The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other characteristics such as specific lyrics, bass lines and instruments. Genre blues adalah berdasarkan bentuk blues tetapi memiliki karakteristik lain seperti lirik tertentu, garis bass dan instrumen. Blues can be subdivided into several subgenres ranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century. Blues dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa subgenre mulai dari negara untuk blues perkotaan yang lebih atau kurang populer selama periode yang berbeda dari abad ke-20. Best known are the Delta , Piedmont , Jump and Chicago blues styles. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience. Paling dikenal adalah Delta , Piedmont , Langsung dan Chicago blues gaya. Perang Dunia II menandai transisi dari akustik ke blues listrik dan pembukaan progresif musik blues ke audiens yang lebih luas. In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues-rock evolved. Pada tahun 1960 dan 1970-an, suatu bentuk hibrida yang disebut blues-rock berevolusi.
The term "the blues" refers to the "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman 's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). [ 2 ] Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand 's " Dallas Blues " became the first copyrighted blues composition. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood . [ 5 ] Istilah "blues" mengacu pada "setan biru", makna dan kesedihan melankolis; penggunaan awal istilah ini dalam pengertian ini ditemukan dalam George Colman 's satu babak sandiwara Blue Devils (1798).  Meskipun penggunaan frase dalam musik Afrika-Amerika mungkin lebih tua, telah dibuktikan sejak tahun 1912, ketika Hart Wand s '" Dallas Blues "menjadi hak cipta pertama komposisi blues.   lyrics frase sering digunakan untuk menggambarkan suasana hati tertekan . 
During the first decades of the 20th century, blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression . [ 6 ] With the popularity of early performers, such as Bessie Smith , use of the twelve-bar blues spread across the music industry during the 1920s and 30s. [ 7 ] Other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are still considered blues; examples include " How Long Blues ", " Trouble in Mind ", and Big Bill Broonzy 's " Key to the Highway ". Selama dekade pertama abad ke-20, musik blues itu tidak secara jelas didefinisikan dalam bentuk sebuah akor .  Dengan popularitas artis awal, seperti Bessie Smith , penggunaan -bar blues dua belas tersebar di industri musik selama 1920-an dan 30-an. yang  progresi akord lain, seperti 8-bar bentuk, masih blues dipertimbangkan; contoh termasuk " Berapa Lama Blues "," Trouble in Mind ", dan Big Bill Broonzy 's " Kunci untuk Highway " . There are also 16-bar blues , as in Ray Charles 's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and in Herbie Hancock 's " Watermelon Man ". Ada juga 16-bar blues , seperti dalam Ray Charles 's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bar" dan di Herbie Hancock 's " Watermelon Man ". Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are also encountered occasionally, as with the 9-bar progression in " Sitting on Top of the World " by Howlin Wolf. nomor aneh bar juga ditemukan kadang-kadang, seperti dengan kemajuan-bar 9 di " Duduk di Atas Dunia "oleh Howlin Wolf.
|Chords played over a twelve-bar scheme: Chords dimainkan melalui skema dua belas-bar:||Chords for a blues in C: Chords for a blues di C:|
Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. Banyak waktu, beberapa atau semua akord yang dimainkan dalam tujuh harmonik 7) bentuk (. The use of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the "blues seven". [ 8 ] Blues seven chords add to the harmonic chord a note with a frequency in a 7:4 ratio to the fundamental note. Penggunaan interval harmonik ketujuh adalah karakteristik dari blues dan populer disebut "blues tujuh".  Blues tujuh chords menambah catatan akord harmonik dengan frekuensi dalam rasio 07:04 ke catatan yang mendasar. At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional Western diatonic scale . [ 9 ] For convenience or by necessity it is often approximated by a minor seventh interval or a dominant seventh chord. Pada rasio 7:04, tidak dekat dengan interval apapun pada konvensional Barat skala diatonis .  Untuk kenyamanan atau dengan kebutuhan sering didekati dengan ketujuh minor interval atau dominan ketujuh akord.
In melody , blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third , fifth and seventh of the associated major scale . [ 10 ] These specialized notes are called the blue or bent notes . Dalam melodi , blues dibedakan dengan penggunaan rata ketiga , kelima dan ketujuh dari asosiasi skala besar .  Ini catatan khusus ini disebut atau bengkok catatan biru . These scale tones may replace the natural scale tones, or they may be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor blues scale, in which the flattened third replaces the natural third, the flattened seventh replaces the natural seventh and the flattened fifth is added between the natural fourth and natural fifth. Nada ini skala dapat mengganti nada skala alam, atau mereka dapat ditambahkan ke skala, seperti dalam kasus skala blues minor, di mana rata ketiga menggantikan ketiga alam, rata ketujuh menggantikan alami ketujuh dan kelima rata ditambahkan antara keempat dan kelima alami alam. While the twelve-bar harmonic progression had been intermittently used for centuries, the revolutionary aspect of blues was the frequent use of the flattened third, flattened seventh, and even flattened fifth in the melody, together with crushing —playing directly adjacent notes at the same time (ie, diminished second)—and sliding , similar to using grace notes . [ 11 ] The blue notes allow for key moments of expression during the cadences, melodies, and embellishments of the blues. Sementara-bar harmonik kemajuan dua belas telah digunakan selama berabad-abad sesekali, aspek revolusioner blues adalah sering menggunakan ketiga rata, rata ketujuh, dan bahkan rata kelima di melodi, bersama-sama dengan menghancurkan-catatan berbatasan langsung bermain pada saat yang sama waktu (yakni, kedua berkurang)-dan geser, mirip dengan menggunakan catatan rahmat .  Catatan biru memungkinkan untuk saat-saat penting ekspresi selama irama, melodi, dan hiasan dari blues.
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The lyrics often relate troubles experienced within African American society. Lyrics sering berhubungan masalah mengalami dalam masyarakat African American. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson 's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells about the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 : Misalnya Blind Lemon Jefferson 's "Rising Tinggi Air Blues" (1927) bercerita tentang Mississippi Banjir Besar 1927 :
- "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time "Terpencil naik, orang Selatan tidak bisa membuat waktu
- I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time Aku berkata, terpencil meningkat, Southern masyarakat tidak bisa membuat waktu
- And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine." Dan aku tidak bisa tidak mendengar dari gadis Memphis saya. "
- "Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, "Rebecca, Rebecca, Anda mendapatkan kaki besar dari saya,
- Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, Rebecca, Anda mendapatkan kaki besar dari saya,
- It may be sending you baby, but it's worrying the hell out of me." Ini mungkin pengiriman bayi, tapi mengkhawatirkan neraka keluar dari saya. "
Author Ed Morales has claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues " as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua , the orisha in charge of the crossroads". [ 25 ] However, the Christian influence was far more obvious. [ 26 ] Many seminal blues artists such as Charley Patton or Skip James had several religious songs or spirituals in their repertoires. [ 27 ] Reverend Gary Davis [ 28 ] and Blind Willie Johnson [ 29 ] are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to the spirituals. Pengarang Ed Morales telah menyatakan bahwa mitologi Yoruba berperan dalam blues awal, mengutip Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues "sebagai" terselubung referensi tipis untuk Eleggua , yang orisha yang bertanggung jawab atas persimpangan jalan ".  Namun, orang Kristen pengaruh jauh lebih jelas.  Banyak mani blues artis seperti Charley Patton atau Skip James telah beberapa lagu religius atau spiritual dalam repertoar mereka.  Pendeta Gary Davis  dan Blind Willie Johnson  adalah contoh seniman sering dikategorikan sebagai musisi blues untuk musik mereka, meskipun lirik mereka jelas milik spiritual.
The Memphis Blues , composed by WC Handy in 1912. Memphis Blues , disusun oleh WC Handy pada tahun 1912. Recorded by Victor Military Band. Dicatat oleh Victor Band Militer. First known commercial recording of Handy's first commercially successful blues composition. Pertama dikenal rekaman komersial komposisi blues pertama Handy sukses secara komersial.
Traditional spiritual performed by Texas gospel singer Blind Willie Johnson (vocal and guitar) and Willie B. Harris (vocal) in 1927. spiritual tradisional yang dilakukan oleh penyanyi Texas Injil Blind Willie Johnson (vokal dan gitar) dan Willie B. Harris (vokal) pada tahun 1927. This example shows the close relationship between gospel and blues music. Contoh ini menunjukkan hubungan erat antara Injil dan musik blues.
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The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known. [ 40 ] The first appearance of the blues is often dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863 , [ 31 ] between 1870 and 1900, a period that coincides with Emancipation and, later, the development of juke joints as places where Blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble after a hard day's work. [ 41 ] This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. Dan ekonomi alasan sosial untuk munculnya blues yang tidak sepenuhnya diketahui.  Penampilan pertama dari blues sering tertanggal setelah Undang-Undang Emansipasi 1863 ,  antara 1870 dan 1900, jangka waktu yang bertepatan dengan Emansipasi dan , kemudian, pengembangan sendi juke sebagai tempat di mana Black pergi untuk mendengarkan musik, tari, atau berjudi setelah keras hari kerja.  Periode ini berhubungan dengan transisi dari perbudakan bagi hasil, skala produksi pertanian kecil, dan perluasan kereta api di Amerika Serikat bagian selatan. Several scholars characterize the early 1900s development of blues music as a move from group performances to a more individualized style. Beberapa sarjana ciri awal 1900-an perkembangan musik blues sebagai langkah dari pertunjukan grup ke gaya yang lebih individual. They argue that the development of the blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people. Mereka berpendapat bahwa perkembangan blues dikaitkan dengan kebebasan yang baru diperoleh rakyat diperbudak. According to Lawrence Levine , "there was a direct relationship between the national ideological emphasis upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington 's teachings, and the rise of the blues." Menurut Lawrence Levine , "ada hubungan langsung antara penekanan ideologi nasional pada individu, popularitas Booker T. Washington ajaran ', dan munculnya blues. " Levine states that "psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did." [ 42 ] Levine menyatakan bahwa "psikologis, sosial, dan ekonomi, Afrika-Amerika sedang terakulturasi dengan cara yang tidak mungkin selama perbudakan, dan ini tidak mengherankan bahwa musik sekuler mereka tercermin ini sebanyak musik keagamaan mereka lakukan." [42 ]
There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performances. [ 43 ] However, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues. Ada beberapa karakteristik umum untuk semua musik blues, karena genre mengambil bentuk dari keistimewaan kinerja individu.  Namun, ada beberapa karakteristik yang hadir jauh sebelum penciptaan blues modern. Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music; they were a "functional expression ... style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure." [ 44 ] A form of this pre-blues was heard in slave ring shouts and field hollers , expanded into "simple solo songs laden with emotional content". [ 45 ] Call-dan-respons teriakan itu merupakan bentuk awal seperti musik blues, mereka adalah "ekspresi fungsional ... gaya tanpa iringan atau kerukunan dan tak terbatas oleh formalitas dari struktur musik tertentu."  Suatu bentuk ini pra -blues terdengar di budak ring teriakan dan lapangan berteriak , berkembang menjadi "lagu-lagu solo sederhana sarat dengan isi emosional". 
Blues has evolved from the unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves imported from West Africa and rural blacks into a wide variety of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States. Blues telah berkembang dari musik vokal tanpa pendamping dan tradisi lisan dari budak didatangkan dari Afrika Barat dan kulit hitam pedesaan menjadi berbagai macam gaya dan subgenre, dengan variasi regional di seluruh Amerika Serikat. Though blues, as it is now known, can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the African call-and-response tradition, transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar, [ 46 ] [ 47 ] the blues form itself bears no resemblance to the melodic styles of the West African griots , and the influences are faint and tenuous. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] In particular, no specific African musical form can be identified as the single direct ancestor of the blues. [ 50 ] However many blues elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa . Meskipun blues, seperti yang sekarang dikenal, dapat dilihat sebagai gaya musik yang didasarkan pada kedua Eropa struktur yang harmonis dan tradisi panggilan-dan-respons Afrika, berubah menjadi saling keterkaitan antara suara dan gitar,   blues bentuk sendiri tidak memiliki kemiripan dengan gaya melodi dari Afrika Barat griots , dan pengaruh yang samar-samar dan lemah.   Secara khusus, tidak ada bentuk musik Afrika yang spesifik dapat diidentifikasi sebagai nenek moyang langsung tunggal dari blues. [50 ] Namun banyak elemen blues, seperti-dan-respons format panggilan dan penggunaan catatan biru, dapat ditelusuri kembali ke musik Afrika . That blue notes pre-date their use in blues and have an African origin is attested by English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor 's "A Negro Love Song", from his The African Suite for Piano composed in 1898, which contains blue third and seventh notes . [ 51 ] The Diddley bow (a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century) and the banjo are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of African performance techniques into the early blues instrumental vocabulary. [ 52 ] The banjo seems to be directly imported from western African music. Itu catatan biru pra-date penggunaannya dalam blues dan memiliki asal Afrika dibuktikan oleh komposer Inggris Samuel Taylor Coleridge- 's "A Negro Love Song", dari Suite nya Afrika ini untuk Piano disusun pada tahun 1898, yang berisi biru ketiga dan ketujuh catatan .  The busur Diddley (alat satu-senar buatan sendiri ditemukan di bagian Amerika Selatan pada awal abad kedua puluh) dan banjo adalah instrumen yang diturunkan dari Afrika yang mungkin telah membantu dalam transfer teknik kinerja Afrika ke awal blues kosakata instrumental.  banjo tampaknya langsung diimpor dari musik Afrika barat. It is similar to the musical instrument that griots and other Africans such as the Igbo [ 53 ] played (called halam or akonting by African peoples such as the Wolof , Fula and Madinka ). [ 54 ] However, in the 1920s, when country blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite marginal and limited to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon . [ 55 ] Hal ini mirip dengan alat musik yang griots dan Afrika lain seperti Igbo  memainkan (disebut Halam atau akonting oleh masyarakat Afrika seperti Wolof , Fula dan Madinka ).  Namun, pada tahun 1920, ketika negara blues mulai dicatat, penggunaan banjo dalam musik blues sangat marjinal dan terbatas kepada individu seperti Papa Charlie Jackson dan kemudian Gus Cannon . 
Blues music also adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals , including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment. [ 56 ] The style also was closely related to ragtime , which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music". [ 57 ] musik Blues juga mengadopsi unsur-unsur dari "mengudara Ethiopia", menunjukkan penyanyi dan rohaniwan Negro , termasuk dan harmonik iringan instrumental.  gaya ini juga terkait erat dengan ragtime , yang dikembangkan pada waktu yang sama, meskipun blues lebih baik diawetkan " asli pola melodi musik Afrika ". 
The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern " country music " arose in the same regions during the nineteenth century in the southern United States. Bentuk dan gaya musik yang sekarang dianggap sebagai "blues" serta modern " musik country "muncul di daerah yang sama selama abad kesembilan belas di Amerika Serikat bagian selatan. Recorded blues and country can be found from as far back as the 1920s, when the popular record industry developed and created marketing categories called " race music " and " hillbilly music " to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. blues direkam dan negara dapat ditemukan dari sejauh 1920-an, ketika industri rekaman populer dikembangkan dan kategori pemasaran dibuat disebut " musik ras "dan" musik orang udik "untuk menjual musik dengan kulit hitam untuk orang kulit hitam dan putih untuk kulit putih, masing-masing. At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country," except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Though musicologists can now attempt to define “the blues” narrowly in terms of certain chord structures and lyric strategies thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences originally heard the music in a far more general way: it was simply the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta. Pada saat itu, tidak ada pembagian yang jelas antara musik "blues" dan "negara," kecuali untuk etnis dari pelaku, dan bahkan kadang-kadang salah didokumentasikan oleh perusahaan rekaman.   Meskipun ahli musik sekarang dapat mencoba untuk mendefinisikan "blues" sempit dalam hal struktur chord tertentu dan strategi lirik diperkirakan berasal di Afrika Barat, penonton awalnya mendengar musik dengan cara yang jauh lebih umum: itu hanya musik dari selatan pedesaan, terutama Delta Mississippi. Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and thought of themselves as “ songsters ” rather than “blues musicians.” The notion of blues as a separate genre arose during the black migration from the countryside to urban areas in the 1920s and the simultaneous development of the recording industry. Hitam dan putih musisi berbagi repertoar yang sama dan menganggap diri mereka sebagai " songsters "daripada" musisi blues. "Gagasan blues sebagai genre yang terpisah muncul selama migrasi hitam dari pedesaan ke daerah perkotaan pada tahun 1920 dan pengembangan simultan industri rekaman. “Blues” became a code word for a record designed to sell to black listeners. [ 60 ] "Blues" menjadi sebuah kata kode untuk sebuah catatan yang dirancang untuk menjual kepada pendengar hitam. 
The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals . Asal-usul blues erat terkait dengan musik religius dari masyarakat Afro-Amerika, yang spiritual . The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, usually dating back to the middle of the 18th century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymns , in particular those of Isaac Watts , which were very popular. [ 61 ] Before the blues gained its formal definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. Asal-usul rohaniwan kembali lebih jauh dari blues, biasanya dating kembali ke pertengahan abad ke-18, ketika budak dikristenkan dan mulai menyanyi dan bermain Kristen himne , khususnya yang dari Isaac Watts , yang sangat populer. [ 61] Sebelum blues diperoleh definisi formal dalam hal progresi chord, itu didefinisikan sebagai mitra sekuler dari spiritual. It was the low-down music played by the rural Blacks. Itu adalah musik yang rendah-down yang dimainkan oleh Black pedesaan. Depending on the religious community a musician belonged to, it was more or less considered as a sin to play this low-down music: blues was the devil's music. Tergantung pada komunitas religius seorang musisi milik, itu lebih atau kurang dianggap sebagai suatu dosa untuk memainkan musik ini rendah-down: blues adalah musik setan. Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories: gospel and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters. Musisi karena itu dipisahkan menjadi dua kategori: penyanyi Injil dan blues, pengkhotbah gitar dan songsters. However, at the time rural Black music began to get recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used very similar techniques: call-and-response patterns, blue notes, and slide guitars. Namun, pada saat itu pedesaan musik Black mulai mendapatkan dicatat pada tahun 1920, kedua kategori musisi digunakan sangat teknik yang mirip: pola panggilan-dan-respons, catatan biru, dan gitar slide. Gospel music was nevertheless using musical forms that were compatible with Christian hymns and therefore less marked by the blues form than its secular counterpart. [ 62 ] musik Injil tetap menggunakan bentuk musik yang kompatibel dengan himne Kristen dan karena itu kurang ditandai dengan bentuk blues daripada rekan sekuler. 
The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music. Amerika lembaran musik industri penerbitan menghasilkan banyak ragtime musik. By 1912, the sheet music industry had published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues" by "Baby" F. Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews ), "Dallas Blues" by Hart Wand and " The Memphis Blues " by WC Handy . [ 63 ] Pada 1912, industri musik lembaran telah menerbitkan tiga komposisi blues-seperti populer, mempercepat para Tin Pan Alley Penerapan elemen blues: "Baby Seal 'Blues" dengan "Baby" F. Stempel (diatur oleh Artie Matthews ), "Dallas Blues" oleh Hart Wand dan " The Blues Memphis "oleh WC Handy . 
Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers. Handy adalah seorang musisi yang terlatih secara formal, komposer dan arranger yang membantu mempopulerkan blues dengan mencatat dan mendalangi blues dengan gaya hampir simfoni, dengan band dan penyanyi. He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime; [ 25 ] [ 64 ] Handy's signature work was the " St. Louis Blues ". Ia menjadi populer dan komposer produktif, dan ditagih dirinya sebagai "Bapak Blues", namun, komposisi dapat digambarkan sebagai perpaduan antara blues dengan ragtime dan jazz, merger difasilitasi menggunakan Kuba Habanera irama yang telah lama menjadi bagian dari ragtime;   tanda tangan Handy karya tersebut adalah " St Louis Blues ".
In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of African American and American popular music, reaching white audiences via Handy's arrangements and the classic female blues performers. Pada 1920-an, blues menjadi elemen utama Amerika Afrika dan musik Amerika populer, menjangkau khalayak putih melalui pengaturan Handy dan perempuan klasik blues performer. The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Blues berkembang dari pertunjukan informal di bar untuk hiburan di bioskop. Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. pertunjukan Blues yang diselenggarakan oleh Teater Pemilik bookers Asosiasi di klub malam seperti Cotton Club dan sendi juke seperti bar di sepanjang Jalan Beale di Memphis. Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation , Okeh Records , and Paramount Records , began to record African American music. Beberapa perusahaan rekaman, seperti Amerika Record Corporation , Okeh Records , dan Paramount Records , mulai merekam musik African American.
As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Jimmie Rodgers (country singer) , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community. Sebagai industri rekaman tumbuh, negara blues performer seperti Bo Carter , Jimmie Rodgers (penyanyi country) , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Merah dan Blind Blake menjadi lebih populer di masyarakat African American. Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle. [ 65 ] The slide guitar became an important part of the Delta blues . [ 66 ] The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished 'city' or urban blues. Kelahiran Kentucky Sylvester Weaver adalah pada tahun 1923 yang pertama untuk merekam gitar slide gaya, di mana gitar adalah cemas dengan pisau pisau atau-off menggergaji leher dari botol.  The gitar slide menjadi bagian penting dari Delta blues .  The blues pertama rekaman dari tahun 1920 dikategorikan sebagai tradisional pedesaan blues negara dan kota 'lebih halus' atau blues perkotaan.
Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. Country blues performer sering improvisasi, baik tanpa iringan atau hanya dengan banjo atau gitar. Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century. gaya Daerah blues negara bervariasi secara luas di awal abad 20. The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. The (Mississippi) Delta blues adalah gaya tipis rootsy dengan vokal gairah disertai oleh slide gitar. The little-recorded Robert Johnson [ 67 ] combined elements of urban and rural blues. Kecil-dicatat Robert Johnson  unsur gabungan dari blues perkotaan dan pedesaan. In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House . Selain Robert Johnson, pemain berpengaruh gaya ini termasuk pendahulunya Charley Patton dan Anak House . Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique. Penyanyi seperti Blind Willie McTell dan Blind Boy Fuller dilakukan di tenggara "lembut dan liris" Piedmont blues tradisi, yang digunakan yang didasarkan rumit ragtime- fingerpicking teknik gitar. Georgia also had an early slide tradition, [ 68 ] with Curley Weaver , Tampa Red , "Barbecue Bob" Hicks and James "Kokomo" Arnold as representatives of this style. [ 69 ] Georgia juga memiliki tradisi slide awal,  dengan Curley Weaver , Tampa Red , "Barbecue Bob" Hicks dan James "Kokomo" Arnold sebagai perwakilan gaya ini. 
The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee , was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers . Yang meriah Memphis blues gaya, yang dikembangkan pada tahun 1920 dan 1930-an dekat Memphis, Tennessee , dipengaruhi oleh jug band seperti Memphis Jug Band atau Cannon Gus Jug Stompers . Performers such as Frank Stokes , Sleepy John Estes , Robert Wilkins , Joe McCoy , Casey Bill Weldon and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard , fiddle , kazoo or mandolin . Artis seperti Frank Stokes , Sleepy John Estes , Robert Wilkins , Joe McCoy , Casey Bill Weldon dan Memphis Minnie menggunakan berbagai instrumen yang tidak biasa seperti papan cuci , biola , kazoo atau mandolin . Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style. Memphis Minnie terkenal baginya virtuoso gitar gaya. Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his distinct style was smoother and had some swing elements. Pianis Memphis Slim memulai karirnya di Memphis, namun gaya yang berbeda-nya halus dan memiliki beberapa elemen ayunan. Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement, which blended country music and electric blues. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Banyak musisi blues yang berbasis di Memphis pindah ke Chicago pada akhir tahun 1930 atau awal 1940-an dan menjadi bagian dari gerakan blues perkotaan, negara mana dicampur musik blues dan listrik.   
City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic. [ 73 ] Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them Mamie Smith , Gertrude "Ma" Rainey , Bessie Smith , and Victoria Spivey . Kota atau perkotaan blues gaya lebih dikodifikasi dan rumit sebagai artis tidak lagi di dalam, mereka langsung masyarakat setempat dan harus beradaptasi dengan yang lebih besar bervariasi lebih penonton, estetika suatu.  Classic perempuan perkotaan dan vaudeville blues penyanyi populer di tahun 1920 , di antara mereka Mamie Smith , Gertrude "Ma" Rainey , Bessie Smith , dan Victoria Spivey . Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first African-American to record a blues in 1920; her second record, "Crazy Blues", sold 75,000 copies in its first month. [ 74 ] Ma Rainey , the "Mother of Blues", and Bessie Smith each "[sang] around center tones, perhaps in order to project her voice more easily to the back of a room." Mamie Smith, lebih pemain vaudeville dari artis blues, adalah yang pertama Afrika-Amerika untuk merekam blues pada tahun 1920; catatan kedua, "Crazy Blues", terjual 75.000 eksemplar pada bulan pertama.  Ma Rainey , yang " Bunda Blues ", dan Bessie Smith masing-masing" [menyanyi] di sekitar pusat nada, mungkin dalam rangka proyek suaranya lebih mudah ke bagian belakang sebuah ruangan. " Smith would "...sing a song in an unusual key, and her artistry in bending and stretching notes with her beautiful, powerful contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed." [ 75 ] Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such Tampa Red , Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr . Smith akan "... menyanyikan sebuah lagu dalam kunci yang tidak biasa, dan kesenian di membungkuk dan peregangan catatan dengan dia, kuat kontralto indah untuk mengakomodasi interpretasi sendiri adalah tak tertandingi."  Urban penyanyi laki-laki termasuk musisi hitam populer era , seperti Tampa Red , Big Bill Broonzy dan Leroy Carr . A important label of this era was the chicagoean Bluebird label. Label penting dari era ini adalah chicagoean Bluebird label. Before WWII, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". Sebelum Perang Dunia II, Tampa Merah kadang-kadang disebut sebagai "Wizard Guitar". Carr accompanied himself on the piano with Scrapper Blackwell on guitar, a format that continued well into the 50s with people such as Charles Brown , and even Nat "King" Cole . [ 66 ] Carr disertai dirinya pada piano dengan Scrapper Blackwell pada gitar, sebuah format yang terus berlanjut ke dalam 50-an dengan orang-orang seperti Charles Brown , dan bahkan Nat "King" Cole . 
Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. [ 76 ] While the style is often associated with solo piano, boogie-woogie was also used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and small combos. Boogie-woogie adalah gaya lain penting 1930-an dan awal 1940-an blues perkotaan.  Sementara gaya sering dikaitkan dengan solo piano, boogie-woogie juga dipakai untuk mengiringi penyanyi dan, sebagai bagian solo, di band dan combo kecil. Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or riff and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each chord and trills and decorations in the right hand. Boogie-Woogie gaya ditandai oleh seorang tokoh bass biasa, sebuah ostinato atau riff dan pergeseran tingkat di tangan kiri, menguraikan setiap chord dan trills dan dekorasi di tangan kanan. Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio ( Albert Ammons , Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis ). [ 77 ] Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines , who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand." [ 73 ] The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. Boogie-woogie dipelopori oleh berbasis di Chicago Yance Jimmy dan Boogie-Woogie Trio ( Albert Ammons , Pete Johnson dan Meade Lux Lewis ).  Chicago boogie-woogie artis termasuk Clarence "Pine Top" Smith dan Earl Hines , yang "mengaitkan irama propulsif kiri dari pianis ragtime dengan angka melodi mirip dengan Armstrong's sangkakala di tangan kanan."  Gaya Louisiana kelancaran Profesor penggemar musik klasik dan, baru-baru ini, Dr John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles. John memadukan irama klasik dan blues dengan gaya blues.
Another development in this period was big band blues. [ 78 ] The " territory bands " operating out of Kansas City , the Benny Moten orchestra, Jay McShann , and the Count Basie Orchestra were also concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie's " One O'Clock Jump " and " Jumpin' at the Woodside " and boisterous " blues shouting " by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as "Going to Chicago" and " Sent for You Yesterday ". Perkembangan lain dalam periode ini adalah big band blues.  The " band wilayah "beroperasi dari Kansas City , para Benny Moten orkestra, Jay McShann , dan Count Basie Orchestra juga berkonsentrasi pada blues, dengan bar blues instrumental-12 seperti Basie's " Satu o'Clock Langsung "dan" Jumpin 'di Woodside "dan riuh" blues berteriak "oleh Jimmy Rushing pada lagu seperti "Going to Chicago" dan " Sent untuk Anda Kemarin ". A well-known big band blues tune is Glenn Miller 's " In the Mood ". A-dikenal baik besar lagu blues band Glenn Miller s '" Dalam Mood ". In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. Pada 1940-an, blues melompat gaya dikembangkan. Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by big band music. blues Langsung dibesarkan dari gelombang woogie boogie dan itu sangat dipengaruhi oleh big band musik. It uses saxophone or other brass instruments and the guitar in the rhythm section to create a jazzy, up-tempo sound with declamatory vocals. Menggunakan saxophone atau instrumen kuningan dan gitar di bagian irama untuk membuat up, dengan tempo suara jazzy dengan vokal dgn rasa besar. Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner , based in Kansas City, Missouri , influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues . [ 79 ] Dallas-born T-Bone Walker , which is often associated to the California blues style, [ 80 ] performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à la Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the jump blues style and dominated the blues-jazz scene at Los Angeles during the 1940s. [ 81 ] Langsung lagu-lagu blues oleh Louis Jordan dan Big Joe Turner , yang berbasis di Kansas City, Missouri , mempengaruhi perkembangan gaya kemudian seperti rock and roll dan rhythm and blues .  kelahiran Dallas T-Bone Walker , yang sering diasosiasikan di California blues gaya,  melakukan transisi yang sukses dari awal blues perkotaan à la Lonnie Johnson dan Leroy Carr ke blues gaya melompat dan mendominasi blues-jazz scene di Los Angeles selama tahun 1940-an. 
The transition from country to urban blues, that began in the 1920s, had always been driven by the successive waves of economic crisis and booms and the associated move of the rural Blacks to urban areas, the Great Migration . Transisi dari satu negara ke blues perkotaan, yang dimulai pada tahun 1920, selalu didorong oleh gelombang krisis ekonomi dan boom dan bergerak terkait keluarga Black pedesaan ke daerah perkotaan, Migrasi Besar . The long boom in the aftermath of World War II induced a massive migration of the African American population, the Second Great Migration , which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban Blacks. The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry. The name race record disappeared and was succeeded by Rhythm and Blues . This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by the Billboard Rhythm and Blues Chart . This marketing strategy reinforced trends within urban blues music such as the progressive electrification of the instruments, their amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, that became ubiquitous in R&B. This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music which, together with Jazz and Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave. [ 82 ]
electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , [ 84 ] Memphis , [ 85 ] Detroit [ 86 ] [ 87 ] and St. Louis . [ 88 ] Electric blues used electric guitars , double bass (slowly replaced by bass guitar ), drums, and harmonica played through a microphone and a PA system or a guitar amplifier . Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his first success: "I Can't Be Satisfied". [ 89 ] Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by the Mississippi blues style, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region. Howlin' Wolf , [ 90 ] Muddy Waters , [ 91 ] Willie Dixon , [ 92 ] and Jimmy Reed [ 93 ] were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration . Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica , and a rhythm section of bass and drums. JT Brown who played in Elmore James 's bands, [ 94 ] or JB Lenoir 's [ 95 ] also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called " harp " by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices.
Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as " Hoochie Coochie Man ", " I Just Want to Make Love to You " (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, " Wang Dang Doodle " and " Back Door Man " for Howlin' Wolf. Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels. Smaller blues labels of this era included Vee-Jay Records and JOB Records . During the early 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips ' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded BB King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960. [ 96 ] After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the rapidly expanding white audience and started recording mostly rock 'n' roll. [ 97 ]
In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music. While popular musicians like Bo Diddley [ 86 ] and Chuck Berry , [ 98 ] both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana 's zydeco music, [ 99 ] with Clifton Chenier [ 100 ] using blues accents. Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards.
Overseas, in England, electric blues took root there during a much acclaimed Muddy Waters tour. Waters, unsuspecting of his audience's tendency towards skiffle , an acoustic, softer brand of blues, turned up his amp and started to play his Chicago brand of electric blues. Although the audience was largely jolted by the performance, the performance influenced local musicians such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies to emulate this louder style, inspiring the British invasion of the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. [ 101 ]
West Side pioneered by Magic Sam , Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records . [ 102 ] The 'West Side Sound' had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as pefected by Guy, Freddie King , Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. [ 103 ] [ 104 ]
John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". His first hit, " Boogie Chillen ", reached #1 on the R&B charts in 1949. [ 105 ]
By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge , with performers such as Lightnin' Slim , [ 106 ] Slim Harpo , [ 107 ] Sam Myers and Jerry McCain around the producer JD "Jay" Miller and the Excello label. Strongly influenced by Jimmy Reed , Swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters. Songs from this genre include "Scratch my Back", "She's Tough" and " I'm a King Bee ".
African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music. White performers had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the US and abroad. However, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped. Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe. Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad. In the UK, bands emulated US blues legends, and UK blues-rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s. [ 108 ]
John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York–born Taj Mahal . John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a musical style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie . BB King 's virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp. Tennessee -born Bobby "Blue" Bland , like BB King, also straddled the blues and R&B genres. During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton, Booker T & the MGs ) and had a major influence on those styles of music.
The music of the Civil Rights [ 109 ] and Free Speech movements in the US prompted a resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music . As well as Jimmi Bass Music festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival [ 110 ] brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House , Mississippi John Hurt , Skip James , and Reverend Gary Davis . [ 109 ] Many compilations of classic prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records . JB Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. His songs, originally distributed in Europe only, [ 111 ] commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period. His Alabama Blues recording had a song that stated:
I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me (2x)White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band and the British blues movement. The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. [ 112 ] Many of Led Zeppelin 's earlier hits were renditions of traditional blues songs.
You know they killed my sister and my brother,
and the whole world let them peoples go down there free
The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including Canned Heat , the early Jefferson Airplane , Janis Joplin , Johnny Winter , The J. Geils Band , Ry Cooder , and The Allman Brothers Band . One blues rock performer, Jimi Hendrix , was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock . Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and feedback in his music. [ 113 ] Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music . [ 114 ]
Santana , which was originally called the Carlos Santana Blues Band , also experimented with Latin -influenced blues and blues-rock music around this time. At the end of the 1950s appeared the very bluesy Tulsa Sound merging rock'n'roll, jazz and country influences. This particular music style started to be broadly popularized within the 1970s by JJ Cale and the cover versions performed by Eric Clapton of " After Midnight " and " Cocaine ".
In the early 1970s, The Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles. In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement. Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter , Stevie Ray Vaughan , The Fabulous Thunderbirds , and ZZ Top . These artists all began their musical journey in the 1970s, but they did not achieve major international success until the next decade. [ 115 ]
[ edit ] 1980s to the 2000sSince the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions. Often termed " soul blues " or " Southern soul ", the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: [ 116 ] ZZ Hill 's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton 's The Blues is Alright (1984). Contemporary African-American performers who work this vein of the blues include Bobby Rush , Denise LaSalle , Sir Charles Jones , Bettye LaVette , Marvin Sease and Peggy Scott-Adams .
Strong Persuader revealed Robert Cray as a major blues artist. [ 117 ] The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording, Texas Flood , was released in 1983, and the Texas-based guitarist exploded onto the international stage. 1989 saw a revival of John Lee Hooker 's popularity with the album The Healer . Eric Clapton , known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream , made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged , in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. However, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack recording and other technological advances and new marketing strategies that include video clip production have increased costs, and challenge the spontaneity and improvisation that are an important component of blues music. [ 118 ]
In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue began to be distributed, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and [ 119 ] more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged. [ 120 ]
In the 1990s, blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for example, from the broad array of nominees of the yearly Blues Music Awards , previously named WC Handy Awards [ 121 ] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album . The Bilboard Blues Album chart monitors and therefore provides an overview over the current blues production. Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records , Ruf Records , Chess Records ( MCA ), Delmark Records , NorthernBlues Music , and Vanguard Records ( Artemis Records ). Some labels are famous for their rediscovering and remastering of blues rarities such as Arhoolie Records , Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (heir of Folkways Records ) and Yazoo Records ( Shanachie Records ). [ 122 ]
[ edit ] Musical impactBlues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. [ 123 ] Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong , Duke Ellington , Miles Davis , and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings. The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen 's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin 's " Rhapsody in Blue " and "Concerto in F". Gershwin's second "Prelude" for solo piano is an interesting example of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic strictness. The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames , especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (eg, in " A Hard Day's Night "). Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman , teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers ' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman 's hit "Give Me One Reason".
R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts 's hymns , mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms. Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues. Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings .
Early country bluesmen such as Skip James , Charley Patton , Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing. Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music . [ 124 ] Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet . In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke , Ray Charles and James Brown used gospel and blues music elements. In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were these merged in soul blues music. Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R&B.
World War II , the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear. Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands , whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles. After WWII, blues had a substantial influence on jazz. Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker 's "Now's the Time", used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes. Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art," less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". The audience for both blues and jazz split, and the border between blues and jazz became more defined. Artists straddling the boundary between jazz and blues are categorized into the jazz blues sub-genre. [ 125 ] [ 126 ]
The blues' twelve-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock and roll music. Rock and roll has been called "blues with a backbeat "; Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". Rockabillies were also said to be twelve-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. " Hound Dog ", with its unmodified twelve-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock and roll song. Jerry Lee Lewis 's style of rock and roll was heavily influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie woogie. His style of music was not exactly rockabilly but it has been often called real rock and roll (this is a label he shares with several African American rock and roll performers). [ 127 ] [ 128 ]
Early country music was infused with the blues. [ 129 ] Jimmie Rodgers , Moon Mullican , Bob Wills , Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different to the country pop of Eddy Arnold . A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues. When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to country after the decline of 1950s style rock and roll, he sang his country with a blues feel and often included blues standards on his albums. Many early rock and roll songs are based on blues: " That's All Right Mama ", " Johnny B. Goode ", " Blue Suede Shoes ", " Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On ", " Shake, Rattle, and Roll ", and " Long Tall Sally ". The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" (" Tutti Frutti ", Little Richard ) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" (" What'd I Say ", Ray Charles ). The twelve-bar blues structure can be found even in novelty pop songs, such as Bob Dylan 's " Obviously Five Believers " and Esther and Abi Ofarim 's " Cinderella Rockefella ".
jazz , rock and roll , heavy metal music , hip hop music , reggae , country music , and pop music , blues has been accused of being the " devil 's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. [ 130 ] In the early 20th century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s. [ 64 ] In the early twentieth century, WC Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans.
During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film Sounder (1972). The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination. [ 131 ] Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release " Songcatcher ", which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia .
Perhaps the most visible example of the blues style of music in the late 20th century came in 1980, when Dan Aykroyd and John Landis released the film The Blues Brothers . The film drew many of the biggest living influenciers of the Rhythm and blues genre together, such as Ray Charles , James Brown , Cab Calloway , Aretha Franklin , and John Lee Hooker . The band formed also began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers marquee. 1998 brought a sequel, Blues Brothers 2000 that, while not holding as great a critical and financial success, featured a much larger number of blues artists, such as BB King , Bo Diddley , Erykah Badu , Eric Clapton , Steve Winwood , Charlie Musselwhite , Blues Traveller , Jimmy Vaughn , Jeff Baxter .
In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience. Pada tahun 2003, Martin Scorsese melakukan upaya yang signifikan untuk mempromosikan blues ke audiens yang lebih besar. He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues . [ 132 ] He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. Blues guitarist and vocalist Keb' Mo' performed his blues rendition of " America, the Beautiful " in 2006 to close out the final season of the television series The West Wing .