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Tuesday, 14 December 2010

ORGEL TIUP { PIPE ORGAN }

Orgel tiupan

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The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind ) through pipes selected via a keyboard . Pipa organ adalah alat musik yang menghasilkan suara dengan mengemudi udara bertekanan (angin disebut) melalui pipa yang dipilih melalui keyboard . Because each organ pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks , each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Karena setiap pipa organ menghasilkan pitch tunggal, pipa disediakan dalam set disebut barisan, masing-masing yang memiliki umum timbre dan volume seluruh keyboard kompas. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch and loudness that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops . Sebagian besar organ beberapa peringkat pipa dari pitch yang berbeda timbre, dan kenyaringan yang pemain dapat menggunakan sendiri atau dalam kombinasi dengan menggunakan kontrol yang disebut berhenti .
A pipe organ may have one or several keyboards (called manuals ) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet, each of which has its own group of stops. Sebuah organ pipa mungkin memiliki satu atau beberapa keyboard (disebut manual ) dimainkan oleh tangan, dan sebuah pedalboard dimainkan oleh kaki, masing-masing memiliki kelompok sendiri berhenti. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are depressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord , the sounds of which begin to decay the longer the keys are held. yang terus menerus pasokan organ angin memungkinkan untuk mempertahankan catatan selama tombol yang sesuai mengalami depresi, tidak seperti piano dan harpsichord , suara yang mulai membusuk semakin lama kunci diadakan. The smallest portable pipe organs may have only one or two dozen pipes and one manual; the largest may have over 20,000 pipes and seven manuals. [ 2 ] Pipa organ portabel yang terkecil mungkin hanya satu atau dua lusin pipa dan satu manual; terbesar mungkin memiliki lebih dari 20.000 pipa dan tujuh manual. Yang [2]
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the hydraulis in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC, [ 3 ] in which the wind supply was created with water pressure. Asal-usul organ pipa dapat ditelusuri kembali ke hydraulis di Yunani Kuno di abad ke-3 SM, [3] di mana penawaran angin diciptakan dengan tekanan air. By the sixth or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply organs with wind. [ 3 ] Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres . Dengan keenam abad ke-7 Masehi atau, bellow digunakan untuk memasok organ dengan angin. [3] Dimulai pada abad ke-12, organ mulai berkembang menjadi suatu instrumen kompleks mampu menghasilkan berbeda timbres . By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed. [ 4 ] From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device, [ 5 ] a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. [ 6 ] Pada abad ke-17, sebagian besar suara yang tersedia pada organ klasik modern telah dikembangkan. [4] Sejak saat itu, organ pipa yang paling kompleks perangkat buatan manusia, [5] perbedaan itu ditahan sampai itu mengungsi karena yang sentral telepon di akhir abad 19. [6]
Pipe organs are installed in churches, synagogues, concert halls, and other public buildings and are used for the performance of classical music , sacred music , and secular music . organ pipa dipasang di gereja-gereja, sinagoga, ruang konser, dan bangunan publik lainnya dan digunakan untuk kinerja musik klasik , musik suci , dan musik sekuler . In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theatres to accompany films during the silent movie era, in municipal auditoria, where orchestral transcriptions were popular, and in the homes of the wealthy, equipped with player mechanisms. [ 7 ] The beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. Pada awal abad 20, organ pipa dipasang di bioskop untuk menemani film selama film bisu era, di auditoria kota, di mana orkestra transkripsi sangat populer, dan di rumah orang kaya, dilengkapi dengan mekanisme pemain. [7] Awal abad ke-21 telah melihat kebangkitan di instalasi di gedung konser. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire , which spans over 400 years. [ 8 ] organ menawarkan substansial repertoar , yang membentang lebih dari 400 tahun. [8]

Contents Isi

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[ edit ] Construction [ sunting ] Konstruksi

A pipe organ contains one or more sets of pipes, a wind system, and one or more keyboards. Sebuah organ pipa mengandung satu atau lebih set pipa, sistem angin, dan satu atau lebih keyboard. The pipes produce sound when pressurized air produced by the wind system is driven through them. Pipa-pipa menghasilkan suara ketika bertekanan udara yang dihasilkan oleh sistem angin didorong melalui mereka. An action connects the keyboards to the pipes. Stops allow the organist to control which ranks of pipes sound at a given time. Tindakan menghubungkan keyboard ke pipa. Menghentikan memungkinkan organ untuk kontrol yang jajaran pipa suara pada saat tertentu. The organist operates the stops and the keyboards from the console . organ berhenti beroperasi dan keyboard dari konsol .

[ edit ] Pipes [ sunting ] Pipa

The Salt Lake Tabernacle organ found at the Salt Lake Tabernacle in Salt Lake City , Utah has 11,623 pipes and accompanies the Mormon Tabernacle Choir . The Salt Lake organ Tabernakel ditemukan di Tabernakel Salt Lake di Salt Lake City , Utah memiliki 11.623 pipa dan menyertai Mormon Tabernakel Choir .
Organ pipes are made from either wood or metal and produce sound when air under pressure ("wind") is directed through them. [ 9 ] As one pipe produces a single pitch , multiple pipes are necessary to accommodate the musical scale . Organ pipa terbuat dari kayu atau logam baik dan menghasilkan suara ketika udara di bawah tekanan ("angin") diarahkan melalui mereka. [9] Sebagai salah satu pipa menghasilkan satu pitch , beberapa pipa yang diperlukan untuk mengakomodasi skala musik . The greater the length of the pipe, the lower its resulting pitch will be. [ 10 ] The timbre and volume of the sound produced by a pipe depends on the volume of air delivered to the pipe and the manner in which it is constructed and voiced, the latter adjusted by the builder to produce the desired tone and volume. Semakin besar panjang pipa, semakin rendah pitch yang dihasilkan akan. [10] The timbre dan volume suara yang dihasilkan oleh pipa tergantung pada volume udara yang dikeluarkan ke pipa dan cara di mana ia dibangun dan bersuara , yang terakhir disesuaikan dengan pembangun untuk menghasilkan nada yang diinginkan dan volume. Hence a pipe's volume cannot be readily changed while playing. [ 10 ] Maka pipa's volume tidak dapat langsung diubah saat bermain. [10]
Organ pipes are divided into flue pipes and reed pipes according to their design and timbre. Organ pipa dibagi menjadi pipa buang dan pipa buluh sesuai dengan desain mereka dan timbre. Flue pipes produce sound by forcing air through a fipple , like that of a recorder , whereas reed pipes produce sound via a beating reed , like that of a clarinet or saxophone . [ 11 ] pipa asap menghasilkan suara dengan memaksa udara melalui fipple , seperti yang dari perekam , sedangkan pipa buluh menghasilkan suara melalui pemukulan buluh , seperti yang dari klarinet atau saksofon . [11]
Pipes are arranged by timbre and pitch into ranks. Pipa disusun oleh timbre dan pitch ke dalam barisan. A rank is a row of pipes mounted vertically onto a windchest . [ 12 ] The stop mechanism admits air to each rank. peringkat adalah deretan pipa dipasang vertikal ke sebuah windchest . [12] The mekanisme berhenti mengakui udara untuk setiap peringkat. For a given pipe to sound, the stop governing the pipe's rank must be engaged, and the key corresponding to its pitch must be depressed. Untuk pipa yang diberikan kepada suara, halte yang mengatur peringkat pipa itu harus dilibatkan, dan sesuai untuk pitch harus tertekan. Ranks of pipes are organized into groups called divisions. Jajaran pipa disusun menjadi kelompok-kelompok yang disebut divisi. Each division generally is played from its own keyboard and conceptually comprises an individual instrument within the organ. [ 13 ] Setiap divisi umumnya dimainkan dari keyboard sendiri dan konseptual terdiri dari instrumen individual dalam organ. [13]

[ edit ] Action [ sunting ] Aksi

Cross-section of a mechanical-action windchest. Cross-bagian dari sebuah windchest mekanis-tindakan. Trackers attach to the wires hanging through the bottom board at the left. Pelacak melekat pada kabel menggantung melalui papan bawah di sebelah kiri.
An organ contains two actions, or systems of moving parts. Organ berisi dua tindakan, atau sistem bagian yang bergerak. When a key is depressed, the key action admits wind into a pipe. Ketika tombol ditekan, tombol aksi mengakui angin ke dalam pipa. The stop action allows the organist to control which ranks are engaged. Tindakan menghentikan memungkinkan organ untuk mengontrol yang menempati peringkat terlibat. An action may be mechanical, pneumatic, or electrical. [ 14 ] Tindakan mungkin mekanik, pneumatik, atau listrik. [14]
A key action which physically connects the keys and the windchests is a mechanical or tracker action . Sebuah tindakan penting yang secara fisik menghubungkan kunci dan windchests merupakan mekanis atau tindakan pelacak . Connection is achieved through a series of rods called trackers. Koneksi ini dicapai melalui serangkaian batang disebut pelacak. When the organist depresses a key, the corresponding tracker moves, allowing wind to enter the pipe. [ 15 ] In a mechanical stop action, each stop control is physically connected to a rank of pipes. Ketika organ ini menekan tombol, bergerak tracker yang sesuai, angin yang memungkinkan untuk memasukkan pipa. [15] Dalam aksi berhenti mekanis, setiap kontrol berhenti secara fisik terhubung ke peringkat pipa. When the organist activates the stop control, the action allows wind to flow into the selected rank. [ 12 ] This control is usually a stop knob , which the organist activates by pulling (or drawing) towards himself. Ketika organ akan mengaktifkan kontrol menghentikan, tindakan memungkinkan angin mengalir ke peringkat yang dipilih. [12] Kontrol ini biasanya adalah tombol berhenti , yang organis mengaktifkan dengan menariknya (atau gambar) terhadap dirinya sendiri. This is the origin of the idiom "to pull out all the stops". [ 16 ] Tracker action has been used from antiquity to modern times. Inilah asal idiom "untuk menarik semua berhenti". [16] Tracker tindakan telah digunakan dari zaman ke zaman modern. Despite the extra effort needed in playing, many organists prefer tracker action because of a feel and a control of the pipe valve operation. Meskipun upaya ekstra yang diperlukan dalam bermain, banyak organists lebih memilih tindakan tracker karena merasa dan kontrol dari operasi katup pipa.
A later development was the tubular-pneumatic action which uses changes of pressure within lead tubing to affect pneumatics to produce valve action. Sebuah perkembangan selanjutnya adalah tindakan-tabung pneumatik yang menggunakan perubahan tekanan di dalam menyebabkan pipa untuk mempengaruhi pneumatik untuk menghasilkan tindakan katup. This allowed a lighter touch, and more flexibility in the location of the console, within a 50-foot (15-m) limit. Hal ini memungkinkan sentuhan ringan, dan lebih banyak fleksibilitas dalam lokasi dari konsol, dalam batas 50 kaki (15-m). This type of construction was used in the late 19th century to early 20th century, and has had only rare application since the 1920s. [ 17 ] Jenis konstruksi ini digunakan di abad ke-19 akhir untuk awal abad 20, dan hanya memiliki aplikasi langka sejak tahun 1920-an. [17]
The most recent development is the electric action which uses electrical current to control the key and/or stop mechanisms. Baru-baru ini perkembangan yang paling adalah tindakan listrik yang menggunakan arus listrik untuk mengontrol kunci dan / atau menghentikan mekanisme. Electricity may control the action indirectly through air pressure valves (pneumatics), in which case the action is electro-pneumatic . Listrik dapat mengontrol tindakan tidak langsung melalui katup tekanan udara (pneumatik), dalam hal tindakan tersebut elektro-pneumatik . When electricity operates the action directly without the assistance of pneumatics, it is commonly referred to as direct electric action . [ 17 ] The key action is independent of the stop action, allowing an organ to feature a mechanical key action along with an electric stop action. Ketika listrik beroperasi tindakan langsung tanpa bantuan pneumatik, biasanya disebut sebagai tindakan listrik langsung . [17] Tindakan kunci adalah independen dari tindakan berhenti, memungkinkan organ untuk menampilkan aksi kunci mekanis bersama dengan tindakan berhenti listrik .
When electrical wiring alone is used to connect the console to the windchest, electric actions allow the console to be separated at any distance from the rest of the organ, and to be movable. [ 18 ] Electric stop actions can be controlled at the console by stop knobs, or by tilting tablets or rocker tabs which sit on a hinge, and activate or deactivate an electrical circuit, depending on the direction in which they are pressed. [ 17 ] Ketika kabel listrik sendiri yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan konsol ke windchest, suatu tindakan listrik memungkinkan konsol untuk dipisahkan pada jarak dari sisa organ, dan menjadi bergerak. [18] Electric menghentikan tindakan dapat dikendalikan di konsol dengan berhenti tombol, atau dengan tablet memiringkan atau tab rocker yang duduk di engsel, dan mengaktifkan atau menonaktifkan suatu rangkaian listrik, tergantung pada arah di mana mereka ditekan. [17]

[ edit ] Wind system [ sunting ] sistem Angin

The wind system comprises the parts that produce, store, and deliver wind to the pipes. Sistem Angin terdiri dari bagian-bagian yang memproduksi, menyimpan, dan memberikan angin ke pipa. Pipe organ wind pressures are on the order of 0.1 psi (0.69 kPa). tekanan angin organ Pipa berada di urutan 0,1 psi (0,69 kPa). Organ builders often measure organ wind using a U-tube manometer containing water, so commonly give its magnitude as the difference in water levels in the two legs of the manometer, rather than in units of pressure. pembangun organ Organ sering mengukur angin dengan menggunakan U-tabung manometer berisi air, sehingga umumnya memberikan besarnya sebagai perbedaan tingkat air di dua kaki manometer, bukan dalam satuan tekanan. The difference in water level is proportional to the difference in pressure between the wind being measured and the atmosphere. [ 19 ] The 0.10 psi above would register as 2-3/4 inches of water (70 mmAq ). Perbedaan kadar air sebanding dengan perbedaan tekanan antara angin telah diukur dan atmosfer. [19] The 0,10 psi di atas akan mendaftar sebagai 2-3/4 inci air (70 mmAq ). An Italian organ from the Renaissance period may be on only 2.2 inches (56 mm), [ 20 ] while solo stops in some large 20th-century organs require 100 inches (2,500 mm). [ 21 ] Organ Italia dari masa Renaissance mungkin pada hanya 2,2 inci (56 mm), [20] sementara solo berhenti di beberapa organ abad ke-20 besar membutuhkan 100 inci (2,500 mm). [21]
Playing the organ before electricity required at least one person to operate the bellows . Bermain organ sebelum listrik yang diperlukan setidaknya satu orang untuk mengoperasikan bellow . When signaled by the organist, a calcant would operate a set of bellows, supplying the organ with air. [ 22 ] Because calcants were expensive, organists would usually practice on other instruments such as the clavichord or harpsichord . [ 23 ] By the mid-19th century bellows were also being operated by steam engines or gasoline engines. Ketika ditandai dengan organ itu, calcant itu akan mengoperasikan set bellow, penyediaan organ dengan udara. [22] Karena calcants yang mahal, organists biasanya akan berlatih pada instrumen lainnya seperti clavichord atau harpsichord . [23] Pada pertengahan bellow abad ke-19 juga sedang dioperasikan oleh mesin uap atau mesin bensin. Starting in the 1860s bellows were gradually replaced by wind turbines which were later directly connected to electrical motors. [ 24 ] This made it possible for organists to practice regularly on the organ. Dimulai pada 1860-an bellow secara bertahap digantikan oleh turbin angin yang kemudian langsung dihubungkan ke motor listrik. [24] Hal ini memungkinkan untuk organists untuk berlatih secara teratur pada organ. Most organs, both new and historic, have electric blowers, although others can still be operated manually. [ 25 ] The wind supplied is stored in one or more regulators to maintain a constant pressure in the windchests until the action allows it to flow into the pipes. [ 26 ] Kebanyakan organ, baik baru dan bersejarah, memiliki blower listrik, walaupun orang lain masih dapat dioperasikan secara manual. [25] Angin disediakan disimpan dalam satu atau lebih regulator untuk mempertahankan tekanan konstan dalam windchests sampai tindakan memungkinkan untuk mengalir ke pipa. [26]

[ edit ] Stops [ sunting ] Stop

Each stop usually controls one rank of pipes, although mixtures and undulating stops (such as the Voix céleste ) control multiple ranks. [ 27 ] The name of the stop reflects not only the stop's timbre and construction, but also the style of the organ in which it resides. berhenti Setiap biasanya mengendalikan salah satu pangkat pipa, meskipun campuran dan berhenti bergelombang (seperti Celeste Voix ) beberapa peringkat kontrol. [27] Nama menghentikan mencerminkan tidak hanya berhenti's timbre dan konstruksi, tetapi juga gaya organ dalam yang berada. For example, the names on an organ built in the north German Baroque style generally will be derived from the German language, while the names of similar stops on an organ in the French Romantic style will usually be French. Sebagai contoh, nama-nama pada organ yang dibangun sesuai gaya Baroque Jerman utara umumnya akan berasal dari bahasa Jerman, sedangkan nama berhenti serupa pada organ dalam gaya Romantis Prancis biasanya akan Prancis. Most countries tend to use only their own languages for stop nomenclature. Kebanyakan negara cenderung hanya menggunakan bahasa mereka sendiri untuk tata-nama, berhenti. English-speaking nations as well as Japan are more receptive to foreign nomenclature. Negara berbahasa Inggris serta Jepang lebih mudah menerima tata nama asing. Stop names are not standardized: two otherwise identical stops from different organs may have different names. [ 28 ] Hentikan nama tidak standar: dinyatakan berhenti dari identik yang berbeda mungkin organ memiliki perbedaan. nama dua [28]
Stop knobs of the Baroque organ in Weingarten , Germany Hentikan tombol dari organ Baroque di Weingarten , Jerman
To facilitate a large range of timbres, organ stops exist at different pitch levels. Untuk memfasilitasi berbagai macam warna nada, organ berhenti ada pada tingkat lapangan yang berbeda. A stop that sounds at unison pitch when a key is depressed is referred to as being at 8′ (pronounced "eight-foot") pitch. Sebuah berhenti yang terdengar di lapangan serentak ketika tombol ditekan disebut sebagai berada di 8 '(diucapkan "delapan-kaki") pitch. This refers to the length of the lowest-sounding pipe in that rank, which is approximately eight feet. Hal ini mengacu pada panjang pipa-terendah terdengar dalam peringkat, yang kira-kira delapan kaki. For the same reason, a stop that sounds an octave higher is at 4′ pitch, and one that sounds two octaves higher is at 2′ pitch. Untuk alasan yang sama, menghentikan yang membunyikan oktaf lebih tinggi pada 4 'pitch, dan satu yang suara dua oktaf lebih tinggi sebesar 2' pitch. Likewise, a stop that sounds an octave lower than unison pitch is at 16′ pitch, and one that sounds two octaves lower is at 32′ pitch. [ 27 ] Stops of different pitch levels are designed to be played simultaneously. Demikian juga, berhenti yang membunyikan oktaf lebih rendah daripada pitch serempak ada di 16 'pitch, dan satu yang suara dua oktaf yang lebih rendah pada 32' pitch. [27] Berhenti tingkat pitch yang berbeda dirancang untuk dimainkan secara bersamaan.
The label on a stop knob or rocker tab indicates the stop's name and its pitch in feet. Label pada tombol berhenti atau tab rocker menunjukkan nama dan pitch berhenti di kaki. Stops that control multiple ranks display a Roman numeral indicating the number of ranks present, instead of its pitch. [ 29 ] Thus, a stop labelled "Open Diapason 8′ " is a single-rank diapason stop sounding at 8′ pitch. Berhenti yang mengontrol beberapa peringkat menampilkan angka Romawi menunjukkan jumlah peringkat ini, bukan pitch. [29] Dengan demikian, berhenti berlabel "Buka diapason 8 '" adalah satu-peringkat diapason berhenti terdengar di 8 'pitch. A stop labelled "Mixture V" is a five-rank mixture. Sebuah berhenti berlabel "Campuran V" adalah campuran peringkat lima.
Sometimes, a single rank of pipes may be able to be controlled by several stops, allowing the rank to be played at multiple pitches or on multiple manuals. Kadang-kadang, peringkat tunggal pipa mungkin dapat dikendalikan oleh beberapa berhenti, yang memungkinkan peringkat yang akan dimainkan di beberapa lapangan atau di beberapa manual. Such a rank is said to be unified or borrowed . Seperti peringkat dikatakan bersatu atau dipinjam. For example, an 8′ Diapason rank may also be made available as a 4′ Octave. Sebagai contoh, sebuah 8 ' diapason peringkat juga dapat dibuat tersedia sebagai 4 'Oktaf. When both of these stops are selected and a key (for example, c′) [ 30 ] is pressed, two pipes of the same rank will sound: the pipe normally corresponding to the key played (c′), and the pipe one octave above that (c′′). Ketika kedua berhenti dipilih dan kunci (misalnya, c ') [30] ditekan, dua pipa dari nilai yang sama akan berbunyi: pipa biasanya sesuai dengan tombol yang dimainkan (c '), dan pipa satu oktaf di atas (c''). Because the 8′ rank does not have enough pipes to sound the top octave of the keyboard at 4′ pitch, it is common for an extra octave of pipes used only for the borrowed 4′ stop to be added. Karena 8 'Peringkat tidak memiliki pipa cukup untuk suara oktaf atas keyboard pada 4' pitch, adalah umum untuk oktaf tambahan pipa yang digunakan hanya untuk berhenti 4 'dipinjam akan ditambahkan. In this case, the full rank of pipes (now an extended rank ) is one octave longer than the keyboard. Dalam hal ini, peringkat penuh pipa (sekarang menjadi peringkat diperpanjang) adalah salah satu oktaf lebih panjang dari keyboard.
Special unpitched stops also appear in some organs. berhenti unpitched Khusus juga muncul di beberapa organ. Among these are the zimbelstern (a wheel of rotating bells), the nightingale (a pipe submerged in a small pool of water, creating the sound of a bird warbling when wind is admitted), [ 31 ] and the effet d'orage ("thunder effect", a device that sounds the lowest bass pipes simultaneously). Di antaranya adalah zimbelstern (roda lonceng berputar), yang burung bulbul (pipa tenggelam di kolam kecil air, menciptakan suara warbling burung ketika angin diakui), [31] dan effet d'Orage (" guntur efek ", sebuah perangkat yang terdengar pipa bass terendah secara bersamaan). Standard orchestral percussion instruments such as the drum , chimes , celesta , and harp have also been imitated in organ building. [ 32 ] Standar orkestra perkusi instrumen seperti drum , lonceng , Celesta , dan kecapi juga telah ditiru dalam membangun organ. [32]

[ edit ] Console [ sunting ] Konsol

The five-manual, 522-stop detached console at the United States Naval Academy Chapel crafted by RA Colby, Inc. of Johnson City, Tennessee [ 33 ] Kelima-manual, 522-stop terpisah konsol di Akademi Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat Chapel dibuat oleh RA Colby, Inc Johnson City, Tennessee [33]
The controls available to the organist, including the keyboards , couplers , expression pedals , stops, and registration aids are accessed from the console. [ 34 ] The console is either built into the organ case or detached from it. Kontrol yang tersedia untuk organ, termasuk keyboard , skrup , pedal ekspresi , berhenti, dan bantuan pendaftaran diakses dari konsol. [34] Konsol adalah baik dibangun dalam kasus organ atau terlepas dari itu.

[ edit ] Keyboards [ sunting ] Keyboards

Keyboards played by the hands are known as manuals (from the Latin manus , meaning "hand"). Keyboard dimainkan oleh tangan dikenal sebagai manual (dari bahasa Latin manus, yang berarti "tangan"). The keyboard played by the feet is a pedalboard . Keyboard dimainkan oleh kaki adalah pedalboard . Every organ has at least one manual (most have two or more), and most have a pedalboard. Setiap organ setidaknya memiliki satu manual (paling memiliki dua atau lebih), dan sebagian besar memiliki sebuah pedalboard. Each keyboard is named for a particular division of the organ (a group of ranks) and generally controls only the stops from that division. Setiap keyboard adalah nama untuk sebuah divisi khusus organ (sekelompok pangkat) dan umumnya kontrol hanya berhenti dari divisi tersebut. The range of the keyboards has varied widely across time and between countries. The range dari keyboard telah bervariasi secara luas di seluruh waktu dan antar negara. Most current specifications call for two or more manuals with sixty-one notes (five octaves, from C to c″″) and a pedalboard with thirty or thirty-two notes (two and a half octaves, from C to f′ or g′). [ 30 ] [ 35 ] Kebanyakan spesifikasi saat panggilan untuk dua atau lebih manual dengan enam puluh satu catatan (lima oktaf, dari C ke c "") dan pedalboard dengan catatan tiga puluh atau tiga puluh dua (dua setengah oktaf, dari C ke f 'atau g' ). [30] [35]

[ edit ] Couplers [ sunting ] skrup

A coupler allows the stops of one division to be played from the keyboard of another division. coupler Sebuah memungkinkan berhenti dari satu divisi untuk dimainkan dari keyboard dari divisi lain. For example, a coupler labelled "Swell to Great" allows the stops drawn in the Swell division to be played on the Great manual. Sebagai contoh, coupler berlabel "kembang to Great" memungkinkan berhenti ditarik pada divisi kembang untuk dimainkan pada manual Besar. This coupler is a unison coupler, because it causes the pipes of the Swell division to sound at the same pitch as the keys played on the Great manual. coupler coupler Ini adalah serentak, karena menyebabkan pipa-pipa dari divisi kembang suara di lapangan yang sama sebagai kunci bermain di manual Besar. Coupling allows stops from different divisions to be combined to create various tonal effects. Coupling memungkinkan berhenti dari divisi yang berbeda akan dikombinasikan untuk menciptakan efek tonal yang bervariasi. It also allows every stop of the organ to be played simultaneously from one manual. [ 36 ] Hal ini juga memungkinkan setiap pemberhentian organ yang akan dimainkan secara bersamaan dari yang manual. [36]
Octave couplers , which add the pipes an octave above (super-octave) or below (sub-octave) each note that is played, may operate on one division only (for example, the Swell super octave, which adds the octave above what is being played on the Swell to itself), or act as a coupler to another keyboard (for example, the Swell super-octave to Great, which adds to the Great manual the ranks of the Swell division an octave above what is being played). [ 36 ] skrup Octave, yang menambahkan pipa satu oktaf di atas (super-oktaf) atau di bawah (sub-oktaf) setiap not yang dimainkan, dapat beroperasi pada satu divisi saja (misalnya, Swell oktaf super, yang menambahkan oktaf di atas apa yang dimainkan pada kembang untuk dirinya sendiri), atau bertindak sebagai coupler ke keyboard (misalnya, kembang super-oktaf to Great, yang menambah manual Great jajaran divisi kembang satu oktaf di atas apa yang sedang dimainkan). [36]
In addition, larger organs may use unison off couplers, which prevent the stops pulled in a particular division from sounding at their normal pitch. Selain itu, organ yang lebih besar dapat menggunakan serempak off skrup, yang mencegah berhenti menarik dalam sebuah divisi khusus dari terdengar pada jarak normal. These can be used in combination with octave couplers to create innovative aural effects, and can also be used to rearrange the order of the manuals to make specific pieces easier to play. [ 36 ] Ini dapat digunakan dalam kombinasi dengan skrup oktaf untuk membuat efek aural inovatif, dan juga dapat digunakan untuk mengatur ulang urutan manual untuk membuat potongan khusus yang mudah untuk bermain. [36]

[ edit ] Enclosure and expression pedals [ sunting ] Lampiran dan pedal ekspresi

The console of the organ in Salem Minster in Salem , Germany. [ 37 ] The expression pedal is visible directly above the pedalboard. Konsol organ di Salem Minster di Salem , Jerman. [37] Ungkapan pedal terlihat secara langsung di atas pedalboard itu.
Enclosure refers to a system that allows for the control of volume without requiring the addition or subtraction of stops. Lampiran mengacu pada sebuah sistem yang memungkinkan untuk kontrol volume tanpa membutuhkan penambahan atau pengurangan dari berhenti. In a two-manual organ with Great and Swell divisions, the Swell will be enclosed. Dalam organ dua-manual dengan divisi Agung dan Swell, yang kembang akan tertutup. In larger organs, parts or all of the Choir and Solo divisions may also be enclosed. [ 38 ] The pipes of an enclosed division are placed in a chamber generally called the swell box . Dalam organ yang lebih besar, sebagian atau seluruh Choir dan divisi Solo mungkin juga tertutup. [38] The pipa dari divisi tertutup ditempatkan di ruang yang umumnya disebut kotak membengkak. At least one side of the box is constructed from horizontal or vertical palettes known as swell shades , which operate in a similar way to Venetian blinds ; their position can be adjusted from the console. Setidaknya satu sisi kotak dibangun dari atau vertikal horisontal dikenal sebagai palet warna membengkak, yang beroperasi dalam cara yang mirip dengan kerai gulung Venesia ; posisi mereka dapat disesuaikan dari konsol. When the swell shades are open, more sound is heard than when they are closed. [ 38 ] Sometimes the shades are exposed, but they are often concealed behind a row of facade-pipes or a grill. Ketika nuansa membengkak terbuka, suara lebih terdengar daripada ketika mereka ditutup. [38] Kadang-kadang nuansa yang terkena, tetapi mereka sering tersembunyi di belakang deretan fasad-pipa atau pemanggang.
The most common method of controlling the louvres is the balanced swell pedal . Metode yang umum sebagian besar mengendalikan aliran udara adalah seimbang membengkak pedal . This device is usually placed above the centre of the pedalboard and is configured to rotate away from the organist from a near-vertical position (in which the shades are closed) to a near-horizontal position (in which the shades are open). [ 39 ] An organ may also have a similar-looking crescendo pedal , found alongside any expression pedals. Perangkat ini biasanya diletakkan di atas pusat pedalboard dan dikonfigurasi untuk memutar jauh dari organ dari-vertikal posisi dekat (di mana tirai yang ditutup) ke-posisi horizontal dekat (di mana nuansa terbuka). [ 39] Organ mungkin juga memiliki yang mirip crescendo pedal , ditemukan bersama setiap pedal ekspresi. Pressing the crescendo pedal forward cumulatively activates the stops of the organ, starting with the softest and ending with the loudest; pressing it backwards reverses this process. [ 40 ] Crescendo menekan pedal maju secara kumulatif mengaktifkan organ berhenti, dimulai dengan lembut dan berakhir dengan paling keras, menekan ke belakang membalik proses ini. [40]

[ edit ] Combination action [ sunting ] tindakan Kombinasi

Organ stops can be combined in countless permutations, resulting in a great variety of sounds. Organ berhenti dapat dikombinasikan dalam permutasi yang tak terhitung jumlahnya, sehingga dalam berbagai besar suara. A combination action can be used to switch instantly from one combination of stops (called a registration ) to another. Sebuah tindakan kombinasi dapat digunakan untuk beralih cepat dari satu kombinasi berhenti (disebut pendaftaran a) yang lain. Combination actions feature small buttons called pistons that can be pressed by the organist, generally located beneath the keys of each manual (thumb pistons) or above the pedalboard (toe pistons). [ 41 ] The pistons may be divisional (affecting only a single division) or general (affecting all the divisions), and are either preset by the organ builder or can be altered by the organist. tindakan fitur Kombinasi tombol kecil yang disebut piston yang dapat ditekan oleh organ, umumnya terletak di bawah masing-masing kunci manual (piston jempol) atau di atas pedalboard (piston toe). [41] Piston mungkin divisi (hanya mempengaruhi satu divisi ) atau umum (mempengaruhi semua divisi), dan baik preset oleh pembangun organ atau dapat diubah oleh organ tersebut. Modern combination actions operate via computer memory, and can store several channels of registrations. [ 42 ] tindakan kombinasi modern beroperasi melalui memori komputer, dan dapat menyimpan beberapa saluran pendaftaran. [42]

[ edit ] Casing [ sunting ] Casing

The organ of the Severikirche in Erfurt , Germany , has a highly decorative case with ornate carvings and cherubs. Organ dari Severikirche di Erfurt , Jerman , memiliki kasus yang sangat dekoratif dengan ukiran hiasan dan malaikat.
The pipes, action, and wind system are almost always contained in a case, the design of which also may incorporate the console. Pipa-pipa, tindakan, dan sistem angin hampir selalu terkandung dalam sebuah kasus, desain yang juga dapat menggabungkan konsol. The case blends the organ's sound and aids in projecting it into the room. [ 43 ] The case often is designed to complement the building's architectural style and it may contain ornamental carvings and other decorations. Kasus campuran organ suara dan membantu dalam memproyeksikan ke ruangan. [43] Kasus sering dirancang untuk melengkapi's arsitektur gaya bangunan dan itu mungkin berisi ukiran hias dan dekorasi lainnya. The visible portion of the case, called the façade , will most often contain pipes, which may be either sounding pipes or dummy pipes solely for decoration. Bagian terlihat dari kasus tersebut, yang disebut façade, akan paling sering berisi pipa, yang mungkin baik terdengar pipa atau pipa dummy semata-mata untuk dekorasi. The façade pipes may be plain, burnished , gilded , or painted. [ 44 ] Pipa-pipa façade mungkin polos, mengilap , disepuh , atau dicat. [44]
Organ cases occasionally feature a few ranks of pipes protruding horizontally from the case in the manner of a row of trumpets . Organ kasus kadang-kadang menampilkan beberapa jajaran pipa horizontal menonjol dari kasus dengan cara dari deretan terompet . These are referred to as pipes en chamade and are particularly common in organs of the Iberian peninsula and large 20th-century instruments. [ 45 ] Ini disebut sebagai pipa en chamade dan sangat umum di organ-organ dari semenanjung Iberia dan instrumen abad ke-20 besar. [45]
Many organs, particularly those built in the early 20th century, are contained in one or more rooms called organ chambers. Banyak organ, terutama yang dibangun pada awal abad 20, yang terkandung dalam satu atau lebih kamar yang disebut bilik organ. Because sound does not project from a chamber into the room as clearly as from a freestanding organ case, enchambered organs may sound muffled and distant. [ 46 ] For this reason, modern builders prefer to avoid this unless the architecture of the room makes it absolutely necessary. Karena suara tidak proyek dari kamar ke dalam ruangan sejelas dari kasus organ berdiri bebas, enchambered organ mungkin terdengar teredam dan jauh. [46] Untuk alasan ini, pembangun modern lebih memilih untuk menghindari ini kecuali arsitektur ruangan membuatnya benar-benar diperlukan.

[ edit ] History and development [ sunting ] Sejarah dan pengembangan

[ edit ] Antiquity [ sunting ] Antiquity

A painting of Saint Cecilia playing a portative. Sebuah lukisan dari Saint Cecilia memainkan yg dpt diangkut. Her left hand can be seen operating the bellows. [ 47 ] tangan kiri nya dapat dilihat mengoperasikan bellow. [47]
The organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music. organ adalah salah satu instrumen tertua yang masih digunakan dalam musik klasik Eropa. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC. [ 3 ] The word organ is derived from the Latin organum , an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games. Organum is derived in turn from the Greek όργανον (organon), [ 48 ] a generic term for an instrument or a tool. [ 49 ] Its pendahulu awal dibangun di Yunani Kuno di abad ke-3 SM. [3] Organ Kata berasal dari bahasa Latin Organum , instrumen mirip dengan organ yg mudah dipindahkan yang digunakan dalam permainan sirkus Romawi kuno. Organum pada gilirannya berasal dari bahasa Yunani όργανον (Organon), [48] istilah umum untuk suatu instrumen atau alat. [49]
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. Insinyur Yunani Ctesibius dari Alexandria dikreditkan dengan menemukan organ dalam abad ke-3 SM. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis , which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes. [ 50 ] The hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire . Ia merancang alat yang disebut hydraulis , yang menyampaikan pasokan angin dipertahankan melalui tekanan air untuk satu set pipa. [50] The hydraulis ini dimainkan di arena dari Kekaisaran Romawi . The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, [ 50 ] and true bellows began to appear in the sixth or 7th century AD. [ 3 ] Pompa dan regulator air dari hydraulis digantikan oleh tas kulit meningkat pada abad ke-2 Masehi, [50] dan benar bellow mulai muncul dalam keenam abad ke-7 Masehi atau. [3]
Portable organs (the portative and the positive organ ) were invented in the Middle Ages. organ Portable (yang yg mudah dipindahkan dan organ positif ) diciptakan pada Abad Pertengahan. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria . [ 51 ] Its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. Menjelang pertengahan abad ke-13, yang portatives diwakili dalam miniatur manuskrip tampaknya memiliki keyboard nyata dengan tombol seimbang, seperti dalam Cantigas de Santa Maria . [51] portabilitas Its membuat berguna yg mudah dipindahkan untuk iringan kedua suci dan sekuler musik di berbagai pengaturan.
Large organs such as the one installed in 1361 in Halberstadt , Germany , [ 52 ] the first documented permanent organ installation, likely prompted Guillaume de Machaut to describe the organ as "the king of instruments", a characterization still frequently applied. [ 53 ] The Halberstadt organ was the first instrument to use a chromatic key layout across its three manuals and pedalboard, although the keys were wider than on modern instruments. [ 54 ] It had twenty bellows operated by ten men, and the wind pressure was so high that the player had to use the full power of his arm to hold down a key. [ 52 ] organ besar seperti yang dipasang pada 1361 di Halberstadt , Jerman , [52] organ didokumentasikan instalasi permanen pertama, kemungkinan diminta Guillaume de Machaut untuk menggambarkan organ sebagai "raja instrumen", karakterisasi masih sering diterapkan. [53] Halberstadt organ adalah instrumen pertama yang menggunakan tata letak tombol berwarna di tiga manual dan pedalboard, meskipun tombol yang lebih lebar dari pada instrumen modern. [54] Sudah dua puluh bellow dioperasikan oleh sepuluh orang, dan tekanan angin yang sangat tinggi sehingga pemain harus menggunakan kekuatan penuh lengannya untuk menekan tombol. [52]
Until the mid-15th century, organs had no stop controls. Hingga pertengahan abad ke-15, organ tidak memiliki kontrol berhenti. Each manual controlled ranks at multiple pitches, known as the Blockwerk . [ 55 ] Around 1450, controls were designed that allowed the ranks of the Blockwerk to be played individually. Setiap manual dikendalikan peringkat di beberapa lapangan, yang dikenal sebagai Blockwerk. [55] Sekitar tahun 1450, kontrol dirancang yang memungkinkan jajaran Blockwerk akan dimainkan secara individual. These devices were the forerunners of modern stop actions. [ 56 ] The higher-pitched ranks of the Blockwerk remained grouped together under a single stop control; these stops developed into mixtures . [ 57 ] Perangkat ini adalah pelopor tindakan berhenti modern. [56] The-bernada peringkat yang lebih tinggi dari Blockwerk tetap dikelompokkan bersama di bawah kontrol berhenti tunggal; ini berhenti dikembangkan menjadi campuran . [57]

[ edit ] Renaissance and Baroque periods [ sunting ] Renaissance dan periode Baroque

During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the organ's tonal colors became more varied. Selama Renaissance dan Baroque periode,'s tonal warna organ menjadi lebih bervariasi. Organ builders fashioned stops that imitated various instruments, such as the krummhorn and the viola da gamba . Organ pembangun berhenti kuno bahwa berbagai instrumen ditiru, seperti krummhorn dan Gamba da biola . The Baroque period is often thought of as organ building's "golden age," as virtually every important refinement was brought to a culminating art. [ 58 ] Builders such as Arp Schnitger , Jasper Johannsen, Zacharias Hildebrandt and Gottfried Silbermann constructed instruments that were in themselves artistic masterpieces, displaying both exquisite craftsmanship and beautiful sound. Periode Barok sering dianggap sebagai organ bangunan "zaman keemasan," sebagaimana hampir setiap perbaikan penting dibawa ke seni yang mencapai puncaknya. [58] Builders seperti Arp Schnitger , Jasper Johannsen, Zakharia Hildebrandt dan Silbermann Gottfried instrumen dibangun yang dalam diri mereka karya seni, menampilkan baik keahlian indah dan suara yang indah. These organs featured well-balanced mechanical key actions, giving the organist precise control over the pipe speech. Organ-organ ini menampilkan seimbang tindakan kunci mekanik, memberikan kontrol yang lebih tepat organ atas pidato pipa. Schnitger's organs featured particularly distinctive reed timbres and large Pedal and Rückpositiv divisions. [ 58 ] Teman-organ Schnitger fitur khususnya timbres buluh khas dan besar Pedal dan Rückpositiv divisi. [58]
Different national styles of organ building began to develop, often due to changing political climates. [ 60 ] In the Netherlands, the organ became a large instrument with several divisions, doubled ranks, and mounted cornets. gaya nasional yang berbeda dari bangunan organ mulai berkembang, sering karena iklim politik yang berubah. [60] Di Belanda, organ menjadi instrumen besar dengan beberapa divisi, peringkat dua kali lipat, dan dipasang cornets. The organs of northern Germany also had more divisions, and independent pedal divisions became increasingly common. [ 60 ] The divisions of the organ became visibly discernible from the case design. Organ Jerman utara juga memiliki divisi lebih, dan pedal divisi independen menjadi semakin umum. [60] Pembagian organ menjadi terlihat dilihat dari desain kasus. 20th-century musicologists labelled this the Werkprinzip . [ 61 ] Ahli musik abad ke-20 berlabel ini Werkprinzip itu. [61]
In France, as in Italy and Spain, organs were primarily designed to play alternatim verses rather than accompany congregational singing . Di Perancis, seperti di Italia dan Spanyol, organ terutama dirancang untuk memutar alternatim ayat daripada menemani nyanyian jemaat . The French Classical Organ , became remarkably consistent throughout France over the course of the Baroque era, more so than any other style of organ building in history, and standardized registrations developed. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] It was elaborately described by Dom Bédos de Celles in his treatise L'art du facteur d'orgues ( The Art of Organ Building ). [ 64 ] For example, in France, the organ at Notre-Dame's (St. Etienne, Loire) was built by Joseph and Claude-Ignace Callinet in 1837, at a time when their career was at its apex. Klasik Prancis Organ, menjadi sangat konsisten di seluruh Prancis selama era Baroque, lebih dari setiap gaya lain bangunan organ dalam sejarah, dan pendaftaran standar dikembangkan. [62] [63] Hal ini rumit dijelaskan oleh Dom Bédos de Celles dalam seni risalah du nya facteur L'd'orgues (The Art of Organ Gedung). [64] Sebagai contoh, di Perancis, organ di Notre-Dame (St Etienne, Loire) dibangun oleh Joseph dan Claude-Ignace Callinet pada tahun 1837, pada saat karir mereka berada di puncaknya.
French organ built by Callinet (1837) Saint-Etienne, France Perancis organ dibangun oleh Callinet (1837) Saint-Etienne, Perancis
In England, existing pipe organs were destroyed during the English Reformation of the 16th century and the Commonwealth period. Di Inggris, organ pipa yang ada telah hancur selama Reformasi Inggris abad ke-16 dan Persemakmuran periode. It was not until the Restoration that organ builders (particularly Renatus Harris and "Father" Bernard Smith ) brought new organ-building ideas from continental Europe. English organs evolved from small one- or two-manual instruments into three or more divisions disposed in the French manner with grander reeds and mixtures. [ 65 ] The Echo division began to be enclosed in the early 18th century, and in 1712 Abraham Jordan claimed his "swelling organ" at St Magnus-the-Martyr to be a new invention. [ 62 ] The swell box and the independent pedal division appeared in English organs beginning in the 18th century. [ 65 ] [ 66 ]

[ edit ] Romantic period [ sunting ] Periode Romantis

The console of a Romantic organ. This is the organ of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
During the Romantic period, the organ became more symphonic, capable of creating a gradual crescendo. New technologies and the work of organ builders such as Ernest M. Skinner , Aristide Cavaillé-Coll , and Henry Willis made it possible to build larger organs with more stops, more variation in sound and timbre, and more divisions. [ 65 ] Enclosed divisions became common, and registration aids were developed to make it easier for the organist to manage the great number of stops. The desire for louder, grander organs required that the stops be voiced on a higher wind pressure than before. As a result, a greater force was required to overcome the wind pressure and depress the keys. To solve this problem, Cavaillé-Coll configured the English "Barker lever" to assist in operating the key action. [ 67 ]
Organ builders began to lean towards specifications with fewer mixtures and high-pitched stops. They preferred to use more 8′ and 16′ stops in their specifications and wider pipe scales. [ 68 ] These practices created a warmer, richer sound than was common in the 18th century. Organs began to be built in concert halls (such as the organ at the Palais du Trocadéro in Paris ), and composers such as Camille Saint-Saëns and Gustav Mahler used the organ in their orchestral works.

[ edit ] Modern development [ sunting ] pengembangan Modern

The development of pneumatic and electro-pneumatic key actions in the late 19th century made it possible to locate the console independently of the pipes, greatly expanding the possibilities in organ design. Electric stop actions were also developed, which allowed sophisticated combination actions to be created. [ 69 ]
The pipe organ in the chapel of San Carlos Seminary , Makati City , Philippines exhibits a modern façade.
In the mid-20th century, organ builders began to build historically inspired instruments modelled on Baroque organs. They returned to building mechanical key actions, voicing with lower wind pressures and thinner pipe scales, and designing specifications with more mixture stops. [ 70 ] This became known as the Organ reform movement .
In the late 20th century, organ builders began to incorporate digital components into their key, stop, and combination actions. Besides making these mechanisms simpler and more reliable, this also makes it possible to record and play back an organist's performance via the MIDI protocol. [ 71 ] In addition, some organ builders have incorporated digital stops into their pipe organs. [ 72 ]
The electronic organ developed throughout the 20th century. Some pipe organs were replaced by digital organs because of their lower purchase price, smaller physical size, and minimal maintenance requirements. In the early 1970s, Rodgers Instruments pioneered the hybrid organ, an electronic instrument that incorporates real pipes; other builders such as Allen Organs and Johannus Orgelbouw have since built hybrid organs.

[ edit ] Repertoire [ sunting ] Repertoir

The development of organ repertoire has progressed along with that of the organ itself, leading to distinctive national styles of composition. Because organs are commonly found in churches and synagogues, the organ repertoire includes a large amount of sacred music , which is accompanimental (choral anthems , congregational hymns , liturgical elements, etc.) as well as solo in nature ( chorale preludes , hymn versets designed for alternatim use, etc.). [ 7 ] The organ's secular repertoire includes preludes , fugues , sonatas , organ symphonies, suites, and transcriptions of orchestral works.
The organ music of Johann Sebastian Bach forms an important part of the instrument's repertoire. [ 73 ]
Although most countries whose music falls into the Western tradition have contributed to the organ repertoire, France and Germany in particular have produced exceptionally large amounts of organ music. There is also an extensive repertoire from the Netherlands, England, and the United States.
Before the Baroque era, keyboard music generally was not written for one instrument or another, but rather was written to be played on any keyboard instrument. For this reason, much of the organ's repertoire through the Renaissance period is the same as that of the harpsichord . Pre-Renaissance keyboard music is found in compiled manuscripts that may include compositions from a variety of regions. The oldest of these sources is the Robertsbridge Codex , dating from about 1360. [ 74 ] The Buxheimer Orgelbuch, which dates from about 1470 and was compiled in Germany, includes intabulations of vocal music by the English composer John Dunstaple . [ 75 ] The earliest Italian organ music is found in the Faenza Codex, dating from 1420. [ 76 ]
In the Renaissance period, Netherlandish composers such as Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck composed both fantasias and psalm settings. Sweelinck in particular developed a rich collection of keyboard figuration that influenced subsequent composers. [ 77 ] The Italian composer Claudio Merulo wrote in the typical Italian genres of the toccata , the canzona , and the ricercar . [ 78 ] In Spain, the works of Antonio de Cabezón began the most prolific period of Spanish organ composition, [ 79 ] which culminated with Juan Cabanilles .
Early Baroque organ music in Germany was highly contrapuntal . Sacred organ music was based on chorales: composers such as Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann wrote chorale preludes, chorale fantasias , and chorale motets . [ 79 ] Towards the end of the Baroque era, the chorale prelude and the partita became mixed, forming the chorale partita . [ 80 ] This genre was developed by Georg Böhm , Johann Pachelbel , and Dieterich Buxtehude . The primary type of free-form piece in this period was the praeludium , as exemplified in the works of Matthias Weckmann , Nicolaus Bruhns , Böhm, and Buxtehude. [ 81 ] The organ music of Johann Sebastian Bach fused characteristics of every national tradition and historical style in his large-scale preludes and fugues and chorale-based works. [ 82 ] Towards the end of the Baroque era, George Frideric Handel composed the first organ concertos . [ 83 ]
César Franck at the console of the organ at Saint Clotilde , Paris [ 84 ]
In France, organ music developed during the Baroque era through the music of Jean Titelouze , François Couperin , and Nicolas de Grigny . [ 85 ] Because the French organ of the 17th and early 18th centuries was very standardized, a conventional set of registrations developed for its repertoire. The music of French composers (and Italian composers such as Girolamo Frescobaldi ) was written for use during the Mass . Very little secular organ music was composed in France and Italy during the Baroque period; the written repertoire is almost exclusively intended for liturgical use. [ 86 ] In England, composers such as John Blow and John Stanley wrote multi-sectional free works for liturgical use called voluntaries through the 19th century. [ 87 ] [ 88 ]
Organ music was seldom written in the Classical era, as composers preferred the piano with its ability to create dynamics. [ 89 ] In Germany, the six sonatas op. 65 of Felix Mendelssohn (published 1845) marked the beginning of a renewed interest in composing for the organ. The organist-composers César Franck (Belgium) and Charles-Marie Widor (France) led organ music into the symphonic realm. [ 89 ] The development of symphonic organ music continued with Louis Vierne and Charles Tournemire . Widor and Vierne wrote large-scale, multi-movement works called organ symphonies that exploited the full possibilities of the symphonic organ. [ 90 ] Max Reger and Sigfrid Karg-Elert 's symphonic works made use of the abilities of the large Romantic organs being built in Germany at the time. [ 89 ]
In the 19th and 20th centuries, organ builders began to build instruments in concert halls and other large secular venues, allowing the organ to be used as part of an orchestra, as in Saint-Saëns' Symphony No. 3 . [ 89 ] Frequently the organ is given a soloistic part, such as in Joseph Jongen 's Symphonie Concertante for Organ & Orchestra , Francis Poulenc 's Concerto for Organ, Strings and Tympani , and Frigyes Hidas' Organ Concerto. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_z-OjT0iBs Pada abad ke-19 dan ke-20, pembangun organ mulai membangun instrumen di gedung konser, dan lain tempat sekuler yang besar, sehingga organ untuk digunakan sebagai bagian dari sebuah orkestra, seperti di Saint-Saens ' Symphony No 3 . [89] Seringkali organ diberikan bagian soloistic, seperti dalam Yusuf Jongen 's Symphonie concertante untuk Organ & Orchestra, Francis Poulenc 's Concerto untuk Organ, String dan timpani , dan Frigyes Hidas 'Organ Concerto. http://www.youtube.com/ menonton? v = Y_z-OjT0iBs
Other composers who have used the organ prominently in orchestral music include Gustav Holst , Richard Strauss , Ottorino Respighi , Gustav Mahler , Anton Bruckner , and Ralph Vaughan Williams . [ 91 ] Because these concert hall instruments could approximate the sounds of symphony orchestras, transcriptions of orchestral works found a place in the organ repertoire. [ 92 ] As silent films became popular, theatre organs were installed in theatres to provide accompaniment for the films. [ 89 ] komposer lain yang telah menggunakan organ menonjol dalam musik orkestra termasuk Gustav Holst , Richard Strauss , Ottorino Respighi , Gustav Mahler , Anton Bruckner , dan Ralph Vaughan Williams . [91] Karena ruang instrumen konser bisa perkiraan suara orkestra simfoni, transkripsi dari bekerja orkestra menemukan tempat di repertoar organ. [92] Sebagai film bisu menjadi populer, teater organ terpasang di bioskop untuk memberikan pendampingan untuk film-film. [89]
In the 20th century symphonic repertoire, both sacred and secular, [ 93 ] continued to progress through the music of Marcel Dupré , Maurice Duruflé , and Herbert Howells . [ 89 ] Other composers, such as Olivier Messiaen , Jehan Alain , Jean Langlais , and Petr Eben , wrote post-tonal organ music. [ 89 ] Messiaen's music in particular redefined many of the traditional notions of organ registration and technique. [ 94 ] Dalam repertoar simfoni abad ke-20, baik sakral dan sekuler, [93] terus maju melalui musik dari Marcel Dupre , Maurice Duruflé , dan Herbert Howells . [89] komposer lain, seperti Olivier Messiaen , Jehan Alain , Jean Langlais , dan Petr Eben , menulis musik tonal organ-pos. [89] Messiaen Musik di khususnya mendefinisi ulang banyak dari pengertian tradisional pendaftaran organ dan teknik. [

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