the thumb opposite the fingers and closer to the cellist's body. The shape of the hand should resemble that of its relaxed state, with all fingers curved, including the thumb. The transmission of weight from the arm to the bow happens through the pronation (inward rotation) of the forearm, which pushes the index finger and to a lesser degree the middle finger onto the bow. The necessary counterforce is provided by the thumb. Depending upon the school of training, the other two fingers are used in various degrees to help maintain the angle of the bow to the string and are critical to controlling the bow when it is off the string. (See also spiccato ).
In English, the terminology for bow direction ( up and down ) can be misleading. A downbow is drawn to the right of the player, and an upbow to the left. A downbow is drawn by first using the upper arm, then the forearm, then the wrist (turning slightly inward) to maintain a straight stroke. An upbow is drawn by moving first the forearm, then the upper arm, then the wrist (pushing slightly upward). The bow is mostly used perpendicular to the strings. To perform string changes the whole arm is either lowered or lifted, with as little wrist movement as possible to maintain the angle to the string. However, flexibility of the wrist is necessary when changing the bow direction from up-bow to down-bow and vice versa. For very fast bow movements, the wrist is used to accomplish the horizontal movement of the bow. For longer strokes, the arm is used as well as the wrist.
Tone production and volume of sound depend on a combination of several factors. The three most important ones are: bow speed, weight applied to the string, and point of contact of the bow hair with the string. A good player will be capable of a very even tone, and will counter the natural tendency to play with the most force with the part of the bow nearest to the frog or heel, and the least force near the tip. The closer to the bridge the string is bowed, the more projecting and brighter the tone, with the extreme ( sul ponticello ) producing a metallic, shimmery sound. If bowing closer to the fingerboard ( sul tasto ), the sound produced will be softer, more mellow, and less defined.

[ edit ] Double stops

Violoncello chord on C major Tentang suara ini Play . Play
Violoncello chord on G Tentang suara ini Play .
Violoncello chord on D minor Tentang suara ini Play .
Double stops involve the playing of two notes at the same time. Two strings are fingered simultaneously, and the bow is drawn so as to sound them both at once. Triple and quadruple stops may also be played (in a "broken" fashion), but are difficult to sustain because of the change in slope of the bridge. To extend the technique in this area, Frances-Marie Uitti has invented a two-bow system: one bow plays above the strings and one below, allowing for sustained triple and quadruple stops. However, this technique is very rarely seen or used.

[ edit ] Pizzicato

In pizzicato playing, the string is plucked directly with the fingers or thumb. Position of the hand is slightly over the finger board and away from the bridge. Usually this is done with the right hand, while the bow is held away from the strings by the rest of the hand or (for extended passages) set down. A single string can be played pizzicato, or double, triple, or quadruple stops can be played. Occasionally, a player must bow one string with the right hand and simultaneously pluck another with the left. This is marked by a "+" above the note. Strumming of chords is also possible, in guitar fashion.

[ edit ] Col legno

A player using the Col legno technique rubs the strings with the wood of the bow rather than the hair. There are two forms, col legno battuto and col legno tratto . Col legno battuto is performed as a percussive technique with no sustaining of the sound. The much less common alternative is col legno tratto , wherein the wood is drawn across the string as the hair is in a normal bow stroke. Some players refuse to use this technique because of potential damage to the bow.

[ edit ] Spiccato

In spiccato playing, the strings are not "drawn" by the bow hair but struck by it, while still retaining some horizontal motion, to generate a more percussive, crisp sound. It may be performed by using the wrist to "dip" the bow into the strings. Spiccato is usually associated with lively playing. On a violin, spiccato bowing comes off the string, but on a cello, the wood of the bow may rise briskly up without the hair actually leaving the string. While playing spiccato, the bow is literally bouncing off the string. Cello players simply "dip" the bow into the string, and touch it very fast, and then lift the bow off the string.

[ edit ] Staccato

In staccato , the player moves the bow a small distance and stops it on the string, making a short sound, the rest of the written duration being taken up by silence.

[ edit ] Legato

Legato is a technique where the notes are smoothly connected without accents or breaks.

[ edit ] Sul ponticello/sul tasto

Sul tasto Sul tasto
Sul ponticello ("on the bridge") refers to bowing closer to the bridge, while sul tasto ("on the fingerboard") calls for bowing nearer the end of the fingerboard. Ponticello calls for more bow weight and slower bow speed, and produces a "harder" sound, with strong overtone content. Sul tasto, in extreme cases called "flautando," produces a more flute-like sound, with more emphasis on the fundamental frequency of the note, and softer overtones.

[ edit ] Con/Senza sord.

This refers to using a mute, or sordino, which is placed on the bridge to mellow the tone, or to take it off.

[ edit ] Sizes [ sunting ] Ukuran

1/8 size cello with full size cello
Standard-sized cellos are referred to as "full-size". However, cellos come in smaller (fractional) sizes, from "7/8" and "3/4" down to "1/16" sized cellos (eg 7/8, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10, 1/16). The smaller-sized cellos are identical to standard cellos in construction, range, and usage, but are simply 'scaled-down' for the benefit of children and shorter adults. A "half-size" cello is not actually half the size of a "full-size", but only slightly smaller (ie, roughly half-size by volume , not by length ). [ citation needed ] Many smaller cellists prefer to play a "7/8" cello as the hand stretches in the lower positions are less demanding. Although rare, cellos in sizes larger than 4/4 do exist. Cellists with unusually large hands may play a slightly larger than full-sized cello. Cellos made before approximately 1700 tended to be considerably larger than those made and commonly played today.
Around 1680, string-making technology made lower pitches on shorter strings possible. The cellos of Stradivari , for example, can be clearly divided into two models, the style made before 1702 characterized by larger instruments (of which only three exist in their original size and configuration), and the style made during and after 1702, when Stradivari, presumably in response to the "new" strings, began making smaller cellos. This later model is the one most commonly used by modern luthiers.
Approximate dimensions for 4/4 size cello [ 11 ] Average size (cm) Average size (in)
Approximate width horizontally from A peg to C peg ends 16 16 6 - 5/16
Back length excluding half round where neck joins 75.5 75.5 29 - 3/4
Upper bouts (shoulders) 34 34 13 - 3/8
Lower bouts (hips) 44 44 17 - 3/8
Bridge height 9 9 3 - 9/16
Rib depth at shoulders including edges of front and back 12.5 12.5 4 - 15/16
Rib depth at hips including edges 12.8 12.8 5 - 1/16
Distance beneath fingerboard to surface of belly at neck join 2.2 2.2 7/8 7 / 8
Bridge to back total depth 26.7 26.7 10 - 1/2
Overall height excluding end pin 121 121 47 - 10/16
End pin unit and spike 5.5 5.5 2 - 5/8

[ edit ] Accessories [ sunting ] Aksesoris

There are many accessories for the cello.
  • Cases are used to protect the cello and bow (or multiple bows) when traveling and for safe storage. They are often made of carbon fiber, fiber-glass, and less commonly wood.
  • Rosin , made from conifer resin , is applied to the bow hairs to increase the effectiveness of the friction, grip or bite, and allow proper sound production. Rosin may have additives to modify the friction such as beeswax, gold, silver or tin.
  • Endpin stops or straps (tradenames include Rockstop and Black Hole) keep the cello from sliding if the end pin does not have a rubber piece on the end (used on wood floors) though in many cases a rubber piece will not suffice on even a wood floor. Many Cellists often use a square or rectangle of carpet that can be secured under the front two legs of the chair as an endpin stop. This is however less likely to be seen in a professional arena and more used in rehearsal or in private.
  • Wolf tone eliminators are sometimes placed on cello strings between the tailpiece and the bridge to eliminate acoustic anomalies known as wolf tones or "wolfs".
  • Mutes are used to change the sound of the cello by reducing overtones . Practice mutes (made of metal) significantly reduce the instrument's volume (they are also referred to as "hotel mutes"). The most common mute is a rubber disc with two holes to fit the two middle strings. It sits just after the bridge and has a flap that can be placed over the top of the bridge to mute the vibrations travelling down it to the sound post inside the cello. These are especially used due to their simplicity and can be taken off or put on very quickly because they can be stored on the strings past the bridge.
  • Metronomes provide a steady tempo by sounding out a certain number of beats per minute. They are adjustable to fit the tempo of the piece. Many models can also produce a tuning pitch of A4 (440 Hz), among others. These can, of course, be used for all instruments.
  • Humidifiers are used to control and stabilize the humidity around and inside the cello and are popular with traveling cellists. Often, these are placed inside the cello itself or inside the case. Some players will not use humidifiers inside their cellos because they have the potential to drip, which may cause damage to the cello.
  • Tuners are sometimes used to tune the instrument. A tuner indicates if a played note is sharp or flat. People with perfect pitch do not have to use tuners.

[ edit ] Instrument makers

Cellos are made by luthiers , specialists in building and repairing stringed instruments, ranging from guitars to violins. The following luthiers are notable for the cellos they have produced:

[ edit ] Cellists

A person who plays the cello is called a cellist . For a list of notable cellists, see the list of cellists and Category:Cellists .

[ edit ] Famous cellos

Specific instruments are, or become, famous, for a variety of reasons. An instrument's notability may arise from its age, the fame of its maker, its physical appearance, its acoustic properties, and its use by notable performers. The most famous instruments are generally known for all of these things. The most highly prized instruments are now collector's items, and are priced beyond the reach of most musicians. These instruments are typically owned by some kind of organization or investment group, which loans the instrument to a performer. (For example, the Davidov Stradivarius , which is currently in the possession of one of the most widely known living cellists, Yo-Yo Ma , is actually owned by the Vuitton Foundation. [ 12 ] )
Some notable cell

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