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Thursday, 16 December 2010

Ludwig van Beethoven

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A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler , 1820 Sebuah potret oleh Joseph Karl Stieler , 1820
Beethoven signature.svg
Ludwig van Beethoven ( German pronunciation: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːt.hoːfən] ( Ludwig van Beethoven (Jerman pengucapan: [lu ː tvɪç kipas akan ː ː t.ho fən] ( listen ) ; English: /ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪt.hoʊvən/ ; baptised 17 December 1770 [ 1 ] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist . mendengarkan ); Inggris: / beɪt.hoʊvən væn lʊdvɪɡ / ; dibaptis 17 Desember 1770 [1] - 26 Maret 1827) adalah seorang Jerman komposer dan pianis . He is considered to have been the most crucial figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music , and remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time. Ia dianggap telah menjadi tokoh paling penting dalam periode transisi antara Klasik dan Romantis era dalam musik klasik Barat , dan tetap menjadi salah satu yang terkenal dan berpengaruh komposer sebagian besar waktu semua.
Born in Bonn , then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in present-day Germany , he moved to Vienna in his early twenties and settled there, studying with Joseph Haydn and quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. Lahir di Bonn , maka ibukota pemilih Cologne dan sebagian dari Kekaisaran Romawi Suci Bangsa Jerman pada saat ini Jerman , ia pindah ke Wina pada awal dua puluhan dan menetap di sana, belajar dengan Joseph Haydn dan cepat mendapatkan sebuah reputasi sebagai virtuoso pianis. His hearing began to deteriorate in the late 1790s, yet he continued to compose, conduct , and perform, even after becoming completely deaf . mendengar-Nya mulai memburuk di akhir 1790-an, namun ia terus menulis, melakukan , dan melakukan, bahkan setelah menjadi tuli sepenuhnya .

Contents Isi

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Biography Biografi

Background and early life Latar belakang dan kehidupan awal

Prince-Elector's Palace ( Kurfürstliches Schloss ) in Bonn, where the Beethoven family had been active since the 1730s Pangeran-Pemilih Istana (Kurfürstliches Schloss) di Bonn, dimana keluarga Beethoven sudah aktif sejak 1730s
House of birth, Bonn , Bonngasse 20, now the Beethoven-Haus museum Rumah lahir, Bonn , Bonngasse 20, sekarang Beethoven-Haus museum
Beethoven was the grandson of a musician of Flemish origin named Lodewijk van Beethoven (1712–1773). [ 2 ] Beethoven was named after his grandfather, as Lodewijk is the Dutch cognate of Ludwig . Beethoven adalah cucu musisi dari Flemish asal bernama Lodewijk van Beethoven (1712-1773). [2] Beethoven dinamai setelah kakeknya, sebagai Lodewijk adalah Belanda kognitif Ludwig. Beethoven's grandfather was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne , rising to become Kapellmeister (music director). kakek Beethoven bekerja sebagai penyanyi bass di pelataran Pemilih Cologne , naik menjadi dirigen (music director). He had one son, Johann van Beethoven (1740–1792), who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment, also giving lessons on piano and violin to supplement his income. [ 2 ] Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767; she was the daughter of Johann Heinrich Keverich, who had been the head chef at the court of the Archbishopric of Trier . [ 3 ] Dia punya satu anak, Johann van Beethoven (1740-1792), yang bekerja sebagai tenor dalam pembentukan musik yang sama, juga memberikan pelajaran pada piano dan biola untuk menambah penghasilannya. [2] Johann menikahi Maria Magdalena Keverich pada tahun 1767; ia anak dari Johann Heinrich Keverich, yang pernah menjadi kepala koki di istana Keuskupan Agung Trier . [3]
Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn ; he was baptized in a Roman Catholic service on 17 December 1770, and was probably born the previous day, 16 December. [ 4 ] Children of that era were usually baptized the day after birth, and it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December. Beethoven lahir dari perkawinan di Bonn , ia dibaptis dalam Gereja Katolik Roma layanan pada tanggal 17 Desember 1770, dan mungkin lahir hari sebelumnya, 16 Desember. [4] Anak-anak dari era yang biasanya dibaptis hari setelah lahir, dan diketahui bahwa keluarga Beethoven dan gurunya Johann Albrechtsberger merayakan ulang tahunnya pada tanggal 16 Desember. While this evidence supports the case for 16 December 1770 as Beethoven's date of birth, it cannot be stated with certainty, as there is no documentary evidence of it (only his baptismal record survives). [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only the second-born, Ludwig, and two younger brothers survived infancy. Sementara bukti ini mendukung kasus 16 Desember 1770 sebagai kencan Beethoven lahir, tidak dapat dinyatakan dengan pasti, karena tidak ada bukti dokumenter itu (hanya catatan pembaptisan nya bertahan). [5] [6] Dari tujuh anak yang lahir untuk Johann van Beethoven, hanya kedua lahir, Ludwig, dan dua adik bayi selamat. Caspar Anton Carl was born on 8 April 1774, and Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776. [ 7 ] Caspar Anton Carl lahir pada 8 1774, April dan Johann Nikolaus, yang termuda, lahir pada tanggal 2 Oktober 1776. [7]
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. guru musik pertama Beethoven adalah ayahnya. A traditional belief concerning Johann van Beethoven is that he was a harsh instructor, and that the child Beethoven, "made to stand at the keyboard, was often in tears". [ 2 ] However, the New Grove indicates that there is no solid documentation to support it, and asserts that "speculation and myth-making have both been productive." [ 2 ] Beethoven had other local teachers as well: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden (d. 1782), Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer (a family friend, who taught Beethoven piano), and a relative, Franz Rovantini (violin and viola). [ 2 ] His musical talent manifested itself early. Sebuah kepercayaan tradisional mengenai Johann van Beethoven adalah bahwa ia adalah seorang instruktur keras, dan bahwa anak Beethoven, "dibuat untuk berdiri di keyboard, sering menangis". [2] Namun, Grove Baru menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada dokumentasi padat untuk mendukung itu, dan menegaskan bahwa "spekulasi dan mitos-membuat memiliki keduanya telah produktif." [2] Beethoven guru lokal lainnya juga: organ pengadilan Gilles van den Eeden (w. 1782), Friedrich Tobias Pfeiffer (seorang teman keluarga , yang mengajar piano Beethoven), dan seorang kerabat, Franz Rovantini (biola dan viola). [2] bakat musiknya termanifestasi awal. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart 's successes in this area (with son Wolfgang and daughter Nannerl ), attempted to exploit his son as a child prodigy , claiming that Beethoven was six (he was seven) on the posters for Beethoven's first public performance in March 1778. [ 8 ] Johann, menyadari Leopold Mozart keberhasilan s 'dalam daerah ini (dengan putra Wolfgang dan putri Nannerl ), berusaha untuk mengeksploitasi anak sebagai anak ajaib , mengklaim bahwa Beethoven adalah enam (ia berusia tujuh) pada poster untuk umum kinerja pertama Beethoven di Maret 1778. [8]
Some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe , who was appointed the Court's Organist in that year. [ 9 ] Neefe taught Beethoven composition, and by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations ( WoO 63). [ 7 ] Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, first on an unpaid basis (1781), and then as paid employee (1784) of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi . Beberapa waktu setelah 1779, Beethoven memulai studinya dengan paling penting gurunya di Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe , yang diangkat Pengadilan organis di tahun itu. [9] Neefe diajarkan komposisi Beethoven, dan dengan Maret 1783 telah membantunya menulis pertamanya diterbitkan Komposisi: satu set variasi keyboard ( Woo ). 63 [7] Beethoven segera mulai bekerja dengan Neefe sebagai organis asisten, pertama pada dasar yang tidak dibayar (1.781), dan kemudian sebagai modal kerja (1784) dari kapel pengadilan yang dilakukan oleh dirigen Andrea Luchesi . His first three piano sonatas , named " Kurfürst " ("Elector") for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Frederick , were published in 1783. Nya tiga sonata piano yang pertama , bernama " Kurfürst "(" Pemilih ") untuk dedikasi mereka kepada Pemilih Maximilian Frederick , diterbitkan pada tahun 1783. Maximilian Frederick, who died in 1784, not long after Beethoven's appointment as assistant organist, had noticed Beethoven's talent early, and had subsidized and encouraged the young Beethoven's musical studies. [ 10 ] Maximilian Frederick, yang meninggal pada tahun 1784, tidak lama setelah itu penunjukan asisten Beethoven sebagai organis, telah melihat's bakat Beethoven dini, dan memiliki subsidi dan mendorong musik Beethoven's studi muda. [10]
A portrait of the 13-year-old Beethoven by an unknown Bonn master (c. 1783) Sebuah potret dari Beethoven 13 tahun oleh master Bonn tidak diketahui (c. 1783)
Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Franz , the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria , and he brought notable changes to Bonn. Frederick pengganti Maximilian sebagai Pemilih dari Bonn adalah Maximilian Franz , anak bungsu dari Ratu Maria Theresa dari Austria , dan dia membawa perubahan penting ke Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph , he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy , with increased support for education and the arts. Bergema perubahan yang dilakukan di Wina oleh saudaranya Yusuf , dia memperkenalkan reformasi didasarkan pada filsafat Pencerahan , dengan dukungan peningkatan pendidikan dan seni. The teenage Beethoven was almost certainly influenced by these changes. Beethoven remaja ini hampir pasti dipengaruhi oleh perubahan ini. He may also have been strongly influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry , as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati . [ 11 ] Dia mungkin juga telah dipengaruhi saat ini oleh ide-ide terkemuka di freemasonry , sebagai Neefe dan orang lain di sekitar Beethoven adalah anggota bab lokal dari Ordo Illuminati . [11]
In March 1787 Beethoven traveled to Vienna (it is unknown at whose expense) for the first time, apparently in the hope of studying with Wolfgang Mozart . Pada Maret 1787 Beethoven pergi ke Wina (tidak diketahui pada yang beban) untuk pertama kalinya, tampaknya dengan harapan belajar dengan Wolfgang Mozart . The details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether or not they actually met. [ 12 ] After just two weeks there Beethoven learned that his mother was severely ill, and he was forced to return home. Rincian hubungan mereka tidak pasti, termasuk apakah atau tidak mereka benar-benar bertemu. [12] Setelah dua minggu ada Beethoven mengetahui bahwa ibunya sangat sakit, dan ia terpaksa pulang. His mother died shortly thereafter, and the father lapsed deeper into alcoholism. Ibunya meninggal setelah itu, dan ayah terjerumus lebih dalam alkoholisme. As a result, Beethoven became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, and he spent the next five years in Bonn. [ 13 ] Akibatnya, Beethoven menjadi bertanggung jawab atas perawatan dari kedua saudaranya yang lebih muda, dan dia menghabiskan lima tahun ke depan di Bonn. [13]
Beethoven was introduced to a number of people who became important in his life in these years. Beethoven diperkenalkan ke sejumlah orang yang menjadi penting dalam hidupnya pada tahun-tahun. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, introduced him to the von Breuning family (one of whose daughters Wegeler eventually married). Franz Wegeler, seorang mahasiswa kedokteran muda, memperkenalkannya kepada keluarga Breuning von (salah satu putri yang Wegeler akhirnya menikah). Beethoven was often at the von Breuning household, where he was exposed to German and classical literature, and where he also gave piano instruction to some of the children. Beethoven sering di rumah tangga Breuning von, di mana ia terkena sastra Jerman dan klasik, dan di mana ia juga memberikan instruksi piano untuk beberapa anak. The von Breuning family environment was also less stressful than his own, which was increasingly dominated by his father's strict control and descent into alcoholism. [ 14 ] It is also in these years that Beethoven came to the attention of Count Ferdinand von Waldstein , who became a lifelong friend and financial supporter. [ 15 ] Para Breuning lingkungan keluarga von juga mengurangi stress dibandingkan sendiri, yang semakin didominasi oleh ketat's kontrol ayahnya dan turun ke alkoholisme. [14] Hal ini juga pada tahun-tahun yang Beethoven datang ke perhatian Count Ferdinand von Waldstein , yang menjadi teman seumur hidup dan pendukung keuangan. [15]
In 1789 he obtained a legal order by which half of his father's salary was paid directly to him for support of the family. [ 16 ] He also contributed further to the family's income by playing viola in the court orchestra. Pada tahun 1789 ia memperoleh tatanan hukum di mana setengah dari gaji ayah telah dibayarkan langsung kepadanya untuk mendukung keluarga. [16] Ia juga memberikan kontribusi lebih lanjut untuk keluarga penghasilan dengan bermain biola dalam orkestra pengadilan. This familiarized Beethoven with a variety of operas, including three of Mozart 's operas performed at court in this period. Beethoven ini akrab dengan berbagai opera, termasuk tiga dari Mozart opera s 'dilakukan di pengadilan dalam periode ini. He also befriended Anton Reicha , a flautist and violinist of about his own age who was the conductor's nephew. [ 17 ] Dia juga berteman Anton Reicha , seorang pemain suling dan pemain biola sekitar usia sendiri yang dirigen keponakan. [17]

Establishing his career in Vienna Membangun karirnya di Wina

With the Elector's help, Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792. [ 18 ] He was probably first introduced to Joseph Haydn in late 1790, when the latter was traveling to London and stopped in Bonn around Christmas time. [ 19 ] They met in Bonn on Haydn's return trip from London to Vienna in July 1792, and it is likely that arrangements were made at that time for Beethoven to study with the old master. [ 20 ] In the intervening years, Beethoven composed a significant number of works (none were published at the time, and most are now listed as works without opus ) that demonstrated a growing range and maturity of style. Dengan Pemilih's membantu, Beethoven pindah ke Wina pada tahun 1792. [18] Dia mungkin pertama kali diperkenalkan ke Joseph Haydn tahun 1790 akhir, ketika yang terakhir melakukan perjalanan ke London dan berhenti di Bonn sekitar waktu Natal. [19] Mereka bertemu di Bonn pada perjalanan kembali Haydn dari London ke Wina pada bulan Juli 1792, dan kemungkinan bahwa persiapan telah dilakukan pada waktu itu untuk Beethoven untuk belajar dengan master lama. [20] Pada tahun-tahun, Beethoven menggubah sejumlah besar karya (tidak ada yang diterbitkan pada waktu itu, dan kebanyakan sekarang terdaftar sebagai bekerja tanpa karya ) yang menunjukkan berbagai tumbuh dan kematangan gaya. Musicologists have identified a theme similar to those of his third symphony in a set of variations written in 1791. [ 21 ] Beethoven left Bonn for Vienna in November 1792, amid rumors of war spilling out of France , and learned shortly after his arrival that his father had died. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Count Waldstein in his farewell note to Beethoven wrote: "Through uninterrupted diligence you will receive Mozart's spirit through Haydn's hands." [ 23 ] Beethoven responded to the widespread feeling that he was a successor to the recently deceased Mozart over the next few years by studying that master's work and writing works with a distinctly Mozartean flavor. [ 24 ] Ahli musik telah mengidentifikasi tema yang sama dengan nya simfoni ketiga dalam rangkaian variasi yang ditulis dalam 1791. [21] Beethoven meninggalkan Bonn untuk Wina pada bulan November 1792, di tengah desas-desus tentang perang tumpah dari Perancis , dan belajar tak lama setelah kedatangannya itu nya ayah meninggal. [22] [23] Count Waldstein dalam catatan perpisahan untuk Beethoven menulis: "terganggu Anda due akan menerima Mozart semangat melalui's Haydn tangan.'s Melalui" [23] Beethoven menanggapi perasaan luas bahwa ia adalah seorang penerus baru-baru ini meninggal Mozart selama beberapa tahun ke depan dengan mempelajari pekerjaan yang master dan menulis bekerja dengan rasa Mozartean jelas. [24]
Portrait of Beethoven as a young man by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769–1832) Potret Beethoven sebagai seorang pemuda oleh Carl Traugott Riedel (1769-1832)
Beethoven did not immediately set out to establish himself as a composer, but rather devoted himself to study and to playing the piano. Beethoven tidak segera berangkat untuk membangun dirinya sebagai komposer, melainkan mengabdikan dirinya untuk belajar dan untuk bermain piano. Working under Haydn's direction, [ 25 ] he sought to master counterpoint . Bekerja di bawah ini arah Haydn, [25] ia berusaha untuk menguasai terbalik . He also took violin lessons from Ignaz Schuppanzigh . [ 26 ] Early in this period, he also began receiving occasional instruction from Antonio Salieri , primarily in Italian vocal composition style; this relationship persisted until at least 1802, and possibly 1809. [ 27 ] With Haydn's departure for England in 1794, Beethoven was expected by the Elector to return home. Ia juga mengambil pelajaran biola dari Ignaz Schuppanzigh . [26] Pada awal periode ini, ia juga mulai menerima instruksi sesekali dari Antonio Salieri , terutama dalam komposisi gaya vokal Italia; hubungan ini bertahan sampai setidaknya 1802, dan mungkin 1809. [27] Dengan Haydn keberangkatan untuk Inggris pada 1794, Beethoven diharapkan oleh Pemilih untuk pulang. He chose instead to remain in Vienna, continuing his instruction in counterpoint with Johann Albrechtsberger and other teachers. Dia memilih bukan untuk tetap tinggal di Wina, melanjutkan instruksi di tandingan dengan Johann Albrechtsberger dan guru lainnya. Although his stipend from the Elector expired, a number of Viennese noblemen had already recognized his ability and offered him financial support, among them Prince Joseph Franz Lobkowitz , Prince Karl Lichnowsky , and Baron Gottfried van Swieten . [ 28 ] Walaupun gaji nya dari Pemilih berakhir, sejumlah bangsawan Wina sudah diakui kemampuannya dan menawarkan dukungan keuangan, di antaranya Prince Joseph Franz Lobkowitz , Pangeran Karl Lichnowsky , dan Baron Gottfried van Swieten . [28]
By 1793, Beethoven established a reputation as an improviser in the salons of the nobility, often playing the preludes and fugues of JS Bach 's Well-Tempered Clavier . [ 29 ] His friend Nikolaus Simrock had also begun publishing his compositions; the first are believed to be a set of variations (WoO 66). [ 30 ] Beethoven spent much of 1794 composing. Pada 1793, Beethoven membangun reputasi sebagai improvisasi di salon bangsawan, sering memainkan Prelude dan fugues dari JS Bach 's -Tempered Clavier Yah . [29] Temannya Nikolaus Simrock juga mulai menerbitkan komposisi, yang pertama adalah diyakini sekelompok variasi (Woo 66). [30] Beethoven banyak menghabiskan 1794 menulis. By 1793, he had established a reputation in Vienna as a piano virtuoso, but he apparently withheld works from publication so that their publication in 1795 would have greater impact. [ 28 ] Beethoven's first public performance in Vienna was in March 1795, a concert in which he debuted a piano concerto . Pada 1793, ia telah membangun reputasi di Wina sebagai virtuoso piano, tapi ia tampaknya dirahasiakan karya-karya dari publikasi sehingga publikasi mereka pada tahun 1795 akan berdampak lebih besar. [28] publik kinerja pertama Beethoven di Wina pada bulan Maret 1795, konser di mana ia memulai debut konser piano . It is uncertain whether this was the First or Second , as documentary evidence is unclear, and both concertos were in a similar state of near-completion (neither was completed or published for several years). [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Shortly after this performance, he arranged for the publication of the first of his compositions to which he assigned an opus number , the piano trios of Opus 1 . Tidak jelas apakah ini adalah Pertama atau Kedua , sebagai bukti dokumenter tidak jelas, dan kedua concerto berada dalam keadaan yang sama di dekat-selesai (tidak selesai atau diterbitkan selama beberapa tahun). [31] [32] Tak lama setelah pertunjukan ini , ia mengatur agar penerbitan yang pertama dari komposisinya yang dia telah memberikan nomor opus , yang trio piano Opus 1 . These works were dedicated to his patron Prince Lichnowsky, [ 31 ] and were a financial success; Beethoven's profits were nearly sufficient to cover his living expenses for a year. [ 33 ] Karya-karya ini didedikasikan untuk nya pelindung Pangeran Lichnowsky, [31] dan sukses keuangan; keuntungan yang hampir cukup untuk menutup nya untuk biaya hidup. tahun Beethoven [33]

Musical maturity Musik jatuh tempo

Between 1798 and 1802 Beethoven tackled what he considered the pinnacles of composition: the string quartet and the symphony . Antara 1798 dan 1802 Beethoven ditangani apa yang dianggap sebagai pinakel komposisi: dalam kuartet string dan simfoni . With the composition of his first six string quartets (Op. 18) between 1798 and 1800 (written on commission for, and dedicated to, Prince Lobkowitz), and their publication in 1801, along with premieres of the First and Second Symphonies in 1800 and 1802, Beethoven was justifiably considered one of the most important of a generation of young composers following after Haydn and Mozart. Dengan komposisi nya pertama enam kuartet gesek (op. 18) antara 1798 dan 1800 (ditulis pada komisi untuk, dan didedikasikan untuk, Pangeran Lobkowitz), dan publikasi mereka pada tahun 1801, bersama dengan perdana dari Pertama dan Kedua Symphonies di tahun 1800 dan 1802, Beethoven dibenarkan dianggap salah satu yang paling penting dari sebuah komponis muda generasi berikutnya setelah Haydn dan Mozart. He continued to write in other forms, turning out widely known piano sonatas like the " Pathétique " sonata (Op. 13), which Cooper describes as "surpass[ing] any of his previous compositions, in strength of character, depth of emotion, level of originality, and ingenuity of motivic and tonal manipulation". [ 34 ] He also completed his Septet (Op. 20) in 1799, which was one of his most popular works during his lifetime. Dia terus menulis dalam bentuk lain, mematikan dikenal luas piano sonata seperti " Pathétique sonata "(op. 13), yang menggambarkan Cooper sebagai" melampaui [ing] salah satu komposisi sebelumnya, di kekuatan karakter, kedalaman emosi, tingkat orisinalitas, dan kecerdikan dan tonal manipulasi motivic ". [34] Ia juga menyelesaikan Septet (op. 20) pada 1799, yang merupakan salah satu karyanya yang paling populer selama hidupnya.
Beethoven in 1803, painted by Christian Horneman Beethoven pada tahun 1803, dilukis oleh Christian Horneman
For the premiere of his First Symphony , Beethoven hired the Burgtheater on 2 April 1800, and staged an extensive program of music, including works by Haydn and Mozart, as well as the Septet, the First Symphony, and one of his piano concertos (the latter three works all then unpublished). Untuk premier nya Symphony Pertama, Beethoven menyewa Burgtheater tanggal 2 April 1800, dan melancarkan program yang ekstensif dari musik, termasuk karya Haydn dan Mozart, serta Septet, Symphony Pertama, dan salah satu piano concerto (yang terakhir tiga karya semua lalu tidak dipublikasikan). The concert, which the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung described as "the most interesting concert in a long time", was not without difficulties; among other criticisms was that "the players did not bother to pay any attention to the soloist". [ 35 ] Konser, yang Allgemeine Zeitung musikalische digambarkan sebagai "konser paling menarik dalam waktu yang lama", itu bukan tanpa kesulitan; lain adalah kritik bahwa "pemain tidak repot-repot membayar apapun untuk perhatian solo". Di antara [35]
While Mozart and Haydn were undeniable influences (for example, Beethoven's quintet for piano and winds is said to bear a strong resemblance to Mozart's work for the same configuration , albeit with his own distinctive touches), [ 36 ] other composers like Muzio Clementi were also stylistic influences [ citation needed ] . Sementara Mozart dan Haydn adalah pengaruh tak terbantahkan (misalnya, Beethoven kwintet untuk piano dan angin dikatakan memiliki kemiripan yang kuat untuk itu bekerja Mozart untuk konfigurasi yang sama , meskipun dengan khas sendiri sentuhan-Nya), [36] komposer lain seperti Muzio Clementi juga pengaruh gaya [ rujukan? ]. Beethoven's melodies, musical development, use of modulation and texture, and characterization of emotion all set him apart from his influences, and heightened the impact some of his early works made when they were first published. [ 37 ] By the end of 1800 Beethoven and his music were already much in demand from patrons and publishers. [ 38 ] Teman-melodi Beethoven, pengembangan musik, penggunaan modulasi dan tekstur, dan karakterisasi semua emosi membuatnya berbeda dari pengaruh, dan tinggi dampak beberapa karya awal dibuat ketika mereka pertama kali diterbitkan. [37] Pada akhir 1800 Beethoven dan musiknya sudah banyak permintaan dari pelanggan dan penerbit. [38]
Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by WJ Mähler. Ludwig van Beethoven: detail dari sebuah potret 1804 oleh WJ Mahler. The complete painting depicts Beethoven with a lyre-guitar Para lukisan lengkap menggambarkan Beethoven dengan gitar-kecapi
In May of 1799, Beethoven gave piano lessons to the daughters of Hungarian Countess Anna Brunsvik. Pada bulan Mei 1799, Beethoven memberi pelajaran piano untuk anak-anak perempuan dari Hungaria Countess Anna Brunsvik. While this round of lessons lasted less than one month, Beethoven formed a relationship with the older daughter Josephine that has been the subject of speculation ever since. Sementara ini putaran pelajaran berlangsung kurang dari satu bulan, Beethoven membentuk hubungan dengan putri Josephine tua yang telah menjadi subjek spekulasi sejak saat itu. Shortly after these lessons she married Count Josef Deym, and Beethoven was a regular visitor at their house, giving lessons and playing at parties. Tak lama setelah pelajaran dia menikah Count Josef Deym, dan Beethoven adalah pengunjung biasa di rumah mereka, memberikan pelajaran dan bermain di pesta. While her marriage was by all accounts unhappy, the couple had four children, and her relationship with Beethoven did not intensify until after Deym died in 1804. [ 39 ] Sementara menikah adalah dengan semua account tidak bahagia, pasangan itu memiliki empat anak, dan hubungannya dengan Beethoven tidak mengintensifkan sampai setelah Deym meninggal pada 1804. [39]
Beethoven had few other students. Beethoven telah beberapa siswa lain. From 1801 to 1805, he tutored Ferdinand Ries , who went on to become a composer and later wrote Beethoven remembered , a book about their encounters. Dari 1801-1805, ia diajari Ferdinand Ries , yang kemudian menjadi komposer dan kemudian menulis Beethoven ingat, sebuah buku tentang pertemuan mereka. The young Carl Czerny studied with Beethoven from 1801 to 1803. Kaum muda Carl Czerny belajar dengan Beethoven 1801-1803. Czerny went on to become a renowned music teacher himself, taking on Franz Liszt as one of his students, and also gave the Vienna premiere of Beethoven's fifth piano concerto (the "Emperor") in 1812. Czerny kemudian menjadi seorang guru musik terkenal dirinya, mengambil Franz Liszt sebagai salah seorang siswa, dan juga memberikan premier Wina Beethoven piano concerto kelima ("Kaisar") pada tahun 1812.
Beethoven's compositions between 1800 and 1802 were dominated by two works, although he continued to produce smaller works, including the Moonlight Sonata . Teman-komposisi Beethoven antara 1800 dan 1802 didominasi oleh dua karya, meskipun ia terus menghasilkan karya yang lebih kecil, termasuk Moonlight Sonata . In the spring of 1801 he completed The Creatures of Prometheus , a ballet . Pada musim semi tahun 1801 ia menyelesaikan The Creatures of Prometheus , sebuah balet . The work was such a success that it received numerous performances in 1801 and 1802, and Beethoven rushed to publish a piano arrangement to capitalize on its early popularity. [ 40 ] In the spring of 1802 he completed the Second Symphony , intended for performance at a concert that was eventually cancelled. Pekerjaan itu seperti sukses yang diterima banyak pertunjukan pada tahun 1801 dan 1802, dan Beethoven bergegas untuk menerbitkan sebuah pengaturan piano untuk memanfaatkan popularitas awal. [40] Pada musim semi tahun 1802 ia menyelesaikan Symphony Kedua , dimaksudkan untuk kinerja di konser yang akhirnya dibatalkan. The symphony received its premiere at a subscription concert in April 1803 at the Theater an der Wien , where Beethoven had been appointed as composer in residence. simfoni menerima premier di konser berlangganan di April 1803 di Theater an der Wien , di mana Beethoven telah ditunjuk sebagai komposer di rumah. In addition to the Second Symphony, the concert also featured the First Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto , and the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives . Selain Symphony Kedua, konser juga menampilkan Symphony Pertama, Ketiga Piano Concerto , dan Oratorio Kristus di Bukit Zaitun . While reviews were mixed, the concert was a financial success; Beethoven was able to charge three times the cost of a typical concert ticket. [ 41 ] Sementara tinjauan dicampur, konser ini sukses keuangan; mampu mengisi tiga kali biaya khas. Tiket konser Beethoven [41]
Beethoven's business dealings with publishers also began to improve in 1802 when his brother Carl, who had previously assisted him more casually, began to assume a larger role in the management of his affairs. bisnis Beethoven berurusan dengan penerbit juga mulai membaik pada tahun 1802 ketika kakaknya Carl, yang sebelumnya membantu dia lebih santai, mulai menganggap peran yang lebih besar dalam pengelolaan urusan-Nya. In addition to negotiating higher prices for recently composed works, Carl also began selling some of Beethoven's earlier unpublished works, and encouraged Beethoven (against the latter's preference) to also make arrangements and transcriptions of his more popular works for other instrument combinations. Selain negosiasi harga yang lebih tinggi untuk pekerjaan baru-baru ini terdiri, Carl juga mulai menjual beberapa karya Beethoven sebelumnya tidak dipublikasikan, dan mendorong Beethoven (terhadap preferensi yang terakhir) untuk juga membuat pengaturan dan transkripsi karya-karyanya lebih populer untuk kombinasi instrumen lain. Beethoven acceded to these requests, as he could not prevent publishers from hiring others to do similar arrangements of his works. [ 42 ] Beethoven menyetujui permintaan ini, karena dia tidak bisa mencegah penerbit dari menyewa orang lain untuk melakukan pengaturan yang sama dari karya-karyanya. [42]

Loss of hearing Kehilangan pendengaran

Around 1796, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. [ 43 ] He suffered a severe form of tinnitus , a "ringing" in his ears that made it hard for him to perceive and appreciate music; he also avoided conversation. Sekitar tahun 1796, Beethoven mulai kehilangan pendengarannya. [43] Ia menderita bentuk parah dari tinnitus , sebuah "dering" di telinganya yang membuat sulit baginya untuk memahami dan menghargai musik, ia juga menghindari percakapan. The cause of Beethoven's deafness is unknown, but it has variously been attributed to syphilis , lead poisoning , typhus , auto-immune disorder (such as systemic lupus erythematosus ), and even his habit of immersing his head in cold water to stay awake. Penyebab's tuli Beethoven tidak diketahui, tetapi telah berbagai cara dikaitkan dengan sifilis , keracunan timbal , tipus , auto-imun gangguan (seperti systemic lupus erythematosus ), dan bahkan kebiasaannya membenamkan kepalanya dalam air dingin untuk tetap terjaga. The explanation, from the autopsy of the time, is that he had a "distended inner ear" which developed lesions over time. Penjelasan, dari otopsi waktu, adalah bahwa ia memiliki "telinga dalam buncit" yang dikembangkan lesi dari waktu ke waktu. Because of the high levels of lead found in samples of Beethoven's hair, that hypothesis has been extensively analyzed. Karena tingginya tingkat timbal ditemukan pada sampel rambut Beethoven, bahwa hipotesis telah banyak dianalisis. While the likelihood of lead poisoning is very high, the deafness associated with it seldom takes the form that Beethoven exhibited. Sedangkan kemungkinan keracunan timbal sangat tinggi, yang tuli yang terkait dengan itu jarang mengambil bentuk yang dipamerkan Beethoven.
Beethoven in 1815 Beethoven pada 1815
As early as 1801, Beethoven wrote to friends describing his symptoms and the difficulties they caused in both professional and social settings (although it is likely some of his close friends were already aware of the problems). [ 44 ] Beethoven, on the advice of his doctor, lived in the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt , just outside Vienna, from April to October 1802 in an attempt to come to terms with his condition. Pada awal 1801, Beethoven menulis kepada teman-teman menjelaskan gejala dan kesulitan yang mereka disebabkan baik dan sosial pengaturan profesional (meskipun mungkin beberapa teman dekatnya sudah sadar akan masalah). [44] Beethoven, atas saran dokter, tinggal di kota kecil Austria Heiligenstadt , di luar Wina, dari bulan April sampai Oktober 1802 dalam upaya untuk berdamai dengan kondisinya. There he wrote his Heiligenstadt Testament , which records his resolution to continue living for and through his art. [ 45 ] Over time, his hearing loss became profound: there is a well-attested story that, at the end of the premiere of his Ninth Symphony , he had to be turned around to see the tumultuous applause of the audience; hearing nothing, he wept. [ 46 ] Beethoven's hearing loss did not prevent his composing music, but it made playing at concerts—a lucrative source of income—increasingly difficult. Di sana ia menulis Heiligenstadt Perjanjian , yang mencatat resolusi untuk terus hidup untuk dan melalui seni. [45] Seiring waktu, kehilangan pendengarannya menjadi mendalam: ada cerita-dibuktikan dengan baik bahwa, pada akhir pemutaran perdana nya Kesembilan Symphony , ia harus berbalik untuk melihat tepuk tangan hiruk-pikuk penonton, tidak ada pendengaran, dia menangis. [46] gangguan pendengaran Beethoven tidak mencegah menyusun musiknya, tapi itu membuat bermain di-a menguntungkan sumber konser pendapatan semakin sulit. After a failed attempt in 1811 to perform his own Piano Concerto No. 5 (the "Emperor") , which was premiered by his student Carl Czerny , he never performed in public again. Setelah usaha yang gagal pada tahun 1811 untuk melakukan sendiri Piano Concerto No 5 ("Kaisar") , yang ditayangkan oleh muridnya Carl Czerny , ia tidak pernah dilakukan di depan umum lagi.
A large collection of Beethoven's hearing aids such as a special ear horn can be viewed at the Beethoven House Museum in Bonn, Germany. Kumpulan besar Beethoven bantu dengar seperti khusus tanduk telinga dapat dilihat di Beethoven House Museum di Bonn, Jerman. Despite his obvious distress, Carl Czerny remarked that Beethoven could still hear speech and music normally until 1812. [ 47 ] By 1814 however, Beethoven was almost totally deaf, and when a group of visitors saw him play a loud arpeggio of thundering bass notes at his piano remarking, "Ist es nicht schön?" Meskipun kesulitan jelas nya, Carl Czerny mengatakan bahwa Beethoven masih bisa mendengar pidato dan musik normal sampai 1812. [47] Dengan 1814 Namun, Beethoven hampir benar-benar tuli, dan ketika sekelompok pengunjung melihat dia memainkan arpeggio keras catatan bass gemuruh di piano berkomentar, "Ist es nicht schön?" (Is it not beautiful?), they felt deep sympathy considering his courage and sense of humor (he lost the ability to hear higher frequencies first). [ 48 ] (Apakah itu tidak indah?), Mereka merasa simpati mendalam mengingat keberanian dan rasa humor (ia kehilangan kemampuan untuk mendengar frekuensi yang lebih tinggi pertama). [48]
As a result of Beethoven's hearing loss, a unique historical record has been preserved: his conversation books. Sebagai akibat dari gangguan pendengaran Beethoven, sebuah catatan sejarah yang unik telah diawetkan: buku pembicaraannya. Used primarily in the last ten or so years of his life, his friends wrote in these books so that he could know what they were saying, and he then responded either orally or in the book. Digunakan terutama dalam sepuluh terakhir ini tahun hidupnya, teman-temannya menulis dalam buku ini sehingga ia bisa tahu apa yang mereka katakan, dan ia kemudian menjawab secara lisan atau dalam buku ini. The books contain discussions about music and other issues, and give insights into his thinking; they are a source for investigation into how he felt his music should be performed, and also his perception of his relationship to art. Buku-buku berisi diskusi tentang musik dan isu-isu lainnya, dan memberikan wawasan ke dalam pemikiran-Nya, mereka adalah sumber untuk investigasi ke bagaimana ia merasa musiknya harus dilakukan, dan juga persepsi tentang hubungannya dengan seni. Unfortunately, 264 out of a total of 400 conversation books were destroyed (and others were altered) after Beethoven's death by Anton Schindler , in his attempt to paint an idealized picture of the composer. [ 49 ] Sayangnya, 264 dari total 400 buku percakapan hancur (dan lain-lain yang diubah) setelah kematian Beethoven oleh Anton Schindler , dalam usahanya untuk melukis gambaran ideal dari komposer. [49]

Patronage Perlindungan

Beethoven's patron, Archduke Rudolph Beethoven pelindung, Archduke Rudolph
While Beethoven earned income from publication of his works and from public performances, he also depended on the generosity of patrons for income, for whom he gave private performances and copies of works they commissioned for an exclusive period prior to their publication. Sedangkan Beethoven memperoleh penghasilan dari publikasi karya-karyanya dan dari pertunjukan publik, ia juga tergantung pada kemurahan hati pengunjung untuk pendapatan, untuk siapa dia memberikan pertunjukan privat dan salinan karya mereka ditugaskan untuk jangka eksklusif sebelum dipublikasikan. Some of his early patrons, including Prince Lobkowitz and Prince Lichnowsky, gave him annual stipends in addition to commissioning works and purchasing published works. Beberapa pelanggan awal, termasuk Pangeran Lobkowitz dan Pangeran Lichnowsky, memberikan tunjangan tahunan selain commissioning bekerja dan membeli karya diterbitkan.
Perhaps Beethoven's most important aristocratic patron was Archduke Rudolph , the youngest son of Emperor Leopold II , who in 1803 or 1804 began to study piano and composition with Beethoven. Mungkin aristokrat pelindung Beethoven yang paling penting adalah Archduke Rudolph , anak bungsu dari Kaisar Leopold II , yang pada tahun 1803 atau 1804 mulai belajar piano dan komposisi dengan Beethoven. The cleric ( Cardinal-Priest ) and the composer became friends, and their meetings continued until 1824. Ulama ( Kardinal-Imam ) dan komposer menjadi teman, dan pertemuan mereka berlanjut sampai 1824. Beethoven dedicated 14 compositions to Rudolph, including the Archduke Trio (1811) and his great Missa Solemnis (1823). 14 komposisi Beethoven didedikasikan untuk Rudolph, termasuk Archduke Trio (1811) dan yang besar Missa Solemnis (1823). Rudolph, in turn, dedicated one of his own compositions to Beethoven. Rudolph, pada gilirannya, berdedikasi salah satu komposisi sendiri untuk Beethoven. The letters Beethoven wrote to Rudolph are today kept at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. The Beethoven surat menulis kepada Rudolph saat ini disimpan di der Gesellschaft Musikfreunde di Wina.
In the Autumn of 1808, after having been rejected for a position at the royal theatre, Beethoven received an offer from Napoleon 's brother Jérôme Bonaparte , then king of Westphalia , for a well-paid position as Kapellmeister at the court in Cassel . Pada musim gugur 1808, setelah ditolak untuk posisi di kerajaan teater, Beethoven menerima tawaran dari Napoleon saudara ' Jérôme Bonaparte , kemudian raja Westfalen , untuk posisi-bayar juga dirigen di pengadilan di Cassel . To persuade him to stay in Vienna, the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky and Prince Lobkowitz, after receiving representations from the composer's friends, pledged to pay Beethoven a pension of 4000 florins a year. Untuk membujuk dia untuk tinggal di Wina, Rudolph Archduke, Prince Kinsky dan Pangeran Lobkowitz, setelah menerima representasi dari komposer teman-teman, berjanji untuk membayar Beethoven pensiun dari tahun 4000 florin. Only Archduke Rudolph paid his share of the pension on the agreed date. Hanya Archduke Rudolph membayar bagiannya dari pensiun pada tanggal yang disepakati. Kinsky, immediately called to duty as an officer, did not contribute and soon died after falling from his horse. Kinsky, segera dipanggil untuk menjalani tugas sebagai seorang petugas, tidak memberikan kontribusi dan segera meninggal setelah jatuh dari kudanya. Lobkowitz stopped paying in September 1811. Lobkowitz berhenti membayar pada bulan September 1811. No successors came forward to continue the patronage, and Beethoven relied mostly on selling composition rights and a small pension after 1815. Tidak ada penerus maju untuk melanjutkan patronase, dan Beethoven terutama mengandalkan menjual hak komposisi dan pensiun kecil setelah 1815. The effects of these financial arrangements were undermined to some extent by war with France , which caused significant inflation when the government printed money to fund its war efforts. Dampak dari pengaturan keuangan telah merusak untuk beberapa hal oleh perang dengan Perancis , yang menyebabkan inflasi signifikan ketika pemerintah mencetak uang untuk mendanai upaya perang.

The Middle period Periode Tengah

Beethoven Monument in Bonn, Muensterplatz Monumen Beethoven di Bonn, Muensterplatz
Beethoven's return to Vienna from Heiligenstadt was marked by a change in musical style, now recognized as the start of his "Middle" or "Heroic" period. Beethoven kembali ke Wina dari Heiligenstadt ditandai dengan perubahan gaya musik, sekarang dikenal sebagai awal dari "Tengah" atau "Heroic" periode. According to Carl Czerny, Beethoven said, "I am not satisfied with the work I have done so far. From now on I intend to take a new way". [ 50 ] This "Heroic" phase was characterised by a large number of original works being composed on a grand scale. [ 51 ] The first major work employing this new style was the Third Symphony in E flat, known as the "Eroica". Menurut Carl Czerny, Beethoven berkata, "Saya tidak puas dengan pekerjaan yang saya lakukan sejauh ini. Mulai sekarang saya berniat untuk mengambil cara baru". [50] Ini "Heroic" fase ini ditandai dengan sejumlah besar asli karya yang disusun dalam skala besar. [51] Karya besar pertama menggunakan gaya baru ini adalah Symphony Ketiga di E flat, yang dikenal sebagai "Eroica". While other composers had written symphonies with implied programs, or stories, this work was longer and larger in scope than any previously written symphony. Sementara komposer lain telah menulis simfoni dengan program tersirat, atau cerita-cerita, karya ini lebih panjang dan lebih besar dalam lingkup daripada sebelumnya ditulis simfoni. When it premiered in early 1805 it received a mixed reception, with some listeners objecting to its length or failing to understand its structure, while others viewed it as another masterpiece. [ 52 ] Ketika perdana di awal 1805 itu mendapat sambutan yang dicampur, dengan beberapa pendengar keberatan panjangnya atau gagal untuk memahami struktur, sementara yang lain dipandang sebagai karya lain. [52]
Beethoven composed highly ambitious works throughout the Middle period, often heroic in tone, that extended the scope of the classical musical language Beethoven had inherited from Haydn and Mozart. Beethoven menggubah karya-karya yang sangat ambisius sepanjang masa Tengah, sering heroik dalam nada, yang memperluas ruang lingkup bahasa musik klasik Beethoven mewarisi dari Haydn dan Mozart. The Middle period work includes the Third through Eighth Symphonies, the string quartets 7–11, the "Waldstein" and "Appassionata" piano sonatas, Christ on the Mount of Olives , the opera Fidelio , the Violin Concerto and many other compositions. Para masa kerja Tengah termasuk ketiga melalui Kedelapan Symphonies, kuartet string 7-11, yang "Waldstein" dan "Appassionata" sonata piano, Kristus di Bukit Zaitun, opera Fidelio , yang Violin Concerto dan komposisi lainnya. During this time Beethoven earned his living from the sale and performance of his work, and from the continuing support of wealthy patrons. Selama waktu ini Beethoven mendapat penghasilan dari penjualan dan kinerja kerja, dan dari dukungan berkelanjutan dari pelanggan kaya. His position at the Theater an der Wien was terminated when the theater changed management in early 1804, and he was forced to move temporarily to the suburbs of Vienna with his friend Stephan von Breuning. Posisinya di Teater an der Wien telah dihentikan ketika teater berubah manajemen pada 1804 awal, dan ia dipaksa untuk pindah sementara ke pinggiran kota Wina dengan temannya Stephan von Breuning. This slowed work on Fidelio , his largest work to date, for a time. Hal ini memperlambat kerja pada Fidelio, terbesar karyanya sampai saat ini, untuk sementara waktu. It was delayed again by the Austrian censor , and finally premiered in November 1805 to houses that were nearly empty because of the French occupation of the city . Hal itu tertunda lagi oleh Austria sensor , dan akhirnya perdana di November 1805 untuk rumah yang hampir kosong karena pendudukan Perancis kota . In addition to being a financial failure, this version of Fidelio was also a critical failure, and Beethoven began revising it. [ 53 ] Selain menjadi kegagalan keuangan, ini versi Fidelio juga kegagalan kritis, dan Beethoven mulai merevisi itu. [53]
The string quartets composed during the Middle period are Op. kuartet String terdiri selama periode Tengah Op. 59 no 1 , Op 59 no 2 , Op 59 no 3 (The Razumowski quartets), Op. 59 no 1 , Op 59 no 2 , Op 59 no 3 (The kuartet Razumowski), Op. 74 (the Harp) and Op 95 . 74 (Harp itu) dan 95 Op . Beethoven's publisher said that the world was not ready for the middle quartets. penerbit Beethoven mengatakan bahwa dunia belum siap untuk kuartet tengah. The slow movement of Op. Gerakan lambat Op. 59 no 2 has been described as the closest Beethoven got to heaven. 59 ada 2 telah digambarkan sebagai yang paling dekat Beethoven sampai ke surga. Even Beethoven said that the Op. Bahkan Beethoven mengatakan bahwa Op. 95 quartet was not suitable for public performance. 95 kuartet tidak cocok untuk kinerja publik.
The work of the Middle period established Beethoven's reputation as a great composer. Pekerjaan periode Beethoven Tengah didirikan reputasi sebagai seorang komponis besar. In a review from 1810, he was enshrined by ETA Hoffmann as one of the three great " Romantic " composers; Hoffman called Beethoven's Fifth Symphony "one of the most important works of the age". Dalam review dari 1810, ia diabadikan oleh ETA Hoffmann sebagai salah satu dari tiga besar " Romantic "Komponis; Hoffman disebut Beethoven's Fifth Symphony "salah satu karya yang paling penting zaman". A particular trauma for Beethoven occurred during this period in May 1809, when the attacking forces of Napoleon bombarded Vienna . Sebuah trauma khususnya untuk Beethoven terjadi selama periode tersebut pada bulan Mei 1809, ketika menyerang pasukan Napoleon dibombardir Wina . According to Ferdinand Ries, Beethoven, very worried that the noise would destroy what remained of his hearing, hid in the basement of his brother's house, covering his ears with pillows. [ 54 ] He was composing the "Emperor" Concerto at the time. Menurut Ferdinand Ries, Beethoven, sangat khawatir bahwa kebisingan akan menghancurkan apa yang tersisa dari pendengarannya, bersembunyi di ruang bawah tanah kakak rumahnya, menutupi telinganya dengan bantal. [54] Ia menyusun "Kaisar" Concerto pada saat itu.

Personal and family difficulties Pribadi dan kesulitan keluarga

Beethoven was introduced to Giulietta Guicciardi in about 1800 through the Brunsvik family. Beethoven diperkenalkan ke Giulietta Guicciardi pada sekitar 1800 melalui keluarga Brunsvik. His mutual love-relationship with Guicciardi is mentioned in a November 1801 letter to his boyhood friend, Franz Wegeler. saling cinta-Nya hubungan dengan Guicciardi disebutkan dalam sebuah surat kepada teman November 1801 masa kanak-kanaknya, Franz Wegeler. Beethoven dedicated to Giulietta his Sonata No. 14 , popularly known as the "Moonlight" Sonata . Beethoven didedikasikan untuk Giulietta nya Sonata No 14 , dikenal sebagai Moonlight "Sonata" . Marriage plans were thwarted by Giulietta's father and perhaps Beethoven's common lineage. Perkawinan adalah rencana digagalkan oleh ayah Giulietta dan mungkin garis keturunan umum Beethoven. In 1803 she married Count Wenzel Robert von Gallenberg (1783–1839), himself an amateur composer. Pada tahun 1803 ia menikah dengan Count Robert Wenzel von Gallenberg (1783-1839), dirinya sebagai seorang komposer amatir.
Beethoven's relationship with Josephine Deym notably deepened after the death of her first husband in 1804. Beethoven hubungan dengan Josephine Deym terutama memperdalam setelah kematian suami pertamanya pada 1804. There is some evidence that Beethoven may have proposed to her, at least informally. Ada beberapa bukti bahwa Beethoven mungkin telah mengusulkan padanya, setidaknya secara informal. While the relationship was apparently reciprocated, she, with some regret, turned him down, and their relationship effectively ended in 1807. Sedangkan hubungan itu rupanya membalas, ia, dengan menyesal beberapa, menolaknya, dan hubungan mereka secara efektif berakhir pada tahun 1807. She cited her "duty", an apparent reference to the fact that she was born of nobility and he was a commoner. [ 55 ] It is also likely that he considered proposing (whether he actually did or not is unknown) to Therese Malfatti , the dedicatee of " Für Elise " in 1810; his common status may also have interfered with those plans. Dia mengutip "dia" tugas, referensi jelas pada kenyataan bahwa ia lahir dari kaum bangsawan dan dia rakyat biasa. [55] Hal ini juga mungkin bahwa ia menganggap ajukan (apakah ia sebenarnya tidak diketahui atau tidak) untuk Theresia Malfatti , yang dedicatee dari " Für Elise "pada tahun 1810, status sehatnya mungkin juga mengganggu dengan rencana tersebut.
Life mask made in 1812 Hidup topeng dibuat pada tahun 1812
In the spring of 1811 Beethoven became seriously ill, suffering headaches and bad fevers. Pada musim semi tahun 1811 Beethoven menjadi sakit parah, menderita sakit kepala dan demam buruk. On the advice of his doctor, he spent six weeks in the Bohemian spa town of Teplitz . Atas saran dokter, ia menghabiskan enam minggu di Bohemia kota spa dari Teplitz . The following winter, which was dominated by work on the Seventh symphony, he was again ill, and decided to spend the summer of 1812 at Teplitz. Musim dingin berikutnya, yang didominasi oleh bekerja pada simfoni Ketujuh, dia lagi sakit, dan memutuskan untuk menghabiskan musim panas tahun 1812 di Teplitz. It is likely that he was at Teplitz when he wrote three love letters to an "Immortal Beloved". [ 56 ] While the identity of the intended recipient is an ongoing subject of debate, the most likely candidate, according to what is known about people's movements and the contents of the letters, is Antonie Brentano , a married woman with whom he had begun a friendship in 1810. [ 57 ] [ 58 ] Beethoven traveled to Karlsbad in late July, where he stayed in the same guesthouse as the Brentanos. Kemungkinan bahwa ia berada di Teplitz ketika dia menulis tiga surat cinta untuk sebuah "Immortal Beloved". [56] Sedangkan identitas penerima yang dimaksud merupakan suatu hal yang sedang berlangsung perdebatan, yang mungkin kandidat yang paling, sesuai dengan apa yang diketahui tentang itu orang gerakan dan isi surat, adalah Antonie Brentano , seorang wanita menikah dengan siapa dia telah memulai persahabatan tahun 1810. [57] [58] Beethoven pergi ke Karlsbad di akhir bulan Juli, di mana ia tinggal di wisma yang sama dengan Brentanos. After traveling with them for a time, he returned to Teplitz, where after another bout of gastric illness, he left for Linz to visit his brother Johann. [ 59 ] Setelah menempuh perjalanan dengan mereka untuk sementara waktu, ia kembali ke Teplitz, dimana setelah satu serangan penyakit lambung, ia berangkat ke Linz untuk mengunjungi saudaranya Johan. [59]
Beethoven's visit to his brother was made in an attempt to end the latter's immoral cohabitation with Therese Obermayer, a woman who already had an illegitimate child. Kunjungan Beethoven kepada saudaranya itu dibuat dalam upaya untuk mengakhiri hidup bersama bermoral yang terakhir dengan Therese Obermayer, seorang wanita yang telah memiliki anak haram. He was unable to convince Johann to end the relationship, so he appealed to the local civic and religious authorities. Dia tidak dapat meyakinkan Johann untuk mengakhiri hubungan, sehingga ia mengajukan kepada otoritas sipil dan agama setempat. The end result of Beethoven's meddling was that Johann and Therese married on 9 November. [ 59 ] Hasil akhir dari campur tangan Beethoven's adalah bahwa Johan dan Theresia menikah pada tanggal 9 November. [59]
Beethoven in 1814. Beethoven pada tahun 1814. Portrait by Louis-René Létronne. Potret oleh Létronne Louis-René.
In early 1813 Beethoven apparently went through a difficult emotional period, and his compositional output dropped for a time. Pada awal 1813 Beethoven tampaknya mengalami masa emosi sulit, dan output komposisi nya jatuh untuk sementara waktu. Historians have suggested a variety of causes, including his lack of success at romance. Para sejarawan telah menyarankan berbagai sebab, termasuk kurangnya keberhasilan di asmara. His personal appearance, which had generally been neat, degraded, as did his manners in public, especially when dining. penampilan pribadi-Nya, yang umumnya rapi, rusak, begitu pula sikapnya di depan umum, terutama ketika makan. Some of his (married) desired romantic partners had children (leading to assertions among historians of Beethoven's possible paternity), and his brother Carl was seriously ill. Beberapa partner (menikah) yang diinginkan nya romantis memiliki anak (yang mengarah ke pernyataan di antara ahli sejarah mungkin ayah Beethoven), dan saudaranya Carl sakit parah. Beethoven took care of his brother and his family, an expense that he claimed left him penniless. Beethoven merawat saudaranya dan keluarganya, beban yang ia mengklaim meninggalkan dia punya uang. He was unable to obtain a date for a concert in the spring of 1813, which, if successful, would have provided him with significant funds. Ia tidak bisa mendapatkan tanggal untuk sebuah konser pada musim semi 1813, yang, jika berhasil, akan memberinya dana yang signifikan.
Beethoven was finally motivated to begin significant composition again in June 1813, when news arrived of the defeat of one of Napoleon's armies at Vitoria, Spain , by a coalition of forces under the Duke of Wellington . Beethoven akhirnya termotivasi untuk memulai komposisi signifikan lagi pada bulan Juni 1813, ketika berita tiba dari kekalahan dari salah satu tentaranya Napoleon di Vitoria, Spanyol , oleh pasukan koalisi di bawah Duke of Wellington . This news stimulated him to write the battle symphony known as Wellington's Victory . Berita ini mendorong dia untuk menulis simfoni pertempuran yang dikenal sebagai Wellington's Victory . It was premiered on 8 December at a charity concert for victims of the war along with his Seventh Symphony. Ini adalah perdana pada tanggal 8 Desember di sebuah konser amal untuk korban perang bersama dengan nya Ketujuh Symphony. The work was a popular hit, likely because of its programmatic style which was entertaining and easy to understand. Pekerjaan itu hit populer, mungkin karena gaya program mereka yang menghibur dan mudah dimengerti. It received repeat performances at concerts Beethoven staged in January and February 1814. Ia menerima pertunjukan ulang di konser Beethoven dipentaskan pada bulan Januari dan Februari 1814. Beethoven's renewed popularity led to demands for a revival of Fidelio , which, in its third revised version, was also well-received when it opened in July. diperbaharui popularitas's Beethoven menyebabkan tuntutan kebangkitan Fidelio, yang, dalam versi revisi ketiga, adalah juga diterima dengan baik ketika dibuka pada bulan Juli. That summer he also composed a piano sonata for the first time in five years ( No. 27, Opus 90 ). Musim panas itu ia juga menyusun sebuah sonata piano untuk pertama kalinya dalam lima tahun ( No 27, Opus 90 ). This work was in a markedly more Romantic style than his earlier sonatas. Karya ini berada dalam nyata lebih romantis gaya dari sonata sebelumnya. He was also one of many composers who produced music in a patriotic vein to entertain the many heads of state and diplomats that came to the Congress of Vienna that began in November 1814. Dia juga salah satu dari komponis musik banyak yang diproduksi dalam vena patriotik untuk menghibur banyak kepala negara dan diplomat yang datang ke Kongres Wina yang dimulai pada November 1814. His output of songs included his only song cycle , " An die ferne Geliebte ", and the extraordinarily expressive, but almost incoherent, "An die Hoffnung" (Opus 94). output Nya satu-satunya lagu termasuk lagu siklus , " Sebuah Geliebte mati ferne ", dan ekspresif, tetapi hampir tidak koheren, luar biasa" Sebuah Hoffnung mati "(Opus 94).

Custody struggle and illness Penitipan perjuangan dan penyakit

Between 1815 and 1817 Beethoven's output dropped again. Antara 1815 dan 1817 output Beethoven turun lagi. Part of this Beethoven attributed to a lengthy illness (he called it an "inflammatory fever") that afflicted him for more than a year, starting in October 1816. [ 60 ] Biographers have speculated on a variety of other reasons that also contributed to the decline in creative output, including the difficulties in the personal lives of his would-be paramours and the harsh censorship policies of the Austrian government. Bagian dari Beethoven ini disebabkan oleh penyakit panjang (dia itu yang disebut "demam peradangan") yang menimpa dirinya selama lebih dari setahun, dimulai pada bulan Oktober 1816. [60] penulis biografi telah berspekulasi tentang berbagai alasan lain yang juga memberikan kontribusi terhadap penurunan output kreatif, termasuk kesulitan dalam kehidupan pribadi calon kekasih nya dan kebijakan sensor yang keras dari pemerintah Austria. The illness and death of his brother Carl from consumption likely also played a role. Penyakit dan kematian saudaranya Carl dari konsumsi mungkin juga berperan.
Beethoven in 1818 by August Klöber Beethoven pada tahun 1818 oleh Klöber Agustus
Carl had been ill for some time, and Beethoven spent a small fortune in 1815 on his care. Carl telah sakit selama beberapa waktu, dan Beethoven menghabiskan keberuntungan kecil pada tahun 1815 pada perawatan nya. When he finally died on 15 November 1815, Beethoven immediately became embroiled in a protracted legal dispute with Carl's wife Johanna over custody of their son Karl, then nine years old. Ketika ia akhirnya meninggal pada tanggal 15 November 1815, Beethoven segera menjadi terlibat dalam sengketa hukum yang berlarut-larut dengan Carl istri Johanna atas hak asuh anak mereka Karl, kemudian sembilan tahun. Beethoven, who considered Johanna an unfit parent because of her morals (she had an illegitimate child by a different father before marrying Carl, and had been convicted of theft) and financial management, had successfully applied to Carl to have himself named sole guardian of the boy; but a late codicil to Carl's will gave him and Johanna joint guardianship. Beethoven, yang dianggap Johanna orangtua yang tidak layak karena moral (dia punya anak haram oleh seorang ayah yang berbeda sebelum menikah Carl, dan telah dihukum karena pencurian) dan manajemen keuangan, telah berhasil diterapkan untuk Carl untuk memiliki sendiri bernama wali tunggal dari anak laki-laki, tetapi terlambat bis untuk akan Carl memberinya dan Johanna perwalian bersama. While Beethoven was successful at having his nephew removed from her custody in February 1816, the case was not fully resolved until 1820, and he was frequently preoccupied by the demands of the litigation and seeing to the welfare of the boy, whom he first placed in a private school. Sementara Beethoven berhasil karena telah keponakannya dikeluarkan dari tahanan-nya pada bulan Februari 1816, kasus itu belum sepenuhnya terselesaikan sampai 1820, dan ia sering disibukkan oleh tuntutan dari gugatan hukum tersebut dan melihat kepada kesejahteraan anak, yang ia pertama kali ditempatkan di sebuah sekolah swasta. The custody fight brought out the very worst aspects of Beethoven's character; in the lengthy court cases Beethoven stopped at nothing to ensure that he achieved this goal, and even stopped composing for long periods. Perjuangan tahanan dibawa keluar aspek terburuk karakter Beethoven, dalam kasus-kasus pengadilan yang panjang Beethoven berhenti di apapun untuk memastikan bahwa ia mencapai tujuan ini, dan bahkan berhenti menulis untuk waktu yang lama.
The Austrian court system had one court for the nobility , The R&I Landrechte, and another for commoners, The Civil Court of the Magistrate. Sistem pengadilan Austria memiliki satu pengadilan untuk bangsawan , R & I Landrechte, dan satu lagi untuk jelata, Pengadilan Sipil dari Hakim. Beethoven disguised the fact that the Dutch "van" in his name did not denote nobility as does the German "von", [ 61 ] and his case was tried in the Landrechte. Beethoven menyamar fakta bahwa "Belanda" van dalam nama-Nya tidak menunjukkan bangsawan seperti halnya Jerman "von", [61] dan kasusnya diadili di Landrechte. Owing to his influence with the court, Beethoven felt assured of a favorable outcome. Karena pengaruhnya dengan pengadilan, Beethoven merasa yakin dari hasil yang menguntungkan. Beethoven was awarded sole guardianship. Beethoven dianugerahi perwalian tunggal. While giving evidence to the Landrechte, however, Beethoven inadvertently [ 61 ] admitted that he was not nobly born. Sementara memberikan bukti kepada Landrechte Namun, Beethoven secara tidak sengaja [61] mengakui bahwa ia tidak mulia lahir. The case was transferred to the Magistracy on 18 December 1818, where he lost sole guardianship. Kasus ini dipindahkan ke kehakiman pada tanggal 18, Desember 1818 di mana ia kehilangan perwalian tunggal.
Beethoven appealed, and regained custody of Karl. Beethoven mengajukan banding, dan merebut kembali hak asuh dari Karl. Johanna's appeal for justice to the Emperor was not successful: the Emperor "washed his hands of the matter". Johanna banding untuk keadilan kepada Kaisar tidak berhasil: Kaisar "mencuci tangan dari materi". Beethoven stopped at nothing to blacken her name, as can be read in surviving court papers. Beethoven berhenti di apa-apa untuk menghitamkan namanya, seperti dapat dibaca dalam bertahan dokumen pengadilan. During the years of custody that followed, Beethoven attempted to ensure that Karl lived to the highest of moral standards. Selama tahun-tahun tahanan yang diikuti, Beethoven berusaha untuk memastikan bahwa Karl hidup dengan standar moral tertinggi. His overbearing manner and frequent interference in his nephew's life, especially as he grew into a young man, apparently drove Karl to attempt suicide on 31 July 1826 by shooting himself in the head. cara sombong Nya dan gangguan sering dalam kehidupan keponakannya, terutama ketika ia tumbuh menjadi seorang pemuda, tampaknya melaju Karl mencoba bunuh diri pada 31 Juli 1826 dengan menembak dirinya di kepala. He survived, and was brought to his mother's house, where he recuperated. Dia selamat, dan dibawa ke rumah ibunya, di mana ia sembuh. He and Beethoven reconciled, but Karl was insistent on joining the army, and last saw Beethoven in early 1827. Dia dan Beethoven didamaikan, tapi Karl bersikeras bergabung dengan tentara, dan terakhir melihat Beethoven pada awal 1827.
The only major works Beethoven produced during this time were two cello sonatas , a piano sonata, and collections of folk song settings. Hanya karya-karya besar Beethoven yang dihasilkan selama ini adalah dua sonata cello , sonata piano, dan koleksi pengaturan lagu rakyat. He began sketches for the Ninth Symphony in 1817. Dia mulai sketsa untuk Ninth Symphony pada tahun 1817.

Late works Akhir bekerja

Beethoven began a renewed study of older music, including works by JS Bach and Handel , that were then being published in the first attempts at complete editions. Beethoven memulai studi baru tentang musik yang lebih tua, termasuk karya JS Bach dan Handel , yang kemudian dipublikasikan dalam upaya pertama di edisi lengkap. He composed the Consecration of the House Overture , which was the first work to attempt to incorporate his new influences. Dia menyusun Konsekrasi dari Overture House , yang merupakan karya pertama untuk mencoba memasukkan pengaruh baru. But it is when he returned to the keyboard to compose his first new piano sonatas in almost a decade, that a new style, now called his "late period", emerged. Tapi itu adalah ketika ia kembali ke keyboard untuk menulis sonata pertamanya piano baru di hampir satu dekade, bahwa sebuah gaya baru, yang sekarang disebut "masa akhir" nya, muncul. The works of the late period are commonly held to include the last five piano sonatas and the Diabelli Variations , the last two sonatas for cello and piano, the late quartets (see below), and two works for very large forces: the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony . Karya-karya periode akhir biasanya diadakan untuk memasukkan piano sonata lima terakhir dan Variasi Diabelli , dua terakhir sonata untuk cello dan piano, dengan kuartet terlambat (lihat di bawah), dan dua bekerja untuk kekuatan yang sangat besar: yang Solemnis Missa dan tersebut Symphony Kesembilan .
Beethoven in 1823; copy of a destroyed portrait by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller Beethoven pada tahun 1823, salinan sebuah potret dihancurkan oleh Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller
By early 1818 Beethoven's health had improved, and his nephew had moved in with him in January. Dengan kesehatan awal 1818 Beethoven telah membaik, dan keponakannya telah pindah dengan dia di Januari. On the downside, his hearing had deteriorated to the point that conversation became difficult, necessitating the use of conversation books. Pada sisi negatifnya, pendengarannya telah merosot sampai percakapan menjadi sulit, yang memerlukan penggunaan buku percakapan. His household management had also improved somewhat; Nanette Streicher, who had assisted in his care during his illness, continued to provide some support, and he finally found a decent cook. [ 62 ] His musical output in 1818 was still somewhat reduced, but included song collections and the Hammerklavier Sonata , as well as sketches for two symphonies that eventually coalesced into the large-scale Ninth Symphony. manajemen rumah tangga nya juga agak membaik, Nanette Streicher, yang telah membantu dalam perawatan selama penyakitnya, terus memberikan dukungan beberapa, dan ia akhirnya menemukan masak yang layak. [62] output musiknya pada tahun 1818 masih agak berkurang, namun termasuk koleksi lagu dan Sonata Hammerklavier , serta sketsa untuk dua simfoni yang akhirnya menyatu ke dalam skala Ninth Symphony-besar. In 1819 he was again preoccupied by the legal processes around Karl, and began work on the Diabelli Variations and the Missa Solemnis . Pada tahun 1819 ia kembali disibukkan oleh proses hukum sekitar Karl, dan mulai bekerja di Variasi Diabelli dan Solemnis Missa.
For the next few years he continued to work on the Missa, composing piano sonatas and bagatelles to satisfy the demands of publishers and the need for income, and completing the Diabelli Variations. Selama beberapa tahun berikutnya ia terus bekerja di Missa, menulis piano sonata dan bagatelles untuk memenuhi tuntutan penerbit dan kebutuhan untuk pendapatan, dan menyelesaikan Variasi Diabelli. He was ill again for an extended time in 1821, and completed the Missa in 1823, three years after its original due date. Dia sakit lagi untuk perpanjangan waktu pada tahun 1821, dan menyelesaikan Missa pada tahun 1823, tiga tahun setelah tanggal jatuh tempo aslinya. He also opened discussions with his publishers over the possibility of producing a complete edition of his works, an idea that was arguably not fully realized until 1971. Ia juga membuka diskusi dengan penerbit di atas kemungkinan memproduksi edisi lengkap karya-karyanya, sebuah ide yang dapat dikatakan tidak sepenuhnya menyadari sampai tahun 1971. Beethoven's brother Johann began to take a hand in his business affairs around this time, much in the way Carl had earlier, locating older unpublished works to offer for publication and offering the Missa to multiple publishers with the goal of getting a higher price for it. Beethoven saudara Johann mulai mengambil tangan dalam urusan bisnis di sekitar waktu ini, banyak di jalan Carl sebelumnya, lokasi bekerja tidak dipublikasikan lebih tua untuk menawarkan untuk publikasi dan menawarkan Missa untuk beberapa penerbit dengan tujuan mendapatkan harga yang lebih tinggi untuk itu.
Two commissions in 1822 improved Beethoven's financial prospects. Dua komisi tahun 1822 peningkatan prospek keuangan Beethoven. The Philharmonic Society of London offered a commission for a symphony, and Prince Nikolay Golitsin of St. The Philharmonic Society of London menawarkan komisi untuk simfoni, dan Pangeran Nikolay Golitsin dari St Petersburg offered to pay Beethoven's price for three string quartets. Petersburg menawarkan untuk membayar harganya Beethoven selama tiga kuartet string. The first of these spurred Beethoven to finish the Ninth Symphony, which was premiered, along with the Missa Solemnis, on 7 May 1824, to great acclaim at the Kärntnertortheater . Yang pertama Beethoven mendorong untuk menyelesaikan Symphony Kesembilan, yang perdana, bersama dengan Solemnis Missa, pada tanggal 7 Mei 1824, dan mendapat sambutan besar di Kärntnertortheater . The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung gushed "inexhaustible genius had shown us a new world", and Carl Czerny wrote that his symphony "breathes such a fresh, lively, indeed youthful spirit [...] so much power, innovation, and beauty as ever [came] from the head of this original man, although he certainly sometimes led the old wigs to shake their heads." [ 63 ] Unlike his earlier concerts, Beethoven made little money on this one, as the expenses of mounting it were significantly higher. [ 63 ] A second concert on 24 May, in which the producer guaranteed Beethoven a minimum fee, was poorly attended; nephew Karl noted that "many people have already gone into the country". [ 64 ] It was Beethoven's last public concert. [ 64 ] Allgemeine Zeitung ini musikalische menyembur "jenius habis-habisnya telah menunjukkan kita sebuah dunia baru", dan Carl Czerny menulis bahwa simfoni nya "bernapas seperti segar, hidup, semangat muda memang banyak [...] daya begitu, inovasi, dan keindahan seperti biasa [ datang] dari kepala orang ini asli, meskipun ia pasti kadang-kadang memimpin wig tua untuk menggelengkan kepala mereka ". [63] Tidak seperti konser sebelumnya, Beethoven membuat sedikit uang yang satu ini, sebagai biaya pemasangan itu secara signifikan lebih tinggi. [63] Sebuah konser kedua pada tanggal 24 Mei, di mana produsen dijamin Beethoven biaya minimal, adalah buruk dihadiri; keponakan Karl mencatat bahwa "banyak orang telah pergi ke negara". [64] Ini adalah publik konser terakhir Beethoven. [ 64]
Beethoven then turned to writing the string quartets for Golitsin. Beethoven kemudian beralih ke menulis kuartet string untuk Golitsin. This series of quartets , known as the "Late Quartets", went far beyond what either musicians or audiences were ready for at that time. Ini serangkaian kuartet , yang dikenal sebagai "kuartet Akhir", jauh melampaui apa yang baik musisi maupun penonton siap untuk pada saat itu. One musician commented that "we know there is something there, but we do not know what it is." Salah satu musisi berkomentar bahwa "kita tahu ada sesuatu di sana, tapi kita tidak tahu apa itu." Composer Louis Spohr called them "indecipherable, uncorrected horrors", though that opinion has changed considerably from the time of their first bewildered reception. Komposer Louis Spohr menyebut mereka "terbaca, tidak dikoreksi kengerian", meskipun pendapat yang telah banyak berubah dari waktu bingung pertama penerimaan mereka. They continued (and continue) to inspire musicians and composers, from Richard Wagner to Béla Bartók , for their unique forms and ideas. Mereka terus (dan terus) untuk menginspirasi musisi dan komposer, dari Richard Wagner ke Béla Bartók , untuk bentuk yang unik dan ide-ide. Of the late quartets, Beethoven's favorite was the Fourteenth Quartet, op. Dari kuartet an, favorit Beethoven adalah Quartet Keempatbelas, op. 131 in C# minor [ citation needed ] , upon hearing which Schubert is said to have remarked, "After this, what is left for us to write?" [ citation needed ] 131 di C # minor [ rujukan? ], setelah mendengar yang Schubert dikatakan telah berkata, "Setelah ini, apa yang tersisa bagi kita untuk menulis?" [ kutipan diperlukan ]
Beethoven wrote the last quartets amidst failing health. Beethoven menulis kuartet terakhir di tengah-tengah gagal kesehatan. In April 1825 he was bedridden, and remained ill for about a month. Pada April 1825 ia sakit, dan tetap sakit selama sekitar sebulan. The illness—or more precisely, his recovery from it—is remembered for having given rise to the deeply felt slow movement of the Fifteenth Quartet , which Beethoven called "Holy song of thanks ('Heiliger dankgesang') to the divinity, from one made well". Penyakit ini-atau lebih tepatnya, pemulihan dari hal-dikenang karena kenaikan yang diberikan kepada memperlambat gerakan merasa sangat dari Quartet XV , yang Beethoven disebut "Kudus lagu terima kasih ('Heiliger dankgesang') untuk keilahian, dari satu dibuat baik ". He went on to complete the (misnumbered) Thirteenth , Fourteenth , and Sixteenth Quartets. Dia melanjutkan untuk melengkapi (misnumbered) Ketigabelas , Fourteenth , dan Sixteenth kuartet. The last work completed by Beethoven was the substitute final movement of the Thirteenth Quartet, deemed necessary to replace the difficult Große Fuge . Pekerjaan terakhir diselesaikan oleh Beethoven adalah gerakan terakhir pengganti dari Quartet Ketigabelas, dipandang perlu untuk mengganti sulit Grosse Fuge . Shortly thereafter, in December 1826, illness struck again, with episodes of vomiting and diarrhea that nearly ended his life. Tak lama kemudian, pada bulan Desember 1826, penyakit menyerang lagi, dengan episode muntah dan diare yang hampir mengakhiri hidupnya.

Illness and death Penyakit dan kematian

Beethoven's death mask by Joseph Dannhauser Beethoven kematian topeng oleh Joseph Dannhauser
Beethoven's grave site, Vienna Zentralfriedhof Beethoven situs kuburan, Wina Zentralfriedhof
Beethoven was bedridden for most of his remaining months, and many friends came to visit. Beethoven terbaring di tempat tidur untuk sebagian besar bulan yang tersisa, dan banyak teman datang berkunjung. He died on Monday, 26 March 1827, during a thunderstorm. Dia meninggal pada Senin, 26 Maret 1827, selama badai. His friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner , who was present at the time, claimed that there was a peal of thunder at the moment of death. Temannya Anselmus Hüttenbrenner , yang hadir pada waktu itu, mengklaim bahwa ada gemuruh guntur pada saat kematian. An autopsy revealed significant liver damage, which may have been due to heavy alcohol consumption. [ 65 ] Sebuah otopsi menunjukkan kerusakan hati yang signifikan, yang mungkin telah disebabkan oleh konsumsi alkohol berat. [65]
Unlike Mozart , who was buried anonymously in a communal grave (such being the custom at the time), 20,000 Viennese citizens lined the streets for Beethoven's funeral on Thursday, 29 March 1827. Franz Schubert , who died the following year and was buried next to Beethoven, was one of the torchbearers. Tidak seperti Mozart , yang dimakamkan anonim dalam kubur komunal (seperti menjadi kebiasaan pada saat itu), 20.000 warga Wina berbaris di jalan-jalan untuk itu pemakaman Beethoven pada Kamis 29 Maret 1827. Franz Schubert , yang meninggal pada tahun berikutnya dan dimakamkan di samping Beethoven, adalah salah satu pembawa obor. After a Requiem Mass at the church of the Holy Trinity (Dreifaltigkeitskirche), Beethoven was buried in the Währing cemetery, north-west of Vienna. Setelah misa Requiem di gereja dari Trinitas Kudus (Dreifaltigkeitskirche), Beethoven dimakamkan di Währing kuburan, utara-barat Wina. His remains were exhumed for study in 1862, and moved in 1888 to Vienna's Zentralfriedhof . [ 65 ] tetap Nya digali kembali untuk studi pada tahun 1862, dan pada tahun 1888 pindah ke Wina's Zentralfriedhof . [65]
There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death; alcoholic cirrhosis , syphilis , infectious hepatitis , lead poisoning , sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed. [ 66 ] Friends and visitors before and after his death clipped locks of his hair, some of which have been preserved and subjected to additional analysis, as have skull fragments removed during the 1862 exhumation . [ 67 ] Some of these analyses have led to controversial assertions that Beethoven was accidentally poisoned to death by excessive doses of lead-based treatments administered under instruction from his doctor. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ] Ada sengketa tentang penyebab kematian Beethoven; sirosis alkohol , sifilis , hepatitis menular , keracunan timbal , sarkoidosis dan Penyakit Whipple semuanya telah diusulkan. [66] teman dan pengunjung sebelum dan setelah kematiannya terpotong kunci rambutnya, beberapa diantaranya telah diawetkan dan dikenakan analisis tambahan, seperti yang fragmen tengkorak dihapus selama 1862 penggalian . [67] Beberapa dari analisis ini telah membawa pernyataan kontroversial bahwa Beethoven sengaja diracuni sampai mati oleh dosis berlebihan berbasis perawatan memimpin dikelola bawah instruksi dari nya dokter. [68] [69] [70]

Character Karakter

Beethoven's personal life was troubled by his encroaching deafness , which led him to contemplate suicide (documented in his Heiligenstadt Testament ). pribadi hidup Beethoven terganggu dengan melanggar-Nya tuli , yang menyebabkan dia untuk bunuh diri (didokumentasikan dalam Surat Perjanjian Heiligenstadt ). Beethoven was often irascible and may have suffered from bipolar disorder [ 71 ] and irritability brought on by chronic abdominal pain (beginning in his twenties) that has been attributed to possible lead poisoning. [ 72 ] Nevertheless, he had a close and devoted circle of friends all his life, thought to have been attracted by his strength of personality. Beethoven sering berang dan mungkin telah menderita gangguan bipolar [71] dan mudah tersinggung dibawa oleh nyeri perut kronis (mulai berusia dua puluhan) yang telah dikaitkan dengan keracunan timah mungkin. [72] Namun demikian, ia memiliki dan mengabdikan lingkaran dekat teman sepanjang hidupnya, dianggap telah tertarik oleh kekuatannya kepribadian. Toward the end of his life, Beethoven's friends competed in their efforts to help him cope with his incapacities. [ 73 ] Menjelang akhir hidupnya, Teman-teman Beethoven bersaing dalam upaya mereka untuk membantunya mengatasi incapacities nya. [73]
Sources show Beethoven's disdain for authority, and for social rank. Sumber menunjukkan penghinaan Beethoven sebagai otoritas, dan untuk peringkat sosial. He stopped performing at the piano if the audience chatted amongst themselves, or afforded him less than their full attention. Dia berhenti tampil di piano jika penonton mengobrol antara mereka sendiri, atau diberikan kepadanya kurang dari perhatian penuh mereka. At soirées, he refused to perform if suddenly called upon to do so. Pada soirées, ia menolak untuk melakukan jika tiba-tiba diminta untuk melakukannya. Eventually, after many confrontations, the Archduke Rudolph decreed that the usual rules of court etiquette did not apply to Beethoven. [ 73 ] Akhirnya, setelah banyak konfrontasi, Rudolph Archduke memutuskan bahwa aturan etiket pengadilan biasa tidak berlaku bagi Beethoven. [73]

Religious views Agama dilihat

Beethoven was attracted to the ideals of the Enlightenment . Beethoven tertarik pada cita-cita Pencerahan . In 1804, when Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, Beethoven took hold of the title-page of his Third Symphony and scratched the name Bonaparte out so violently that he made a hole in the paper. Pada 1804, ketika kekaisaran ambisi's Napoleon menjadi jelas, Beethoven memegang halaman-judul nya Ketiga Symphony dan menggaruk nama Bonaparte keluar begitu hebat bahwa ia membuat lubang di kertas. He later changed the work's title to "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il sovvenire d'un grand'uom" ("Heroic Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man"), and he rededicated it to his patron, Prince Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz, at whose palace it was first performed. Dia kemudian berubah judul pekerjaan untuk "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il d'un sovvenire grand'uom" ("Heroic Symphony, yang terdiri untuk merayakan memori orang besar"), dan ia rededicated ke pelindungnya, Pangeran Yusuf Franz von Lobkowitz, di istana yang pertama kali dilakukan.
The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's Ode An die Freude ("Ode to Joy"), an optimistic hymn championing the brotherhood of humanity. Gerakan keempat nya Ninth Symphony fitur pengaturan paduan suara rumit Schiller's Ode An die Freude ("Ode to Joy"), sebuah himne optimis memperjuangkan persaudaraan kemanusiaan.
Scholars disagree about Beethoven's religious beliefs , and about the role they played in his work. Ulama tidak setuju tentang agama keyakinan's Beethoven , dan tentang peranan mereka mainkan dalam karyanya. It has been asserted, but not proven, that Beethoven was a Freemason . [ 74 ] Telah menegaskan, tapi tidak terbukti, bahwa Beethoven adalah seorang Freemason . [74]

Music Musik

A bust based upon Beethoven's life mask Sebuah bust berdasarkan topeng kehidupan Beethoven
Beethoven is acknowledged as one of the giants of classical music ; occasionally he is referred to as one of the " three B s " (along with Bach and Brahms ) who epitomize that tradition. Beethoven diakui sebagai salah satu raksasa musik klasik , kadang-kadang ia disebut sebagai salah satu dari " B s tiga "(bersama dengan Bach dan Brahms ) yang melambangkan bahwa tradisi. He was also a pivotal figure in the transition from the 18th century musical classicism to 19th century romanticism , and his influence on subsequent generations of composers was profound. [ 73 ] Dia juga seorang tokoh penting dalam transisi dari abad ke-18 musik klasik untuk abad ke-19 romantisme , dan pengaruhnya pada generasi berikutnya komposer sangat dalam. [73]

Overview Ikhtisar

Beethoven composed in several musical genres, and for a variety of instrument combinations. Beethoven menggubah beberapa di genre musik, dan untuk berbagai kombinasi instrumen. His works for symphony orchestra include nine symphonies (the Ninth Symphony includes a chorus), and about a dozen pieces of "occasional" music. Karya-karyanya untuk orkestra simfoni termasuk sembilan simfoni (Symphony Kesembilan mencakup paduan suara), dan sekitar selusin keping sesekali "musik". He wrote seven concerti for one or more soloists and orchestra, as well as four shorter works that include soloists accompanied by orchestra. Dia menulis tujuh konser untuk atau lebih solois satu dan orkestra, serta empat karya pendek yang mencakup solois disertai dengan orkestra. His only opera is Fidelio ; other vocal works with orchestral accompaniment include two masses and a number of shorter works. Satu-satunya opera adalah Fidelio ; bekerja vokal lainnya dengan iringan orkestra termasuk dua massa dan sejumlah karya lebih pendek.
His large body of compositions for piano includes 32 piano sonatas and numerous shorter pieces, including arrangements of some of his other works. tubuh besar Nya komposisi untuk piano termasuk 32 sonata piano dan potongan pendek banyak, termasuk pengaturan dari beberapa karya lain. Works with piano accompaniment include 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, and a sonata for French horn , as well as numerous lieder . Bekerja dengan iringan piano termasuk sonata biola 10, 5 sonata cello, dan sonata untuk tanduk Perancis , serta berbagai lieder .
Beethoven also wrote a significant quantity of chamber music. Beethoven juga menulis dalam jumlah yang signifikan dari musik kamar. In addition to 16 string quartets , he wrote five works for string quintet , seven for piano trio , five for string trio , and more than a dozen works for a variety of combinations of wind instruments. Selain 16 kuartet gesek , ia menulis lima karya untuk kwintet string , tujuh untuk trio piano , lima untuk trio string , dan lebih dari selusin bekerja untuk berbagai kombinasi instrumen angin.

The three periods Tiga periode

Beethoven's compositional career is usually divided into Early, Middle, and Late periods. [ 73 ] In this scheme, his early period is taken to last until about 1802, the middle period from about 1803 to about 1814, and the late period from about 1815. komposisi karir's Beethoven biasanya dibagi menjadi Awal, Tengah dan periode akhir. [73] Dalam skema ini, periode awal diambil untuk terakhir sampai sekitar 1802, periode pertengahan dari sekitar 1803 sampai sekitar 1814, dan periode akhir dari sekitar 1815 .
In his Early period, Beethoven's work was strongly influenced by his predecessors Haydn and Mozart . Pada periode awal-nya, adalah pekerjaan Beethoven sangat dipengaruhi oleh pendahulunya Haydn dan Mozart . He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope and ambition of his work. Ia juga menjelajahi arah baru dan secara bertahap memperluas ruang lingkup dan ambisi karyanya. Some important pieces from the Early period are the first and second symphonies, the set of six string quartets Opus 18 , the first two piano concertos, and the first dozen or so piano sonatas , including the famous Pathétique sonata, Op. Beberapa bagian penting dari periode awal adalah yang pertama dan kedua simfoni, himpunan enam kuartet string Opus 18 , dua yang pertama concerto piano, dan selusin pertama atau sonata piano , termasuk yang terkenal Pathétique sonata, Op. 13. 13.
His Middle (Heroic) period began shortly after Beethoven's personal crisis brought on by his recognition of encroaching deafness. Nya Tengah (Heroic) periode mulai segera setelah krisis pribadi Beethoven dibawa oleh pengakuan nya melanggar tuli. It includes large-scale works that express heroism and struggle. Hal ini termasuk pekerjaan yang besar-besaran yang mengungkapkan kepahlawanan dan perjuangan. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the last three piano concertos, the Triple Concerto and violin concerto , five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), several piano sonatas (including the Moonlight , Waldstein and Appassionata sonatas), the Kreutzer violin sonata and Beethoven's only opera , Fidelio . Tengah periode-karya termasuk enam simfoni (No. 3-8), tiga terakhir concerto piano, yang Concerto Triple dan konserto biola , kuartet string lima (No. 7-11), beberapa piano sonata (termasuk Moonlight , Waldstein dan Appassionata sonata), yang Kreutzer sonata biola dan hanya Beethoven opera , Fidelio .
Beethoven's Late period began around 1815. Akhir periode Beethoven dimulai sekitar 1815. Works from this period are characterized by their intellectual depth, their formal innovations, and their intense, highly personal expression. Bekerja dari periode ini ditandai oleh kedalaman intelektual mereka, inovasi formal mereka, dan intens mereka, ekspresi yang sangat pribadi. The String Quartet, Op. The String Quartet, Op. 131 has seven linked movements, and the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra in the last movement. [ 73 ] Other compositions from this period include the Missa Solemnis , the last five string quartets (including the massive Große Fuge ) and the last five piano sonatas. 131 memiliki tujuh gerakan terkait, dan Kesembilan Symphony menambah kekuatan paduan suara dengan orkestra dalam gerakan terakhir. [73] komposisi lainnya dari periode ini meliputi Solemnis Missa , string kuartet lima terakhir (termasuk besar Fuge Grosse ) dan lima terakhir piano sonata.

Beethoven on screen Beethoven pada layar

Eroica is a 1949 Austrian film depicting life and works of Beethoven ( Ewald Balser ), which also entered into the 1949 Cannes Film Festival . [ 75 ] The film is directed by Walter Kolm-Veltée , produced by Guido Bagier with Walter Kolm-Veltée and written by Walter Kolm-Veltée with Franz Tassié. [ 76 ] Eroica adalah 1949 Austria film yang menggambarkan kehidupan dan karya-karya Beethoven ( Ewald Balser ), yang juga masuk ke dalam Cannes Film Festival 1949 . [75] Film ini disutradarai oleh Walter Kolm-Veltée , diproduksi oleh Guido Bagier dengan Walter Kolm-Veltée dan ditulis oleh Walter Kolm-Veltée dengan Franz Tassie. [76]
In 1962, Walt Disney produced a made-for-television and extremely fictionalized life of Beethoven entitled The Magnificent Rebel . Pada tahun 1962, Walt Disney menghasilkan -dibuat untuk televisi dan sangat fiksi hidup Beethoven berjudul The Rebel Magnificent. The film was given a two-part premiere on the Walt Disney anthology television series and released to theatres in Europe. Film ini diberi bagian premier dua di serial televisi Walt Disney antologi dan dirilis ke teater di Eropa. It starred Karlheinz Böhm as Beethoven. Hal ini dibintangi Karlheinz Bohm sebagai Beethoven.
In 1994 a film about Beethoven ( Gary Oldman ) titled Immortal Beloved was written and directed by Bernard Rose . Pada tahun 1994 sebuah film tentang Beethoven ( Gary Oldman ) berjudul Immortal Beloved ditulis dan disutradarai oleh Bernard Rose . The story follows Beethoven's secretary and first biographer , Anton Schindler (portrayed by Jeroen Krabbé ), as he attempts to ascertain the true identity of the Unsterbliche Geliebte ( Immortal Beloved ) addressed in three letters found in the late composer's private papers. Cerita berikut Beethoven sekretaris dan pertama penulis biografi , Anton Schindler (digambarkan oleh Jeroen Krabbe ), saat ia mencoba untuk memastikan identitas sebenarnya dari Geliebte Unsterbliche ( Immortal Beloved ) dibahas dalam tiga huruf yang ditemukan komposer swasta kertas terlambat. Schindler journeys throughout the Austrian Empire , interviewing women who might be potential candidates, as well as through Beethoven's own tumultuous life. Schindler perjalanan di seluruh Kekaisaran Austria , mewawancarai wanita yang mungkin calon potensial, serta melalui hiruk-pikuk kehidupan Beethoven sendiri. Filming took place in the Czech cities of Prague and Kromeriz and the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna , Austria, between 23 May and 29 July 1994. Pembuatan film terjadi di Ceko kota Praha dan Kromeriz dan Zentralfriedhof di Wina , Austria, antara 23 Mei dan 29 Juli 1994.
In 2003 a BBC /Opus Arte film Eroica was released, with Ian Hart as Beethoven and the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique conducted by Sir John Eliot Gardiner performing the Eroica Symphony in its entirety. Pada tahun 2003 sebuah BBC / Opus Arte Film Eroica dirilis, dengan Ian Hart sebagai Beethoven dan Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique dilakukan oleh Sir John Eliot Gardiner melakukan Eroica Symphony secara keseluruhan. The subject of the film is the first performance of the Eroica Symphony in 1804 at the palace of Prince Lobkowitz (played by Jack Davenport ). [ 77 ] In a 2005 three-part BBC miniseries, Beethoven was played by Paul Rhys . [ 78 ] Subjek film adalah kinerja pertama dari Symphony Eroica pada 1804 di istana Pangeran Lobkowitz (diperankan oleh Jack Davenport ). [77] Dalam tiga bagian BBC miniseri-2005, Beethoven dimainkan oleh Paul Rhys . [78]
A movie titled Copying Beethoven was released in 2006, starring Ed Harris as Beethoven. Sebuah film berjudul Menyalin Beethoven dirilis pada tahun 2006, dibintangi Ed Harris sebagai Beethoven. This film was a fictionalized account of Beethoven's last days, and his struggle to produce his Ninth Symphony before he died. Film ini rekening fiksi terakhir hari's Beethoven, dan perjuangannya untuk menghasilkan di Ninth Symphony sebelum ia meninggal.

Memorials Kenangan

The Beethoven Monument, Bonn was unveiled in August 1845, in honour of his 75th anniversary. The Monumen Beethoven, Bonn ini diresmikan pada bulan Agustus 1845, untuk menghormati ulang tahun ke 75 nya. It was the first statue of a composer created in Germany, and the music festival that accompanied the unveiling was the impetus for the very hasty construction of the original Beethovenhalle in Bonn (it was designed and built within less than a month, on the urging of Franz Liszt ). Itu adalah patung pertama dari seorang komponis yang dibuat di Jerman, dan festival musik yang menyertai pembukaan itu adalah dorongan untuk konstruksi yang sangat tergesa-gesa yang asli Beethovenhalle di Bonn (itu dirancang dan dibangun dalam waktu kurang dari sebulan, pada desakan Franz Liszt ). A statue to Mozart had been unveiled in Salzburg , Austria in 1842. Vienna did not honour Beethoven with a statue until 1880. [ 79 ] Sebuah patung untuk Mozart telah diperkenalkan di Salzburg , Austria pada tahun 1842. Vienna tidak menghormati Beethoven dengan patung sampai 1880. [79]

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