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Tuesday, 14 December 2010

ROCK N ROLL

Rock and roll

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Rock and roll Rock and roll
Stylistic origins Gaya asal Bluesgospelfolkcountryjump bluesChicago bluesswingboogie-woogieR&Bdoo wop BluesInjilrakyatnegarablues melompatChicago bluesswingboogie-woogieR & Bdoo wop
Cultural origins Budaya asal 1940s, United States 1940-an, Amerika Serikat
Typical instruments Khas instrumen Electric guitar , string bass or later bass guitar , drums , piano , optional saxophone (s), vocals Gitar listrik , string bass atau lambat gitar bass , drum , piano , opsional saksofon (s), vokal
Mainstream popularity Mainstream popularitas One of the best selling music forms since the 1950s Salah satu bentuk penjualan terbaik musik sejak tahun 1950-an
Derivative forms Derivatif bentuk Rockrockabillypop Rockrockabillypop
Other topics Topik lainnya
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll ) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] primarily from a combination of the blues , country music , jazz [ 3 ] and gospel music . [ 4 ] Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in country records of the 1930s, [ 3 ] and in blues records from the 1920s, [ 5 ] rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] An early form of rock and roll was rockabilly , [ 8 ] which combined country and jazz with influences from traditional Appalachian folk music and gospel. [ 9 ] Rock and roll (sering ditulis sebagai rock & roll atau rock n 'roll') adalah genre musik populer yang berasal dan berkembang di Amerika Serikat pada akhir 1940-an dan awal 1950-an, [1] [2] terutama dari kombinasi itu blues , musik country , jazz [3] dan musik gospel . [4] Meskipun unsur-unsur rock and roll dapat didengar dalam catatan negara dari tahun 1930-an, [3] dan dalam catatan blues dari tahun 1920, [5] rock and roll tidak mendapatkan namanya sampai tahun 1950-an. [6] [7] Sebuah bentuk awal rock and roll adalah rockabilly , [8] yang negara gabungan dan jazz dengan pengaruh dari tradisional musik Appalachian rakyat dan Injil. [9]
The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The "rock and roll" istilah sekarang memiliki setidaknya dua arti yang berbeda, baik dalam penggunaan umum. The American Heritage Dictionary [ 10 ] and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary [ 11 ] both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music . The American Heritage Dictionary [10] dan Merriam-Webster Dictionary [11] baik mendefinisikan rock and roll sebagai identik dengan musik rock . Allwords.com, however, refers specifically to the music of the 1950s. [ 12 ] For the purpose of differentiation, this article uses the latter definition, while the broader musical genre is discussed in the rock music article. Allwords.com Namun, mengacu khusus untuk musik tahun 1950-an. [12] Untuk tujuan diferensiasi, artikel ini menggunakan definisi yang kedua, sedangkan genre musik yang lebih luas dibahas dalam musik rock artikel.
In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s. [ 13 ] The beat is essentially a boogie woogie blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat , the latter almost always provided by a snare drum . [ 14 ] Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar , and a drum kit . [ 13 ] Dalam gaya rock and roll awal tahun 1940-an dan awal 1950-an, baik piano atau saxophone sering menjadi instrumen memimpin, tetapi umumnya diganti atau dilengkapi dengan gitar di tengah untuk tahun 1950-an. [13] mengalahkan pada dasarnya adalah sebuah boogie woogie irama blues dengan menonjolkan backbeat , yang terakhir hampir selalu disediakan oleh snare drum . [14] Classic rock and roll biasanya dimainkan dengan atau dua gitar listrik satu (satu memimpin, satu irama), string bass atau (setelah pertengahan tahun 1950-an) listrik gitar bass , dan drum kit . [13]
Rock and roll began achieving wide popularity in the 1960s. [ 15 ] The massive popularity and eventual worldwide view of rock and roll gave it a widespread social impact. Bobby Gillespie writes that "When Chuck Berry sang 'Hail, hail, rock and roll, deliver me from the days of old,' that's exactly what the music was doing. Chuck Berry started the global psychic jailbreak that is rock'n'roll." [ 16 ] Rock and roll mulai mencapai popularitas yang luas di tahun 1960-an. [15] Popularitas besar dan akhirnya seluruh dunia melihat dari rock and roll memberikan sebuah dampak sosial luas. Bobby Gillespie menulis bahwa "Ketika Chuck Berry menyanyikan 'Salam, hujan es, rock and roll, selamatkanlah aku dari jaman dahulu, 'itulah musik apa yang sedang dilakukan.. Chuck Berry mulai psikis global jailbreak yang rock'n'roll " [16]
Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. Jauh lebih dari sekedar gaya rock, musik and roll, seperti yang terlihat di film-film dan televisi, gaya hidup dipengaruhi, fashion, sikap, dan bahasa. It went on to spawn various sub-genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock music" or "rock." Ia pergi ke menelurkan berbagai sub-genre, sering tanpa backbeat awalnya karakteristik, yang sekarang lebih sering disebut hanya "musik rock" atau "rock."

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[ edit ] Origins of the style [ sunting ] Asal gaya

The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators and historians of music. [ 17 ] There is general agreement that it arose in the southern United States of America - the region which would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts - through the meeting of the different musical traditions which had developed from transatlantic African slavery and largely European immigration in that region. [ 18 ] The migration of many freed slaves and their descendants to major urban centers like Memphis and north to New York City, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than ever before, and as a result heard each other's music and even began to emulate each other's fashions. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record , and musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by both black and white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision." [ 21 ] Asal usul rock and roll telah sengit diperdebatkan oleh komentator dan sejarawan musik. [17] Ada kesepakatan umum bahwa hal itu muncul di Amerika Serikat selatan Amerika - wilayah yang akan menghasilkan sebagian besar batuan awal utama dan tindakan roll - melalui pertemuan tradisi musik yang berbeda yang telah berkembang dari Afrika perbudakan transatlantik dan sebagian besar Eropa imigrasi di daerah itu. [18] Migrasi dari banyak budak dibebaskan dan keturunan mereka ke pusat-pusat kota besar seperti Memphis dan utara ke New York City, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland dan Buffalo berarti dan putih warga hitam tinggal di dekat dalam jumlah yang lebih besar daripada sebelumnya, dan sebagai hasilnya mendengar lain musik masing-masing dan bahkan mulai meniru lain mode masing-masing. [19] [20] Stasiun radio yang dibuat dan hitam putih bentuk musik yang tersedia untuk kedua kelompok, pengembangan dan penyebaran piringan hitam , dan gaya musik seperti jazz dan swing yang diambil oleh kedua musisi hitam dan putih, dibantu proses ini dari "benturan budaya." [21 ]
The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the so-called " race music " and hillbilly music (later called rhythm and blues and country and western ) of the 1940s and 1950s. [ 17 ] Particularly significant influences were jazz, blues , boogie woogie, country, folk and gospel music . [ 17 ] Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Akar segera rock and roll terletak pada yang disebut "jadi musik ras "dan dusun musik (kemudian disebut ritme dan blues dan negara dan barat ) dari tahun 1940-an dan 1950-an. [17] Terutama pengaruh yang signifikan adalah jazz, blues , boogie woogie , negara, rakyat dan musik gospel . [17] komentator berbeda dalam pandangan mereka yang dari bentuk-bentuk yang paling penting dan sejauh mana musik baru re-branding African American rhythm and blues untuk pasar putih, atau baru hibrida dan bentuk hitam putih. [22] [23] [24]
In the 1930s jazz , and particularly swing , both in urban based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, was among the first music to present African American sounds for a predominately white audience. [ 23 ] [ 25 ] The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns (including saxophones), shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz based music. Pada tahun 1930-an jazz , dan khususnya ayunan , baik di perkotaan berdasarkan band tari dan blues-swing dipengaruhi negara, merupakan salah satu musik pertama untuk mempresentasikan suara Amerika Afrika untuk putih mayoritas penonton. [23] [25] The 1940 melihat peningkatan penggunaan dari menggelegar tanduk (termasuk saksofon), berteriak lirik dan mengalahkan woogie boogie dalam musik jazz berbasis. During and immediately after World War II , with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars, bass and drums. [ 17 ] [ 26 ] In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest , the development of jump blues , with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many later developments. [ 17 ] Similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. [ 17 ] Selama dan segera setelah Perang Dunia II , dengan kekurangan bahan bakar dan pembatasan penonton dan personil yang tersedia, besar band jazz kurang ekonomis dan cenderung digantikan oleh combo yang lebih kecil, dengan menggunakan gitar, bass dan drum. [17] [26] Di periode yang sama, terutama di Pantai Barat dan di Midwest , pengembangan blues melompat , dengan riff gitar nya, ketukan menonjol dan lirik berteriak, prefigured perkembangan banyak kemudian. [17] Demikian pula, boogie negara dan Chicago blues listrik dipasok banyak elemen yang akan dilihat sebagai karakteristik dari rock and roll. [17]
Rock and roll arrived at a time of considerable technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar , amplifier and microphone , and the 45 rpm record . [ 17 ] There were also changes in the record industry, with the rise of independent labels like Atlantic , Sun and Chess servicing niche audiences and a similar rise of radio stations that played their music. [ 17 ] It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to this music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock and roll as a distinct genre. [ 17 ] Rock and roll tiba pada saat perubahan teknologi yang cukup, segera setelah perkembangan gitar listrik , amplifier dan mikrofon , dan catatan rpm 45 . [17] Ada juga perubahan dalam industri rekaman, dengan munculnya label independen seperti Atlantik , Sun dan Catur penonton niche melayani dan peningkatan serupa stasiun radio yang memainkan musik mereka. [17] Ini adalah kesadaran bahwa putih remaja kaya relatif sedang mendengarkan musik ini yang menyebabkan perkembangan apa yang didefinisikan sebagai batuan dan roll sebagai genre yang berbeda. [17]

[ edit ] Origins of the phrase [ sunting ] Asal kalimat

The phrase "Rock and Roll" can be heard referenced in the Hal Roach film "Asleep in the Feet" (1932), starring ZaSu Pitts and Thelma Todd . [ citation needed ] In 1935, Henry "Red" Allen recorded "Get Rhythm in Your Feet and Music in Your Soul" which included the lyric, "If satan starts to hound you, commence to rock and roll. Get rhythm in your feet..." Ungkapan "Rock and Roll" dapat didengar dirujuk dalam Roach Hal film "Tidur di Kaki" (1932), dibintangi ZaSu Pitts dan Thelma Todd [. rujukan? ] Pada tahun 1935, Henry "Red" Allen mencatat "Get Rhythm di Anda Kaki dan Musik di Soul Anda "yang meliputi lirik," Jika setan mulai anjing Anda, mulai untuk rock and roll. Dapatkan irama di kaki Anda ... " etc. This lyric was written by the prolific Tin Pan Alley composer J. Russel Robinson with Bill Livingston. dll lirik ini ditulis oleh komposer produktif Tin Pan Alley J. Russel Robinson dengan Bill Livingston. It is unlikely that they created the phrase for this application. Hal ini tidak mungkin bahwa mereka menciptakan frase untuk aplikasi ini. It was presumably current with its musical meaning in popular culture at the time, at least in New York City. Hal ini mungkin saat ini dengan makna musik dalam budaya populer pada saat itu, setidaknya di New York City. Allen's recording was a "race" record on the Vocalion label, but the catchy tune was quickly covered by white musicians, notably Benny Goodman, no doubt giving the term currency throughout the US by the end of 1935. rekaman Allen adalah "ras" catatan pada label Vocalion, tapi lagu catchy dengan cepat ditutupi oleh musisi kulit putih, terutama Benny Goodman, tidak diragukan lagi memberikan istilah mata uang di seluruh Amerika Serikat pada akhir 1935.
The word "rock" had a long history in many languages as a metaphor for "to shake up, to disturb or to incite". Kata "batu" memiliki sejarah panjang dalam banyak bahasa sebagai metafora untuk "untuk menggoyang, untuk mengganggu atau menghasut". "Rocking" was a term used by black gospel singers in the American South to mean something akin to spiritual rapture . [ 27 ] In 1916, the term "rocking and rolling" was used with a religious connotation, on the phonograph record "The Camp Meeting Jubilee" by an unnamed male "quartette". [ 28 ] The verb "roll" was a medieval metaphor which meant "having sex". "Rocking" adalah istilah yang digunakan oleh Injil penyanyi hitam di Amerika Selatan berarti sesuatu yang mirip dengan rohani pengangkatan . [27] Pada tahun 1916, istilah "goyang dan rolling" digunakan dengan konotasi agama, pada piringan hitam "The Camp Rapat Jubilee "oleh seorang laki-laki yang tak disebutkan namanya" kuartet ". [28] Kata kerja "roll" adalah metafora abad pertengahan yang berarti "berhubungan seks". Writers for hundreds of years have used the phrases "They had a roll in the hay" or "I rolled her in the clover". [ 29 ] The phrase "rocking and rolling" was secular black slang for dancing or sex by the early twentieth century, [ 30 ] appearing on record for the first time in 1922 on Trixie Smith 's "My Man Rocks Me With One Steady Roll", [ 31 ] and as a double entendre , ostensibly referring to dancing, but with the subtextual meaning of sex, as in Roy Brown 's " Good Rocking Tonight " (1948). [ 32 ] Penulis selama ratusan tahun telah menggunakan frasa "Mereka memiliki roll di jerami" atau "Aku memutar di semanggi". [29] Ungkapan "goyang dan rolling" adalah slang hitam sekuler untuk menari atau seks oleh kedua puluh awal abad, [30] muncul pada catatan untuk pertama kalinya pada tahun 1922 pada Trixie Smith 's "My Man Rocks Me Dengan Satu Steady Roll", [31] dan sebagai entender ganda , seolah-olah merujuk pada menari, tetapi dengan makna subtextual dari seks, seperti dalam Roy Brown 's " Good Rocking Tonight "(1948). [32]
The terms were often used together ("rocking and rolling") to describe the motion of a ship at sea, for example as used in 1934 by the Boswell Sisters in their song "Rock and Roll", [ 33 ] which was featured in the 1934 film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round , [ 34 ] [ 35 ] and in Buddy Jones ' "Rockin' Rollin' Mama" (1939). Istilah yang sering digunakan bersama-sama ("goyang dan rolling") untuk menggambarkan gerak kapal di laut, misalnya seperti yang digunakan pada tahun 1934 oleh Boswell Sisters dalam lagu mereka "Rock and Roll", [33] yang ditampilkan dalam 1934 film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round, [34] [35] dan di Buddy Jones '"Rockin' Rollin 'Mama" (1939). Country singer Tommy Scott was referring to the motion of a railroad train in the 1951 "Rockin and Rollin'". [ 36 ] An alternative claim is that the origins of "rocking and rolling" can be traced back to steel driving men working on the railroads in the Reconstruction South. Penyanyi country Tommy Scott mengacu pada gerak kereta kereta api di tahun 1951 "Rockin dan Rollin '". [36] Sebuah klaim alternatif adalah bahwa asal-usul "goyang dan rolling" dapat ditelusuri kembali ke baja mengemudi orang bekerja di kereta api di Selatan Rekonstruksi. These men would sing hammer songs to keep the pace of their hammer swings. Orang-orang ini akan menyanyikan lagu-lagu palu untuk menjaga kecepatan ayunan palu mereka. At the end of each line in a song, the men would swing their hammers down to drill a hole into the rock. Pada akhir setiap baris dalam sebuah lagu, orang-orang akan mengayunkan palu mereka turun untuk mengebor lubang ke dalam batu. The shakers — the men who held the steel spikes that the hammer men drilled — would "rock" the spike back and forth to clear rock or "roll", twisting the spike to improve the "bite" of the drill. [ 37 ] The shaker - orang-orang yang memegang paku baja bahwa laki-laki dibor palu - akan "rock" spike bolak-balik ke batu yang jelas atau "roll", memutar spike untuk meningkatkan "menggigit" bor. [37]
The phrase had been used with sexual implications in the lyrics of rhythm and blues records since at least the early 1930s, such as in Bob Robinson's "Rock and Rolling" (1939), Buddy Jones 's "Rock and Rolling Mamma" (1939) and Joe Turner's "Cherry Red" (1939). [ 38 ] Three different songs with the title "Rock and Roll" were recorded in the late 1940s; by Paul Bascomb in 1947, Wild Bill Moore in 1948, and by Doles Dickens in 1949. [ 38 ] One such record where the phrase was repeated throughout the song was "Rock and Roll Blues", recorded in 1949 by Erline "Rock and Roll" Harris . [ 39 ] Ungkapan ini telah digunakan dengan implikasi seksual dalam lirik dan blues catatan irama setidaknya sejak awal 1930-an, seperti di Bob Robinson "Rock and Rolling" (1939), Buddy Jones s '"Rock and Rolling Mamma" (1939) dan Joe Turner "Cherry Merah" (1939). [38] Tiga lagu yang berbeda dengan judul "Rock and Roll" dicatat pada akhir tahun 1940an, oleh Paul Bascomb pada tahun 1947, Wild Bill Moore pada tahun 1948, dan oleh Doles Dickens tahun 1949 . [38] Satu catatan seperti mana kalimat diulang sepanjang lagu itu "Rock and Roll Blues", tercatat pada tahun 1949 oleh Erline "Rock and Roll" Harris . [39]
In 1951, Cleveland , Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began broadcasting rhythm, blues, and country music for a multi-racial audience. Pada tahun 1951, Cleveland , Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed mulai irama penyiaran, blues, dan musik country untuk multi-rasial penonton. Freed, familiar with the music of earlier decades, used the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music he aired over station WJW (850 AM); its use is also credited to Freed's sponsor, record store owner Leo Mintz , who encouraged Freed to play the music on the radio. [ 40 ] Based on his success in Cleveland, Freed was soon hired by New York station WINS ; upon arrival in 1954, his show was either simulcast or rebroadcast in more than forty markets. Freed, akrab dengan musik dari dekade sebelumnya, menggunakan istilah "rock and roll" untuk menggambarkan musik yang disiarkan di stasiun WJW (850 AM); penggunaannya juga dikreditkan ke's sponsor Freed, catatan pemilik toko Leo Mintz , yang mendorong Freed untuk memutar musik di radio. [40] Berdasarkan keberhasilan di Cleveland, Freed segera disewa oleh stasiun York New WINS ; pada saat kedatangan tahun 1954, acaranya entah simulcast atau siaran ulang di lebih dari empat puluh pasar. While the phrase "rock and roll" was in use years before, it was Freed who popularized the term with mainstream audiences. [ 41 ] Sementara "frase" rock and roll di tahun digunakan sebelum, itu Freed yang dipopulerkan istilah dengan penonton mainstream. [41]

[ edit ] Early rock and roll records [ sunting ] rock and roll catatan Dini

There is much debate as to what should be considered the first rock & roll record . Big Joe Turner was one of many forerunners and his 1939 recording, " Roll 'Em Pete ", is close to '50s rock and roll. [ 42 ] Sister Rosetta Tharpe was also recording shouting, stomping music in the 1930s and 1940s that in some ways contained major elements of mid-1950s rock and roll. Ada banyak perdebatan mengenai apa yang harus dianggap sebagai rock pertama & catatan roll . Big Joe Turner adalah salah satu dari pelopor banyak dan merekam nya 1939, " Roll 'Em Pete , adalah "dekat dengan '50-an rock and roll. [42] Suster Rosetta Tharpe juga rekaman berteriak, menginjak musik di tahun 1930-an dan 1940-an yang dalam beberapa hal mengandung unsur-unsur utama dari pertengahan tahun 1950-an rock and roll. She scored hits on the pop charts as far back as 1938 with her gospel songs, such as "This Train" and "Rock Me", and in the 1940s with "Strange Things Happenin' Every Day", "Up Above My Head", and "Down by the Riverside". [ 43 ] Other significant records of the 1940s and early 1950s included Roy Brown 's "Good Rocking Tonight" (1947), Hank Williams ' " Move It On Over " (1947), Amos Milburn 's " Chicken Shack Boogie " (1947), [ 44 ] Jimmy Preston 's " Rock the Joint " (1947), [ 45 ] Fats Domino 's " The Fat Man " (1949), [ 46 ] and Les Paul and Mary Ford 's " How High the Moon " (1951). [ 47 ] Dia mencetak hits di tangga lagu pop sejauh 1938 dengan lagu-lagu Injil-nya, seperti "Ini Train" dan "Rock Me", dan di tahun 1940-an dengan "Strange Things Happenin Setiap Hari", "Up Above My Head", dan "Down oleh Riverside". [43] catatan penting lainnya tahun 1940-an dan awal 1950-an termasuk Roy Brown 's "Good Rocking Tonight" (1947), Hank Williams '" Move It On Over "(1947), Amos Milburn ' s " Chicken Shack Boogie "(1947), [44] Preston Jimmy 's " Rock Bersama "(1947), [45] Fats Domino 's " The Fat Man "(1949), [46] dan Les Paul dan Maria ford 's " Bagaimana High the Moon "(1951). [47]
A leading contender as the first fully formed rock and roll recording is " Rocket 88 " by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (which was, in fact, Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm recording under a different name), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in 1951. [ 42 ] Three years later the first rock and roll song to enter Billboard magazine 's main sales and airplay charts was Bill Haley's " Crazy Man, Crazy " and the first to top the charts, in July 1955, was his " Rock Around the Clock " (recorded in 1954), opening the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture. [ 42 ] Rolling Stone magazine argued in 2004 that " That's All Right (Mama) " (1954), Elvis Presley's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record, [ 48 ] but, at the same time, Big Joe Turner's " Shake, Rattle & Roll ", later covered by Haley, was already at the top of the Billboard R&B charts . [ 49 ] Sebuah pesaing utama sebagai batuan sepenuhnya terbentuk pertama dan rekaman roll adalah " Rocket 88 "oleh Jackie Brenston dan nya Delta Cats (yang, pada kenyataannya, Ike Turner dan bandnya The Rhythm Kings rekaman dengan nama lain), dicatat oleh Sam Phillips untuk Sun Records pada tahun 1951. [42] Tiga tahun kemudian batu pertama dan lagu roll untuk masuk majalah Billboard 'penjualan utama dan grafik diputar Bill Haley's " Crazy Man, Crazy "dan yang pertama ke atas grafik, pada bulan Juli 1955 , adalah miliknya " Rock Around the Clock "(dicatat dalam akun 1954), membuka pintu di seluruh dunia untuk gelombang baru budaya populer. [42] Rolling Stone majalah berpendapat pada tahun 2004 bahwa " Itu All Right (Mama) "(1954), Elvis Presley single pertama untuk Sun Records di Memphis, adalah batu pertama dan catatan roll, [48] tetapi, pada saat yang sama, Big Joe Turner " Shake, Rattle & Roll ", kemudian ditutupi oleh Haley, sudah di bagian atas Billboard R & B grafik . [49]
Early rock and roll used the twelve-bar blues chord progression and shared with boogie woogie the four beats (usually broken down into eight eighth-notes/quavers) to a bar. Awal rock and roll menggunakan -bar blues dua belas akor dan berbagi dengan boogie woogie empat ketukan (biasanya dipecah menjadi delapan eighth-notes/quavers) ke bar. Rock and roll however has a greater emphasis on the backbeat than boogie woogie. [ 50 ] Bo Diddley 's 1955 hit " Bo Diddley ", with its b-side " I'm A Man ", introduced a new beat and unique guitar style that inspired many artists without either side using the 12 bar pattern - they instead played variations on a single chord each. [ 51 ] Rock and roll namun memiliki penekanan yang lebih besar pada backbeat dibandingkan boogie woogie. [50] Bo Diddley 's 1955 hit " Bo Diddley ", dengan b nya-side" I'm A Man ", memperkenalkan mengalahkan baru dan gaya gitar unik bahwa banyak seniman terinspirasi tanpa kedua sisi menggunakan pola bar 12 - bukan bermain variasi pada setiap satu akord. mereka [51]
Also formative in the sound of rock and roll were Little Richard and Chuck Berry . Juga formatif dalam suara rock and roll adalah Little Richard dan Chuck Berry . From the early 1950s, [ 52 ] Little Richard combined gospel with New Orleans R&B, heavy backbeat, [ 53 ] pounding piano and wailing vocals. [ 54 ] His music, exemplified by songs such as " Tutti Frutti " (1955), " Long Tall Sally " (1956) and " Good Golly, Miss Molly " (1958), influenced generations of rhythm and blues, rock and soul music artists. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Chuck Berry, with " Maybellene " (1955), " Roll over Beethoven " (1956), " Rock and Roll Music " (1957) and " Johnny B. Goode " (1958), refined and developed the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive, focusing on teen life and introducing guitar intros and lead breaks that would be a major influence on subsequent rock music. [ 56 ] Dari awal 1950-an, [52] Little Richard Injil dikombinasikan dengan New Orleans R & B, backbeat berat, [53] piano berdebar dan vokal meraung. [54] Nya musik, dicontohkan oleh lagu-lagu seperti " Tutti frutti "(1955)," Long Tall Sally "(1956) dan" Good Waduh, Miss Molly "(1958), dipengaruhi generasi rhythm and blues, rock dan jiwa musik artis. [55] [56] Chuck Berry, dengan " Maybellene "(1955)," Roll lebih dari Beethoven "(1956)," Rock and Roll Music "(1957) dan" Johnny B. Goode "(1958), halus dan mengembangkan elemen utama yang membuat rock and roll khas, dengan fokus pada kehidupan remaja dan intro gitar memperkenalkan dan memimpin istirahat itu akan menjadi pengaruh besar terhadap musik rock selanjutnya. [56]
Soon rock and roll was the major force in American record sales and crooners such as Eddie Fisher , Perry Como , and Patti Page , who had dominated the previous decade of popular music, found their access to the pop charts significantly curtailed. [ 57 ] Segera rock and roll adalah kekuatan utama dalam penjualan rekaman Amerika dan crooners seperti Eddie Fisher , Perry Como , dan Patti Page , yang telah mendominasi dekade sebelumnya musik populer, ditemukan akses mereka ke tangga lagu pop secara signifikan membatasi. [57]

[ edit ] Rockabilly [ sunting ] Rockabilly

"Rockabilly" usually (but not exclusively) refers to the type of rock and roll music which was played and recorded in the mid 1950s by white singers such as Elvis Presley , Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis , who drew mainly on the country roots of the music. [ 58 ] Many other popular rock and roll singers of the time, such as Fats Domino and Little Richard, came out of the black rhythm and blues tradition, making the music attractive to white audiences, and are not usually classed as "rockabilly". "Rockabilly" biasanya (tapi tidak eksklusif) mengacu pada jenis musik rock and roll yang dimainkan dan dicatat pada pertengahan tahun 1950 oleh penyanyi kulit putih seperti Elvis Presley , Carl Perkins dan Jerry Lee Lewis , yang menarik terutama pada akar negara musik. [58] populer rock and roll Banyak penyanyi waktu, seperti Fats Domino dan Little Richard, keluar dari ritme hitam dan tradisi blues, membuat musik yang menarik untuk penonton putih, dan tidak biasanya digolongkan sebagai " rockabilly ".
In July 1954, Elvis Presley recorded the regional hit "That's All Right (Mama)" at Sam Phillips' Sun Studio in Memphis. [ 59 ] Three months earlier, on April 12, 1954, Bill Haley & His Comets recorded "Rock Around the Clock". Pada bulan Juli 1954, Elvis Presley mencatat hit regional "Itu All Right (Mama)" di Sam Phillips ' Sun Studio di Memphis. [59] Tiga bulan sebelumnya, pada 12 April 1954, Bill Haley & Komet-Nya "direkam Rock Sekitar Jam ". Although only a minor hit when first released, when used in the opening sequence of the movie Blackboard Jungle , a year later, it really set the rock and roll boom in motion. Meskipun hanya sebuah hit kecil ketika pertama kali dirilis, bila digunakan dalam urutan pembukaan film Blackboard Jungle , setahun kemudian, itu benar-benar mengatur dan roll boom batu di gerakan. The song became one of the biggest hits in history, and frenzied teens flocked to see Haley and the Comets perform it, causing riots in some cities. Lagu ini menjadi salah satu hits terbesar dalam sejarah, dan hiruk pikuk remaja berbondong-bondong untuk melihat Haley dan Komet melakukan itu, menyebabkan kerusuhan di beberapa kota. "Rock Around the Clock" was a breakthrough for both the group and for all of rock and roll music. "Rock Around the Clock" merupakan terobosan untuk kedua grup dan untuk semua musik rock and roll. If everything that came before laid the groundwork, "Rock Around the Clock" introduced the music to a global audience. [ 59 ] Jika segala sesuatu yang datang sebelum meletakkan dasar, "Rock Around the Clock" memperkenalkan musik ke khalayak global. [59]
In 1956 the arrival of rockabilly was underlined by the success of songs like " Folsom Prison Blues " by Johnny Cash , " Blue Suede Shoes " by Perkins and " Heartbreak Hotel " by Presley. [ 60 ] For a few years it became the most commercially successful form of rock and roll. Pada tahun 1956 kedatangan rockabilly yang digarisbawahi oleh keberhasilan lagu-lagu seperti " Folsom Prison Blues "oleh Johnny Cash , " Blue Suede Shoes "oleh Perkins dan" Heartbreak Hotel "oleh Presley. [60] Selama beberapa tahun ini menjadi yang paling komersial sukses bentuk rock and roll. Later rockabilly acts, particularly performing songwriters like Buddy Holly , would be a major influence on British Invasion acts and particularly on the song writing of The Beatles and through them on the nature of later rock music. [ 61 ] Kemudian rockabilly tindakan, terutama melakukan penulis lagu seperti Buddy Holly , akan menjadi pengaruh besar pada tindakan Invasi Inggris dan terutama pada penulisan lagu The Beatles dan melalui mereka pada sifat dari musik rock nanti. [61]

[ edit ] Doo wop [ sunting ] wop Doo

Doo wop was one of the most popular forms of 1950s rock and roll, with an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics (from which the genre later gained its name), which were usually supported with light instrumentation. [ 62 ] Its origins were in African American vocal groups of the 1930s and 40s, like the Inkspots and the Mills Brothers , who had enjoyed considerable commercial success with arrangements based on close harmonies. [ 63 ] They were followed by 1940s R&B vocal acts like The Orioles , The Ravens and The Clovers , who injected a strong element of traditional gospel and, increasingly, the energy of Jump blues . [ 63 ] By 1954, as rock and roll was beginning to emerge, a number of similar acts began to cross over from the R&B charts to mainstream success, often with added honking brass and saxophone, with The Crows , The Penguins , The El Dorados and The Turbans all scoring major hits. [ 63 ] Despite the subsequent explosion in records from doo wop acts in the later 50s, many failed to chart or were one-hit wonders. wop Doo adalah salah satu bentuk yang paling populer tahun 1950-an rock and roll, dengan penekanan pada bagian vokal harmoni-multi dan lirik dukungan berarti (dari mana genre kemudian mendapat namanya), yang biasanya didukung dengan instrumentasi cahaya. [62] asal nya berada di vokal kelompok Amerika Afrika tahun 1930-an dan 40-an, seperti Inkspots dan Brothers Mills , yang telah menikmati sukses komersial yang cukup besar dengan pengaturan berdasarkan harmoni dekat. [63] Mereka diikuti oleh R & B vokal bertindak 1940 seperti The Orioles , The Ravens dan The cengkeh , yang menyuntikkan elemen kuat tradisional dan Injil, semakin, energi Langsung blues . [63] Pada tahun 1954, sebagai rock and roll mulai muncul, sejumlah tindakan yang sama mulai menyeberang dari R & B grafik untuk kesuksesan mainstream, seringkali dengan menambahkan kuningan membunyikan klakson dan saksofon, dengan The Crows , The Penguins , The Dorados El dan The Sorban semua penemuan utama penilaian. [63] Meskipun ledakan berikutnya dalam catatan dari tindakan wop doo di kemudian 50-an, banyak gagal grafik atau adalah keajaiban satu-hit. Exceptions included The Platters , with songs including " The Great Pretender " (1955) and The Coasters with humorous songs like " Yakety Yak " (1958), both of which ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the era. [ 63 ] Towards the end of the decade there were increasing numbers of white, particularly Italian American, singers taking up Doo Wop, creating all-white groups like The Mystics and Dion and the Belmonts and racially integrated groups like The Dell Vikings and The Impalas . [ 63 ] Doo wop would be a major influence on vocal surf music, soul and early Merseybeat, including The Beatles. [ 63 ] Pengecualian termasuk The Platters , dengan lagu-lagu termasuk " The Great Pretender "(1955) dan The Coasters dengan lagu-lagu lucu seperti " Yakety Yak "(1958), yang keduanya peringkat di antara rock yang paling sukses dan tindakan roll era. [63] Menjelang akhir dekade ada semakin banyak putih, Italia Amerika khususnya, penyanyi mengambil Doo Wop, menciptakan kelompok putih semua seperti itu Mistik dan Dion dan Belmonts dan ras kelompok terpadu seperti The Viking Dell dan The Impalas . [63 ] wop Doo akan menjadi pengaruh besar pada musik surfing vokal, jiwa dan Merseybeat awal, termasuk The Beatles. [63]

[ edit ] Cover versions [ sunting ] versi Cover

Many of the earliest white rock and roll hits were covers or partial re-writes of earlier rhythm and blues or blues songs. Banyak dari batu putih paling awal dan hits roll yang meliputi atau sebagian-menulis kembali irama sebelumnya dan blues atau lagu blues. Through the late 1940s and early 1950s, R&B music had been gaining a stronger beat and a wilder style, with artists such as Fats Domino and Johnny Otis speeding up the tempos and increasing the backbeat to great popularity on the juke joint circuit. [ 64 ] Before the efforts of Freed and others, black music was taboo on many white-owned radio outlets, but artists and producers quickly recognized the potential of rock and roll. [ 65 ] Most of Presley's early hits were covers, like " That's All Right " (a countrified arrangement of a blues number), its flip side " Blue Moon of Kentucky ", " Baby, Let's Play House ", " Lawdy Miss Clawdy " and " Hound Dog ". [ 66 ] Melalui akhir 1940-an dan awal 1950-an, R & B musik telah mendapatkan beat kuat dan gaya liar, dengan artis seperti Fats Domino dan Johnny Otis mempercepat tempo dan meningkatkan backbeat untuk popularitas besar pada sendi juke sirkuit. [64] Sebelum upaya Freed dan lain-lain, musik hitam adalah tabu pada banyak dimiliki radio outlet-putih, tapi seniman dan produser cepat mengenali potensi rock and roll. [65] Kebanyakan dari awal hits's Presley yang meliputi, seperti " Itu All Right " (pengaturan kampungan dari sejumlah blues), yang flip sisi " Blue Moon of Kentucky "," Baby, Let's Play House "," Lawdy Miss Clawdy "dan" Hound Dog ". [66]
Rock'n'roller Little Richard performing in 2007 Rock'n'roller Little Richard tampil pada tahun 2007
Covers were customary in the music industry at the time; it was made particularly easy by the compulsory license provision of United States copyright law (still in effect). [ 67 ] One of the first successful rock and roll covers was Wynonie Harris 's transformation of Roy Brown's "Good Rocking Tonight" from a jump blues to a showy rocker [ 68 ] and the Louis Prima rocker "Oh Babe" in 1950, as well as Amos Milburn's cover of what may have been the first white rock and roll record, Hardrock Gunter 's "Birmingham Bounce" in 1949. [ 69 ] The most notable trend, however, was white pop covers of black R&B numbers. Meliputi itu adat dalam industri musik pada saat itu; itu dibuat sangat mudah oleh lisensi wajib ketentuan hukum hak cipta Amerika Serikat (masih berlaku). [67] Salah satu rock and roll pertama yang berhasil mencakup adalah Wynonie Harris transformasi ' Roy Brown "Rocking Bagus Tonight" dari blues melompat ke rocker mencolok [68] dan Louis Prima rocker "Oh Babe" pada tahun 1950, serta Kris Dayanti's menutupi Amos dari apa yang mungkin telah menjadi batu putih pertama dan catatan roll, Hardrock Gunter s '"Birmingham Bounce" pada tahun 1949. [69] The tren yang paling penting, bagaimanapun, adalah pop putih sampul R hitam & nomor B. The more familiar sound of these covers may have been more palatable to white audiences, there may have been an element of prejudice, but labels aimed at the white market also had much better distribution networks and were generally much more profitable. [ 70 ] Famously, Pat Boone recorded sanitized versions of Little Richard songs. Yang akrab terdengar lebih dari ini mencakup mungkin lebih cocok untuk penonton putih, mungkin ada unsur prasangka, tetapi label ditujukan untuk pasar putih juga memiliki jaringan distribusi yang lebih baik banyak dan pada umumnya jauh lebih menguntungkan. [70] terkenal, Pat Boone mencatat disanitasi versi lagu-lagu Little Richard. Later, as those songs became popular, the original artists' recordings received radio play as well. [ 71 ] Kemudian, seperti lagu-lagu menjadi populer, asli "artis rekaman yang diterima bermain radio juga. [71]
The cover versions were not necessarily straightforward imitations. Versi cover imitasi tentu tidak mudah. For example, Bill Haley's incompletely bowdlerized cover of "Shake, Rattle and Roll" transformed Big Joe Turner's humorous and racy tale of adult love into an energetic teen dance number, [ 72 ] while Georgia Gibbs replaced Etta James 's tough, sarcastic vocal in "Roll With Me, Henry" (covered as "Dance With Me, Henry") with a perkier vocal more appropriate for an audience unfamiliar with the song to which James's song was an answer , Hank Ballard 's "Work With Me, Annie". [ 73 ] Elvis' rock and roll version of "Hound Dog" was very different from the blues shouter that Big Mama Thornton had recorded. [ 74 ] Sebagai contoh, Haley tidak lengkap bowdlerized menutupi Bill of "Shake, Rattle and Roll" disulap Joe Turner lucu dan bersemangat kisah Big cinta dewasa menjadi tari nomor remaja energik, [72] sementara Georgia Gibbs diganti Etta James 'tangguh, vokal sarkastis di "Roll With Me, Henry" (tertutup sebagai "Dance With Me, Henry") dengan vokal perkier lebih sesuai untuk penonton terbiasa dengan lagu yang itu lagu James adalah jawaban , Hank Ballard s '"Work With Me, Annie" . [73] 'roll Elvis dan versi roll "Hound Dog" adalah sangat berbeda dari blues Shouter bahwa Big Mama Thornton telah merekam. [74]

[ edit ] Decline [ sunting ] Penurunan

Commentators have traditionally perceived a decline of rock and roll in the late 1950s and early 1960s. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] By 1959, the death of Buddy Holly , The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens in a plane crash, the departure of Elvis for the army, the retirement of Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions of Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry , and the breaking of the payola scandal (which implicated major figures, including Alan Freed, in bribery and corruption in promoting individual acts or songs), gave a sense that the initial rock and roll era had come to an end. [ 42 ] There was also a process that has been described as the "feminisation" of rock and roll, with the charts beginning to be dominated by love ballads, often aimed at a female audience, and the rise of girl groups like The Shirelles and The Crystals . [ 77 ] Some historians of music have pointed to important and innovative developments that built on rock and roll in this period, including multitrack recording , developed by Les Paul , the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek , and the Wall of Sound productions of Phil Spector , continued desegregation of the charts, the rise of surf music , garage rock and the Twist dance craze. [ 23 ] Komentator secara tradisional dianggap penurunan dari rock and roll di akhir 1950-an dan awal 1960-an. [75] [76] Pada tahun 1959, kematian Buddy Holly , The Big Bopper dan Ritchie Valens dalam kecelakaan pesawat, keberangkatan Elvis untuk tentara, pensiun Little Richard untuk menjadi seorang pendeta, penuntutan Jerry Lee Lewis dan Chuck Berry , dan melanggar dari payola skandal (yang terlibat tokoh utama, termasuk Alan Freed, dalam penyuapan dan korupsi dalam mempromosikan tindakan individu atau lagu), memberikan arti bahwa batu awal dan era roll telah berakhir. [42] Ada juga suatu proses yang telah digambarkan sebagai "feminisasi" rock and roll, dengan grafik mulai didominasi oleh balada cinta, sering ditujukan untuk khalayak perempuan, dan munculnya kelompok gadis seperti itu Shirelles dan Kristal . [77] Beberapa sejarawan musik telah menunjuk dan inovatif perkembangan penting yang dibangun di rock and roll dalam periode ini, termasuk rekaman multitrack , yang dikembangkan oleh Les paul , perlakuan elektronik suara oleh inovator seperti Joe Meek , dan Wall of Sound produksi Phil Spector , lanjut desegregasi dari grafik, kebangkitan musik surfing , rock garasi dan Twist menggila tari. [23]

[ edit ] British rock and roll [ sunting ] rock and roll Inggris

In the 1950s, Britain was well placed to receive American rock and roll music and culture. [ 78 ] It shared a common language, had been exposed to American culture through the stationing of troops in the country, and shared many social developments, including the emergence of distinct youth sub-cultures, which in Britain included the Teddy Boys . [ 79 ] Trad Jazz became popular, and many of its musicians were influenced by related American styles, including boogie woogie and the blues. [ 80 ] The skiffle craze, led by Lonnie Donegan , utilised amateurish versions of American folk songs and encouraged many of the subsequent generation of rock and roll, folk, R&B and beat musicians to start performing. [ 81 ] At the same time British audiences were beginning to encounter American rock and roll, initially through films including Blackboard Jungle (1955) and Rock Around the Clock (1955). [ 82 ] Both films contained the Bill Haley & His Comets hit " Rock Around the Clock ", which first entered the British charts in early 1955 - four months before it reached the US pop charts - topped the British charts later that year and again in 1956, and helped identify rock and roll with teenage delinquency. [ 83 ] American rock and roll acts such as Elvis Presley , Little Richard and Buddy Holly thereafter became major forces in the British charts. Pada tahun 1950, Inggris baik ditempatkan untuk menerima rock Amerika dan musik roll dan budaya. [78] Ini berbagi bahasa yang sama, telah terkena budaya Amerika melalui penempatan pasukan di negeri ini, dan berbagi perkembangan sosial, termasuk munculnya pemuda yang berbeda sub-budaya, yang di Inggris termasuk Boys Teddy . [79] Jazz Trad menjadi populer, dan banyak musisi yang dipengaruhi oleh gaya Amerika yang terkait, termasuk boogie woogie dan blues. [80] The skiffle menggila, dipimpin oleh Lonnie Donegan , versi amatir menggunakan lagu-lagu rakyat Amerika dan mendorong banyak dari generasi berikutnya dari rock and roll, folk, R & B dan mengalahkan musisi untuk mulai melakukan. [81] Pada saat yang sama penonton Inggris mulai menghadapi rock Amerika dan roll, awalnya melalui film termasuk Blackboard Jungle (1955) dan Rock Around the Clock 1955). ( [82] Kedua film berisi Bill Haley & Komet-Nya hit " Rock Around the Clock ", yang pertama kali masuk tangga lagu Inggris pada tahun 1955 awal - empat bulan sebelum mencapai tangga lagu pop AS - menduduki puncak tangga lagu Inggris akhir tahun itu dan kembali pada tahun 1956, dan membantu mengidentifikasi rock and roll dengan kenakalan remaja. [83] rock and roll Amerika bertindak seperti Elvis Presley , Little Richard dan Buddy Holly kemudian menjadi kekuatan utama dalam grafik Inggris.
The initial response of the British music industry was to attempt to produce copies of American records, recorded with session musicians and often fronted by teen idols. [ 78 ] More grassroots British rock and rollers soon began to appear, including Wee Willie Harris and Tommy Steele . [ 78 ] During this period American Rock and Roll remained dominant, however, in 1958 Britain produced its first "authentic" rock and roll song and star, when Cliff Richard reached number 2 in the charts with " Move It ". [ 84 ] At the same time, TV shows such as Six-Five Special and Oh Boy! promoted the careers of British rock and rollers like Marty Wilde and Adam Faith . [ 78 ] Cliff Richard and his backing band The Shadows , were the most successful home grown rock and roll based acts of the era. [ 85 ] Other leading acts included Billy Fury , Joe Brown , and Johnny Kidd & The Pirates , whose 1960 hit song " Shakin' All Over " became a rock and roll standard. [ 78 ] Tanggapan awal dari industri musik Inggris adalah untuk berusaha untuk menghasilkan salinan catatan Amerika, direkam dengan musisi sesi dan sering fronted oleh idola remaja. [78] akar rumput Lebih rock Inggris dan rol segera mulai muncul, termasuk Wee Willie Harris dan Tommy Steele . [78] Selama periode ini Amerika Rock and Roll tetap dominan, namun, pada tahun 1958 Inggris diproduksi pertama "otentik" rock and roll lagu dan bintang, ketika Cliff Richard mencapai nomor 2 di tangga lagu dengan " Pindah Ini ". [84] Pada saat yang sama, acara TV seperti Enam-Lima Khusus dan Oh Boy! mempromosikan karir rock Inggris dan rol seperti Marty Wilde dan Adam Faith . [78] Cliff Richard dan backing band-nya The Shadows , adalah rumah yang paling berhasil tumbuh rock and roll tindakan berdasarkan pada masa itu. [85] bertindak terkemuka lainnya termasuk Billy Fury , Joe Brown , dan Johnny Kidd & The Pirates , 1960 yang lagu hit " Shakin 'All Over "menjadi standar rock dan roll. [78]
As interest in rock and roll was beginning to subside in America in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it was taken up by groups in major British urban centres like Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, and London. [ 86 ] About the same time, a British blues scene developed, initially led by purist blues followers such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies who were directly inspired by American musicians such as Robert Johnson , Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf . [ 87 ] Many groups moved towards the beat music of rock and roll and rhythm and blues from skiffle, like the Quarrymen who became The Beatles, producing a form of rock and roll revivalism that carried them and many other groups to national success from about 1963 and to international success from 1964, known in America as the British Invasion . [ 88 ] Groups that followed The Beatles included the beat-influenced Freddie and the Dreamers , Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders , Herman's Hermits and the Dave Clark Five , and the more blues-influenced The Animals , The Kinks , The Rolling Stones , The Who and The Yardbirds . [ 89 ] As the blues became an increasingly significant influence, leading to the creation of the blues-rock of groups like The Moody Blues , Small Faces , The Move , Traffic and Cream , and developing into rock music , the influence of early rock and roll began to subside. [ 88 ] Sebagai bunga di rock and roll mulai mereda di Amerika pada akhir 1950-an dan 1960-an awal, itu diambil oleh kelompok di pusat-pusat kota besar Inggris seperti Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, dan London. [86] Tentang waktu yang sama, british blues adegan dikembangkan, awalnya dipimpin oleh pengikut blues murni seperti Alexis Korner dan Cyril Davies yang langsung terinspirasi oleh musisi Amerika seperti Robert Johnson , Muddy Waters dan Howlin 'Wolf . [87] Banyak kelompok bergerak menuju beat musik rock dan roll dan rhythm and blues dari skiffle, seperti Quarrymen yang menjadi The Beatles, menghasilkan bentuk dan roll revivalisme batu yang membawa mereka dan kelompok lain untuk sukses nasional dari sekitar tahun 1963 dan untuk keberhasilan internasional dari tahun 1964, dikenal di Amerika sebagai Inggris Invasi . [88] Kelompok yang diikuti The Beatles termasuk memukul-dipengaruhi Freddie dan Pemimpi , Wayne Fontana dan Mindbenders , Herman pertapa dan Clark Dave Lima , dan semakin blues-dipengaruhi The Animals , The Kinks , The Rolling Stones , The Who dan The Yardbirds . [89] Sebagai blues menjadi semakin signifikan pengaruh, yang mengarah pada penciptaan batu-blues dari kelompok-kelompok seperti The Blues Moody , Small Faces , The Move , Traffic dan Cream , dan berkembang menjadi musik rock , pengaruh awal rock and roll mulai mereda. [88]

[ edit ] Cultural impact [ sunting ] Budaya dampak

Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. [ 90 ] In addition, rock and roll may have helped the cause of the civil rights movement because both African American teens and white American teens enjoyed the music. [ 91 ] It also gave rise to many other styles, including psychedelic rock , progressive rock , glam rock , alternative rock , punk and heavy metal . Jauh lebih dari sekedar batu musik, gaya dan roll dipengaruhi gaya hidup, fashion, sikap, dan bahasa. [90] Di samping itu, rock and roll mungkin telah membantu penyebab gerakan hak-hak sipil karena kedua remaja Amerika-Afrika dan remaja Amerika putih menikmati musik. [91] Hal ini juga memunculkan gaya lain, termasuk psychedelic rock , progressive rock , glam rock , rock alternatif , punk dan logam berat .
Many early rock and roll songs all dealt with issues of cars, school, dating, and clothing. Banyak awal rock dan lagu-lagu roll semua ditangani dengan masalah mobil, sekolah, kencan, dan pakaian. The rock and roll songs described events and conflicts that most listeners could relate to from some point in their lives. Lagu-lagu rock and roll dijelaskan peristiwa dan konflik yang sebagian besar pendengar bisa berhubungan dengan dari beberapa titik dalam hidup mereka. Topics that had never been covered in music, such as sex, began to be introduced in rock and roll music. Topik yang belum pernah tercakup dalam musik, seperti seks, mulai diperkenalkan pada musik rock and roll. This new music tried to break boundaries and express the real emotions that people were feeling, but didn't talk about. Ini musik baru mencoba memecahkan batas-batas dan mengekspresikan emosi nyata bahwa orang-orang merasa, tetapi tidak berbicara tentang. An awakening in the young American culture began to take place. [ 15 ] Sebuah kebangkitan dalam budaya Amerika muda mulai mengambil tempat. [15]

[ edit ] Race [ sunting ] Ras

Rock and roll appeared at a time when racial tensions in the United States were entering a new phase, with the beginnings of the civil rights movement for desegregation , leading to the Supreme Court ruling that abolished the policy of " separate but equal " in 1954, but leaving a policy which would be extremely difficult to enforce in parts of the United States. [ 92 ] The combination of elements of white and black music in rock and roll, inevitably provoked strong reactions within the US, with many condemning its breaking down of barriers based on color. [ 91 ] Rock and roll muncul pada saat ketegangan rasial di Amerika Serikat memasuki tahap baru, dengan awal dari hak-hak sipil gerakan desegregasi , yang mengarah ke Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa menghapuskan kebijakan dari " terpisah namun sama "pada tahun 1954, tetapi meninggalkan kebijakan yang akan sangat sulit untuk dilaksanakan dalam bagian Amerika Serikat. [92] Kombinasi dari unsur-unsur putih dan musik hitam di rock and roll, pasti memicu reaksi yang kuat di AS, dengan banyak mengutuk melanggar nya down hambatan berdasarkan warna. [91]
On the other side of the argument, rock and roll has been seen as both white performers appropriating African American music, and as black performers reaching a white audience. [ 93 ] Many observers saw rock and roll as heralding the way for desegregation, in creating a new form of music that encouraged racial cooperation and shared experience. [ 94 ] Di sisi lain dari batu, argumen and roll telah dilihat baik sebagai pemain putih mengambil alih musik Amerika Afrika, dan sebagai penyanyi hitam menjangkau audiens putih. [93] Banyak pengamat melihat rock and roll sebagai gemborkan jalan bagi desegregasi, dalam menciptakan bentuk baru dari musik yang mendorong kerjasama rasial dan pengalaman bersama. [94]

[ edit ] Teen culture [ sunting ] Budaya Teen

Rock and roll is often identified with the emergence of teen culture among the first baby boomer generation, who had both greater relative affluence, leisure and who adopted rock and roll as part of a distinct sub-culture. [ 95 ] This involved not just music, absorbed via radio, record buying, jukeboxes and TV programmes like American Bandstand , but it also extended to film, clothes, hair, cars and motorbikes, and distinctive language. Rock and roll sering diidentifikasi dengan munculnya budaya remaja di antara yang pertama baby boomer generasi, yang kedua kemakmuran relatif lebih besar, waktu luang dan yang mengadopsi rock and roll sebagai bagian dari sub-budaya yang berbeda. [95] Hal ini tidak hanya melibatkan musik , diserap melalui radio, membeli catatan, jukebox dan program TV seperti Amerika Bandstand , tetapi juga meluas ke film, pakaian, rambut, mobil dan sepeda motor, dan bahasa khas. The contrast between parental and youth culture exemplified by rock and roll was a recurring source of concern for older generations, who worried about juvenile delinquency and social rebellion, particularly as to a large extent rock and roll culture was shared by different racial and social groups. [ 95 ] In America, that concern was conveyed even in youth cultural artifacts like comic books . Kontras antara budaya orang tua dan pemuda dicontohkan oleh rock and roll adalah sumber berulang kepedulian terhadap generasi tua, yang khawatir kenakalan tentang remaja dan pemberontakan sosial, khususnya untuk sebagian besar batu dan budaya roll dibagikan oleh kelompok-kelompok ras dan sosial yang berbeda. [95] Di Amerika, kekhawatiran yang disampaikan bahkan di budaya artefak pemuda seperti buku komik . In " There's No Love in Rock and Roll " from True Life Romance (1956), a defiant teen dates a rock and roll-loving boy but drops him for one who likes traditional adult music—to her parents' relief. [ 96 ] In Britain, where post-war prosperity was more limited, rock and roll culture became attached pre-existing to the Teddy Boy movement, largely working class in origins, and eventually to the longer lasting rockers . [ 79 ] Rock and roll has been seen as reorientating popular music towards a teen market, often celebrating teen fashions, as in Carl Perkins ' " Blue Suede Shoes " (1956), or Dion and the Belmonts " Teenager in Love " (1960). [ 97 ] Dalam " Ada Tidak ada Cinta dalam Rock and Roll "dari True Life Romance (1956), suatu tanggal remaja menantang dan roll-mencintai anak rock tapi tetes dia untuk orang yang menyukai musik dewasa tradisional-untuk orangtua lega nya. [96] Dalam Inggris, di mana pasca-perang kemakmuran lebih terbatas, rock and roll menjadi melekat budaya yang sudah ada ke Teddy Boy gerakan, sebagian besar kelas pekerja di asal-usul, dan akhirnya ke lebih tahan lama rocker . [79] Rock and roll telah dilihat sebagai reorientating musik populer menuju pasar remaja, sering merayakan mode remaja, seperti dalam Carl Perkins '" Blue Suede Shoes "(1956), atau Dion dan Belmonts " Remaja in Love "(1960). [97]

[ edit ] Dance styles [ sunting ] Gaya tari

From its early-1950s inception through the early 1960s, rock and roll music spawned new dance crazes . [ 98 ] Teenagers found the irregular rhythm of the backbeat especially suited to reviving the jitterbug dancing of the big-band era. Dari awal tahun 1950-an awal melalui awal 1960-an, musik rock and roll melahirkan baru kegilaan tari . [98] Remaja menemukan irama tidak teratur backbeat terutama cocok untuk menghidupkan kembali jitterbug menari-band dari era besar. " Sock hops ," gym dances, and home basement dance parties became the rage, and American teens watched Dick Clark 's American Bandstand to keep up on the latest dance and fashion styles. [ 99 ] From the mid-1960s on, as "rock and roll" yielded gradually to "rock," later dance genres followed, starting with the twist , and leading up to funk , disco , house and techno . " Sock hop , "tarian gym, dan rumah pesta dansa ruang bawah tanah menjadi kemarahan, dan remaja Amerika menyaksikan Dick Clark 's Amerika Bandstand untuk menjaga di tari terbaru dan gaya busana. [99] Dari pertengahan 1960-an-on, sebagai " rock and roll "yang dihasilkan secara bertahap untuk" rock, "tari diikuti genre kemudian, dimulai dengan twist , dan mengarah ke funk , disko , rumah dan techno .

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