syukur kepadamu Tuhan

Loading...

Tuesday, 25 January 2011

GAMELAN

Sejarah Gamelan Jawa

13/04/2010
By abrianto
Gamelan adalah seperangkat alat musik dengan nada pentatonis, yang terdiri dari : Kendang, Bonang, Bonang Penerus, Demung, Saron, Peking (Gamelan), Kenong & Kethuk, Slenthem, Gender, Gong, Gambang, Rebab,, Siter, Suling.
Komponen utama alat musik gamelan adalah : bambu, logam, dan kayu. Masing-masing alat memiliki fungsi tersendiri dalam pagelaran musik gamelan
Kata Gamelan sendiri berasal dari bahasa Jawa “gamel” yang berarti memukul / menabuh, diikuti akhiran “an” yang menjadikannya sebagai kata benda.  Sedangkan istilah gamelan mempunyai arti sebagai satu kesatuan alat musik yang dimainkan bersama.
Tidak ada kejelasan tentang sejarah terciptanya alat musik ini. Tetapi, gamelan diperkirakan lahir pada saat budaya luar dari Hindu – Budha  mendominasi Indonesia. Walaupun pada perkembangannya ada perbedaan dengan musik India, tetap ada beberapa ciri yang tidak hilang, salah satunya adalah cara “menyanyikan” lagunya. Penyanyi pria biasa disebut sebagai wiraswara dan penyanyi wanita disebut waranggana.
Menurut mitologi Jawa, gamelan diciptakan oleh Sang Hyang Guru pada Era Saka. Beliau adalah dewa yang menguasai seluruh tanah Jawa, dengan istana yang berada di gunung Mahendra di daerah Medangkamulan (sekarang Gunung Lawu).
Alat musik gamelan yang pertama kali diciptakan adalah “gong”, yang digunakan untuk memanggil para dewa. Setelah itu, untuk menyampaikan pesan khusus, Sang Hyang Guru kembali menciptakan beberapa peralatan lain seperti dua gong, sampai akhirnya terbentuklah seperangkat gamelan.
Pada jaman Majapahit, alat musik gamelan mengalami perkembangan yang sangat baik hingga mencapai bentuk seperti sekarang ini dan tersebar di beberapa daerah seperti Bali, dan Sunda (Jawa Barat).
Bukti otentik pertama tentang keberadaan gamelan ditemukan di Candi Borobudur, Magelang Jawa Tengah yang berdiri sejak abad ke-8. Pada relief-nya terlihat beberapa peralatan seperti suling bambu, lonceng, kendhang dalam berbagai ukuran, kecapi, alat musik berdawai yang digesek dan dipetik, termasuk sedikit gambaran tentang elemen alat musik logam. Perkembangan selanjutnya, gamelan dipakai untuk mengiringi pagelaran wayang dan tarian. Sampai akhirnya berdiri sebagai musik sendiri dan dilengkapi dengan suara para sinden.
Gamelan yang berkembang di Jawa Tengah, sedikit berbeda dengan Gamelan Bali ataupun Gamelan Sunda. Gamelan Jawa memiliki nada yang lebih lembut apabila dibandingkan dengan Gamelan Bali yang rancak serta Gamelan Sunda yang mendayu-dayu dan didominasi suara seruling. Menurut beberapa penelitian, perbedaan itu adalah akibat dari pengungkapan terhadap pandangan hidup “orang jawa” pada umumnya.
Pandangan yang dimaksud adalah : sebagai orang jawa harus selalu “memelihara keselarasan kehidupan jasmani dan rohani, serta keselarasan dalam berbicara dan bertindak”. Oleh sebab itu, “orang jawa” selalu menghindari ekspresi yang meledak-ledak serta selalu berusaha mewujudkan toleransi antar sesama. Wujud paling nyata dalam musik gamelan adalah tarikan tali rebab yang sedang, paduan seimbang bunyi kenong, saron kendang dan gambang serta suara gong pada setiap penutup irama.
Penalaan dan pembuatan orkes gamelan adalah suatu proses yang sangat kompleks. Gamelan menggunakan empat cara penalaan, yaitu “sléndro”“pélog”,  ”Degung” (khusus daerah Sunda, atau Jawa Barat), dan “madenda” (juga dikenal sebagai diatonis), sama seperti skala minor asli yang banyak dipakai di Eropa.
  • Slendro memiliki 5 nada per oktaf, yaitu :  1 2 3 5 6 [C- D E+ G A] dengan perbedaan interval kecil.
  • Pelog memiliki 7 nada per oktaf, yaitu :  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 [C+ D E- F# G# A B] dengan perbedaan interval yang besar.
Komposisi musik gamelan diciptakan dengan beberapa aturan, yang terdiri dari beberapa putaran dan pathet, dibatasi oleh satu gongan serta melodinya diciptakan dalam unit yang terdiri dari 4 nada.

Sejarah musik gamelan


Musicians performing musical ensemble, bas-relief of Borobudur . Musisi ansambel musik pertunjukan, relief Borobudur .
The gamelan predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records and instead represents a native art form. Gamelan mendahului kebudayaan Hindu-Buddha yang mendominasi Indonesia dalam catatan yang paling awal dan bukan merupakan bentuk seni asli. The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire . [ 1 ] In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing. [ 2 ] Instrumen berkembang menjadi bentuk yang sekarang mereka selama Kerajaan Majapahit . [1] Berbeda dengan pengaruh India berat dalam bentuk seni lain, yang jelas pengaruh India hanya dalam musik gamelan dalam gaya Jawa bernyanyi. [2]
In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167 (c. AD 230), the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountains in Medangkamulan (now Mount Lawu ). Dalam mitologi Jawa, gamelan diciptakan oleh Sang Hyang Guru di era Saka 167 (c. AD 230), dewa yang memerintah sebagai raja dari seluruh Jawa dari sebuah istana di pegunungan Maendra di Medangkamulan (sekarang Gunung Lawu ). He needed a signal to summon the gods and thus invented the gong. Dia membutuhkan sinyal untuk memanggil dewa-dewa dan dengan demikian menciptakan gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other Gongs, thus forming the original gamelan set. [ 3 ] Untuk pesan yang lebih kompleks, ia menemukan dua Gong yang lain, sehingga membentuk set gamelan yang asli. [3]
The earliest image of a musical ensemble is found on the 8th century Borobudur temple, Central Java. Gambar awal dari sebuah ansambel musik ditemukan pada abad ke-8 Borobudur Candi, Jawa Tengah. Musical instruments such as the bamboo flute, bells, drums in various sizes, lute, and bowed and plucked string instruments were identified in this image. Alat musik seperti seruling bambu, lonceng, drum dalam berbagai ukuran, gambus, dan membungkuk dan memetik senar instrumen yang diidentifikasi dalam gambar ini. However it lacks metallophones and xylophones. Namun tidak memiliki metalofon dan xylophone. Nevertheless, the image of this musical ensemble is suggested to be the ancient form of the gamelan. Namun demikian, gambar ini ansambel musik disarankan untuk menjadi bentuk gamelan kuno.
In the palaces of Java are the oldest known ensembles, the Munggang and Kodokngorek gamelans, apparently from the 12th century. Dalam istana Jawa adalah ansambel dikenal tertua, Munggang Kodokngorek gamelan dan, tampaknya dari abad ke-12. These formed the basis of a "loud style". Ini membentuk dasar dari sebuah "gaya keras". A different, "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry , in a manner which is often believed to be similar to performance of modern bedhaya dance. Sebuah berbeda, "gaya lembut" yang dikembangkan dari kemanak tradisi dan berhubungan dengan tradisi bernyanyi puisi Jawa , dengan cara yang sering diyakini mirip dengan kinerja modern Bedhaya tari. In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, and to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali, Java, and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Pada abad ke-17, ini gaya keras dan lembut campuran, dan untuk sebagian besar berbagai gaya modern gamelan Bali, Jawa, dan Sunda dihasilkan dari berbagai cara pencampuran elemen-elemen ini. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts, instruments, and techniques are shared between the styles. [ 4 ] Jadi, meskipun tampak keragaman gaya, banyak konsep teoretis yang sama, instrumen, dan teknik yang dibagi antara gaya. [4]

[ edit ] Varieties of gamelan ensembles [ sunting ] Varietas gamelan ansambel


The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali Semua-bambu Gamelan Jegog dari Bali

Javanese gamelan played also in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia gamelan Jawa dimainkan juga di Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Varying forms of gamelan ensembles are distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, tunings, repertoire, style, and cultural context. Memvariasikan bentuk ansambel gamelan dibedakan oleh koleksi mereka instrumen dan penggunaan suara,, gaya laras repertoar,, dan konteks budaya. In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, and those that arose in prestigious courts are often considered to have their own style. Secara umum, tidak ada dua ansambel gamelan adalah sama, dan mereka yang muncul di pengadilan bergengsi sering dianggap memiliki gaya mereka sendiri. Certain styles may also be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style. gaya tertentu juga dapat digunakan bersama oleh ansambel di dekatnya, yang mengarah ke gaya regional.
The varieties are generally grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese , Javanese , and Sundanese peoples. Varietas yang umumnya dikelompokkan geografis, dengan pembagian utama antara gaya disukai oleh Bali , Jawa , dan Sunda orang. Sundanese gamelan is often associated with Gamelan Degung , a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Gamelan Sunda sering dikaitkan dengan Gamelan Degung , ansambel musik Sunda yang memanfaatkan subset instrumen gamelan dimodifikasi dengan modus tertentu pelog skala. Balinese gamelan is often associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics of Gamelan gong kebyar , its best-known style. Gamelan Bali sering dikaitkan dengan keahlian dan perubahan yang cepat dari tempo dan dinamika kebyar Gamelan gong , paling terkenal gaya. Other popular Balinese styles include Gamelan and kecak , also known as the "monkey chant." Lain gaya Bali yang populer termasuk Gamelan dan kecak , juga dikenal sebagai "nyanyian monyet." Javanese gamelan was largely dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, but overall is known for a slower, more meditative style than that of Bali. Gamelan Jawa sebagian besar didominasi oleh pengadilan abad ke-19 penguasa Jawa Tengah, masing-masing dengan gaya sendiri, tapi secara keseluruhan dikenal untuk gaya, lebih lambat lebih meditatif daripada Bali.
Outside of the main core on Java and Bali, gamelans have spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes resulting as well. Di luar inti utama di Jawa dan Bali, gamelan telah menyebar melalui migrasi dan wisata budaya, gaya baru yang dihasilkan kadang-kadang juga. Malay gamelans are designed in ways that are similar to the Javanese gamelan except they lack most of the elaborating instruments and are tuned in a near-equidistant slendro, often using a western Bb or C as a tuning basis. gamelan Melayu dirancang dengan cara yang serupa dengan gamelan Jawa kecuali mereka kekurangan sebagian besar instrumen menguraikan dan yang dicari dalam slendro dekat-jarak yang sama, sering menggunakan Bb barat atau C sebagai dasar tuning. Javanese emigrants to Suriname play gamelan in a style close to that found in Central Javanese villages. emigran gamelan Jawa ke Suriname bermain di dekat gaya dengan yang ditemukan di desa-desa Jawa Tengah. Gamelan is also related to the Filipino kulintang ensemble. Gamelan juga terkait dengan Filipina kulintang ensemble. There is also a wide variety of gamelan in the West, including both traditional and experimental ensembles. Ada juga berbagai gamelan di Barat, termasuk ansambel tradisional dan eksperimental.

[ edit ] Cultural context [ sunting ] Budaya konteks

In Indonesia, gamelan usually accompanies dance wayang puppet performances, or rituals or ceremonies. Di Indonesia, gamelan biasanya menyertai tarian wayang pertunjukan wayang, atau ritual atau upacara. Typically players in the gamelan will be familiar with dance moves and poetry, while dancers are able to play in the ensemble. Biasanya pemain gamelan akan terbiasa dengan gerakan tari dan puisi, sementara penari mampu bermain di ensemble. In wayang, the dalang (puppeteer) must have a thorough knowledge of gamelan, as he gives the cues for the music. Dalam wayang, para dalang (dalang) harus memiliki pengetahuan mendalam tentang gamelan, karena ia memberikan isyarat untuk musik. Gamelan can be performed by itself — in "klenengan" style, or for radio broadcasts — but concerts in the Western style are not traditional. [ 5 ] Gamelan dapat dilakukan dengan sendirinya - dalam klenengan "gaya", atau untuk siaran radio - konser di Barat gaya tidak tradisional. Tapi [5]
Gamelan's role in rituals is so important that there is a Javanese saying, "It's not official until the gong is hung." [ 6 ] Some performances are associated with royalty, such as visits by the sultan of Yogyakarta . Peran Gamelan dalam ritual begitu penting bahwa ada Jawa mengatakan, "Ini tidak resmi sampai gong yang digantung." [6] Beberapa pertunjukan yang berhubungan dengan royalti, seperti kunjungan oleh Sultan Yogyakarta . Certain gamelans are associated with specific rituals, such as the Gamelan Sekaten , which is used in celebration of Mawlid an-Nabi ( Muhammad 's birthday). gamelan tertentu yang berhubungan dengan ritual tertentu, seperti Gamelan Sekaten , yang digunakan dalam perayaan Maulid an-Nabi ( Muhammad ulang tahun '). In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance. Di Bali, hampir semua ritual agama termasuk kinerja gamelan. Gamelan is also used in the ceremonies of the Catholic church in Indonesia . [ 7 ] Certain pieces are designated for starting and ending performances or ceremonies. Gamelan juga digunakan dalam upacara-upacara dari gereja Katolik di Indonesia . [7] lembar tertentu ditujukan untuk memulai dan mengakhiri pertunjukan atau upacara. When a "leaving" piece (such as " Udan Mas ") is begun, the audience will know that the event is nearly finished and will begin to leave. Ketika sebuah "meninggalkan" sepotong (seperti " Udan Mas ") dimulai, penonton akan tahu bahwa acara ini hampir selesai dan akan mulai meninggalkan. Certain pieces are also believed to possess magic powers, and can be used to ward off evil spirits. [ 6 ] potongan tertentu juga diyakini memiliki kekuatan gaib, dan dapat digunakan untuk menangkal roh jahat. [6]

Javanese gamelan ensemble with two female sindhen (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah , Jakarta , Indonesia Gamelan Jawa ansambel dengan dua perempuan sindhen (penyanyi paduan suara) selama pernikahan Jawa tradisional di Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah , Jakarta , Indonesia
Gamelan is frequently played on the radio. Gamelan sering diputar di radio. For example, the Pura Pakualaman gamelan performs live on the radio every Minggu Pon (a day in the 35-day cycle of the Javanese calendar ). [ 6 ] In major towns, the Radio Republik Indonesia employs professional musicians and actors, and broadcast programs of a wide variety of gamelan music and drama. [ 8 ] Misalnya, Pura Pakualaman gamelan melakukan hidup di setiap radio Minggu Pon (hari dalam siklus 35 hari dari kalender Jawa ). [6] Di kota-kota besar, Radio Republik Indonesia mempekerjakan musisi profesional dan aktor, dan program siaran dari berbagai jenis musik gamelan dan drama. [8]
In the court tradition of central Java, gamelan is often played in the pendopo , an open pavilion with a cavernous, double-pitched roof, no side walls, and a hard marble or tile floor. Dalam tradisi istana Jawa Tengah, gamelan yang sering dimainkan di pendopo , sebuah paviliun terbuka dengan ganda, bernada atap gua, tidak ada dinding sisi, dan marmer keras atau lantai ubin. The instruments are placed on a platform to one side, which allows the sound to reverberate in the roof space and enhances the acoustics. [ 9 ] Instrumen yang ditempatkan pada platform untuk satu sisi, yang memungkinkan suara berkumandang di ruang atap dan meningkatkan akustik. [9]
In Bali, the Gamelan instruments are all kept together in the balai banjar, a community meeting hall which has a large open space with a roof over top of it with several open sides. Di Bali, instrumen Gamelan semua disimpan bersama di balai banjar, balai pertemuan masyarakat yang memiliki ruang terbuka yang luas dengan atap di atas puncak dengan beberapa bagian samping yang terbuka. The instruments are all kept here together because they believe that all of the instruments belong to the community as a whole and no one person has ownership over an instrument. Instrumen semua tetap di sini bersama-sama karena mereka percaya bahwa semua instrumen milik masyarakat secara keseluruhan dan tidak ada satu orang memiliki kepemilikan atas instrumen. Not only is this where the instruments are stored, but this is also the practice space for the sekaha (Gamelan orchestra). Tidak hanya instrumen ini di mana disimpan, namun ini juga ruang praktek untuk sekaha (orkestra Gamelan). The open walls allow for the music to flow out into the community where the rest of the people can enjoy it. Dinding terbuka memungkinkan untuk musik mengalir keluar ke komunitas dimana orang-orang lain dapat menikmatinya.
The sekaha is led by a single instructor whose job it is in the community to lead this group and to come up with new songs. sekaha ini dipimpin oleh seorang instruktur tunggal yang tugasnya di masyarakat untuk memimpin grup ini dan yang akan datang dengan lagu-lagu baru. When they are working on a new song, the instructor will lead the group in practice and help the group form the new piece of music as they are practicing. Ketika mereka sedang mengerjakan lagu baru, instruktur akan memimpin kelompok dalam praktek dan membantu kelompok bentuk potongan baru musik saat mereka berlatih. When the instructor creates a new song, he leaves enough open for interpretation that the group can improvise and as a group they will be writing the music as they are practicing it. Ketika instruktur menciptakan lagu baru, dia meninggalkan cukup terbuka untuk interpretasi bahwa kelompok dapat berimprovisasi dan sebagai suatu kelompok mereka akan menulis musik saat mereka berlatih itu.
The Balinese Gamelan groups are constantly changing their music by taking older pieces they know and mixing them together as well as trying new variations on their music. Gamelan Bali kelompok ini terus berubah musik mereka dengan mengambil potongan yang lebih tua mereka tahu dan mencampurkan mereka bersama-sama juga mencoba variasi baru pada musik mereka. Their music is always constantly changing because they believe that music should grow and change; the only exception to this is with their most sacred songs which they will not change. Musik mereka selalu terus berubah karena mereka percaya musik yang harus tumbuh dan berubah; pengecualian hanya untuk ini adalah dengan lagu-lagu mereka yang paling suci yang mereka tidak akan berubah. A single new piece of music can take several months before it is completed. Sepotong single baru musik bisa memakan waktu beberapa bulan sebelum selesai.
Men and women usually perform in separate groups, with the exception of the pesindhen , the female singer who performs with male groups. [ 8 ] Pria dan wanita biasanya tampil di kelompok terpisah, dengan pengecualian dari pesindhen , penyanyi wanita yang melakukan dengan kelompok laki-laki. [8]
In the West, gamelan is often performed in a concert context, but may also incorporate dance or wayang. Di Barat, gamelan sering dilakukan dalam konteks konser, tetapi juga dapat menggabungkan tari atau wayang.

[ edit ] Tuning [ sunting ] Tuning


Celempung — Indonesian Embassy in Canberra . Celempung - Kedutaan Besar Indonesia di Canberra .
The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Tuning dan pembangunan gamelan adalah suatu proses yang kompleks. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems : sléndro and pélog . gamelan Jawa menggunakan dua sistem tuning : slendro dan pelog . There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis , similar to a European natural minor scale ). Ada sistem tuning lain seperti degung (eksklusif untuk Sunda, atau Jawa Barat), dan Madenda (juga dikenal sebagai diatonis, mirip dengan Eropa skala kecil alami ). In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason ( octave ), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. Dalam gamelan Jawa Tengah, slendro adalah sistem dengan lima catatan atas diapason ( oktaf ), cukup merata spasi, sedangkan pelog memiliki tujuh catatan atas oktaf, dengan interval tidak rata, biasanya dimainkan di lima himpunan catatan dari-nada koleksi tujuh. This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Hal ini menghasilkan suara yang sangat berbeda dari musik yang dimainkan dalam sistem tuning Barat. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. Banyak gamelan orkestra akan menyertakan instrumen dalam setiap tuning, tetapi masing-masing instrumen individu hanya akan dapat bermain dalam satu catatan. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. Tuning tepat digunakan berbeda dari ansambel untuk ansambel, dan memberikan rasa setiap ansambel khususnya sendiri. The intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, but the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next. Interval antara catatan dalam skala sangat dekat dengan identik untuk instrumen gamelan yang berbeda dalam masing-masing, tetapi interval bervariasi dari satu gamelan ke yang berikutnya.
Colin McPhee remarked, "Deviations in what is considered the same scale are so large that one might with reason state that there are as many scales as there are gamelans." [ 10 ] However, this view is contested by some teachers of gamelan, and there have been efforts to combine multiple ensembles and tuning structures into one gamelan to ease transportation at festival time. Colin McPhee berkomentar, "Penyimpangan dalam apa yang dianggap skala yang sama begitu besar yang satu mungkin dengan mencantumkan alasan yang ada adalah sebagai skala banyak karena ada gamelan." [10] Namun, pandangan ini ditentang oleh beberapa guru gamelan, dan ada usaha untuk menggabungkan beberapa ansambel dan struktur tuning menjadi satu gamelan untuk memudahkan transportasi pada saat festival. One such ensemble is gamelan Manikasanti, which can play the repertoire of many different ensembles. Salah satu ansambel gamelan Manikasanti tersebut, yang dapat memainkan repertoar ansambel yang berbeda.
Balinese gamelan instruments are commonly played in pairs which are tuned slightly apart to produce interference beats , ideally at a consistent speed for all pairs of notes in all registers. instrumen gamelan Bali umumnya dimainkan dalam pasangan yang disetel agak terpisah untuk menghasilkan interferensi ketukan , idealnya pada kecepatan yang konsisten untuk semua pasangan dari catatan dalam semua register. It is thought that this contributes to the very "busy" and "shimmering" sound of gamelan ensembles. Diperkirakan bahwa ini memberikan kontribusi sangat "sibuk" dan "berkilauan" suara gamelan ansambel. In the religious ceremonies that contain gamelan, these interference beats are meant to give the listener a feeling of a god's presence or a stepping stone to a meditative state. Dalam upacara keagamaan yang mengandung gamelan, ketukan ini interferensi adalah dimaksudkan untuk memberikan pendengar perasaan kehadiran dewa atau batu loncatan untuk keadaan meditasi.

[ edit ] Notation [ sunting ] Notasi

Traditionally gamelan music is not notated and began as an oral tradition ; however, in the 19th century, the kratons of Yogyakarta and Surakarta developed distinct notations for transcribing the repertoire. Secara tradisional musik gamelan tidak dinotasikan dan mulai sebagai tradisi lisan , namun, pada abad 19, kratons Yogyakarta dan Surakarta dikembangkan notasi yang berbeda untuk menyalin repertoar. These were not used to read the music, which was memorized, but to preserve pieces in the court records. Ini tidak digunakan untuk membaca musik, yang diingat, tapi untuk melestarikan buah dalam catatan pengadilan. The Yogyanese notation is a checkerboard notation, which uses six or seven vertical lines to represent notes of higher pitch in the balungan (core melody), and horizontal lines which represent the series of beats, read downward with time. Notasi Yogya adalah notasi kotak-kotak, yang menggunakan enam atau tujuh garis vertikal untuk mewakili catatan lapangan lebih tinggi di balungan (melodi inti), dan garis horizontal yang merupakan rangkaian ketukan, baca ke bawah dengan waktu. The fourth vertical line and every fourth horizontal line (completing a gatra ) are darkened for legibility. Garis vertikal keempat dan setiap garis horizontal keempat (menyelesaikan gatra ) yang gelap untuk keterbacaan. Symbols on the left indicate the colotomic structure of gongs and so forth, while specific drum features are notated in symbols to the right. Simbol di sebelah kiri menunjukkan struktur colotomic gong dan sebagainya, sedangkan khusus drum fitur dinotasikan dalam simbol-simbol ke kanan. The Solonese notation reads horizontally, like Western notation, but does not use barlines. Notasi Solo horizontal berbunyi, seperti notasi Barat, tapi tidak menggunakan barlines. Instead, note values and rests are squiggled between the notes. [ 11 ] Sebaliknya, perhatikan nilai-nilai dan selebihnya squiggled antara catatan. [11]
Today this notation is relatively rare, and has been replaced by kepatihan notation , which is a cipher system. Hari ini notasi ini relatif langka, dan telah digantikan oleh notasi kepatihan , yang merupakan sistem cipher. Kepatihan notation developed around 1900 at the kepatihan in Surakarta. notasi Kepatihan dikembangkan sekitar tahun 1900 di kepatihan di Surakarta. The pitches are numbered (see the articles on the scales slendro and pélog for an explanation of how), and are read across with dots and lines indicating the register and time values. Para pitches diberi nomor (lihat artikel pada skala slendro dan pelog untuk penjelasan tentang bagaimana), dan dibaca di seluruh dengan titik-titik dan garis yang menunjukkan nilai-nilai dan waktu mendaftar. Like the palace notations, however, they record only the balungan part, and to a large extent what is heard relies on memorized patterns the performers call upon during performance. Seperti notasi istana, bagaimanapun, mereka mencatat hanya bagian balungan, dan untuk sebagian besar apa yang didengar bergantung pada pola hafal memanggil pemain selama pertunjukan. However, teachers have also devised certain notations, generally using kepatihan principles, for the cengkok (melodic patterns) of each elaborating instrument . Namun, guru juga menyusun notasi tertentu, umumnya menggunakan prinsip kepatihan, untuk cengkok (pola melodi) dari setiap instrumen menjabarkan . In ethnomusicological studies, transcriptions are often made onto a Western staff, sometimes with unusual clefs . [ 12 ] Dalam studi ethnomusicological, transkripsi sering dibuat ke staf Barat, kadang-kadang dengan tidak biasa clefs . [12]

[ edit ] Influence on Western music [ sunting ] Pengaruh pada musik Barat

The gamelan has been appreciated by several western composers of classical music , most famously Claude Debussy who heard a Javanese gamelan play at the Paris Exposition of 1889 ( World's Fair ). gamelan telah dihargai oleh komposer barat beberapa musik klasik , yang paling terkenal Claude Debussy yang mendengar bermain gamelan Jawa di Pameran Paris tahun 1889 ( World's Fair ). (The gamelan Debussy heard was in the slendro scale and was played by Central Javanese musicians. [ 13 ] ) Despite his enthusiasm, direct citations of gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, or ensemble textures have not been located in any of Debussy's own compositions. (Gamelan Debussy mendengar berada di skala slendro dan dimainkan oleh Jawa musisi Tengah. [13] ) Meskipun semangat, kutipan langsung dari skala gamelan, melodi, irama, atau tekstur ensemble belum berada dalam sendiri komposisi's Debussy. However, the equal-tempered whole tone scale appears in his music of this time and afterward, [ 14 ] and a Javanese gamelan-like heterophonic texture is emulated on occasion, particularly in "Pagodes", from Estampes (solo piano, 1903), in which the great gong 's cyclic punctuation is symbolized by a prominent perfect fifth. Namun, sama-marah seluruh skala nada musik muncul dalam waktu ini dan sesudahnya, [14] dan seperti heterophonic tekstur gamelan Jawa diemulasikan pada kesempatan, terutama dalam "Pagodes", dari Estampes (solo piano, 1903), di mana gong besar 's baca siklik dilambangkan oleh seperlima sempurna terkemuka.
The composer Erik Satie , an influential contemporary of Debussy, also heard the Javanese gamelan play at the Paris Exposition of 1889. Komposer Erik Satie , seorang kontemporer berpengaruh Debussy, juga mendengar bermain gamelan Jawa di Pameran Paris 1889. The repetitively hypnotic effects of the gamelan were incorporated into Satie's exotic Gnossienne set for piano. [ 15 ] The efek hipnotis berulang gamelan itu dimasukkan ke dalam Satie's eksotis Gnossienne ditetapkan untuk piano. [15]
Direct homages to gamelan music are to be found in works for western instruments by John Cage , particularly his prepared piano pieces, Colin McPhee , Lou Harrison , Béla Bartók , Francis Poulenc , Olivier Messiaen , Pierre Boulez , Bronislaw Kaper and Benjamin Britten . homages Langsung ke musik gamelan yang dapat ditemukan dalam karya-karya untuk instrumen barat oleh John Cage , terutama nya piano siap potong, Colin McPhee , Lou Harrison , Béla Bartók , Francis Poulenc , Olivier Messiaen , Pierre Boulez , Bronislaw Kaper dan Benjamin Britten . In more recent times, American composers such as Henry Brant , Steve Reich , Philip Glass , Dennis Murphy , Loren Nerell , Michael Tenzer , Evan Ziporyn , Daniel James Wolf and Jody Diamond as well as Australian composers such as Peter Sculthorpe , Andrew Schultz and Ross Edwards have written several works with parts for gamelan instruments or full gamelan ensembles. I Nyoman Windha is among contemporary Indonesian composers that have written compositions using western instruments along with Gamelan. Dalam beberapa kali lebih banyak, Amerika komposer seperti Henry Brant , Steve Reich , Philip Glass , Dennis Murphy , Loren Nerell , Michael Tenzer , Evan Ziporyn , Daniel James Wolf dan Jody Diamond serta Australia komposer seperti Peter Sculthorpe , Andreas Schultz dan Ross Edwards telah menulis beberapa karya dengan bagian untuk instrumen gamelan atau gamelan ensemble penuh. I Nyoman Windha merupakan salah komponis Indonesia kontemporer yang telah menulis komposisi dengan menggunakan instrumen barat bersama dengan Gamelan. Hungarian composer György Ligeti wrote a piano étude called Galamb Borong influenced by gamelan. Hungaria komposer György Ligeti menulis sebuah étude piano disebut Galamb Borong dipengaruhi oleh gamelan. American folk guitarist John Fahey included elements of gamelan in many of his late-60s sound collages, and again in his 1997 collaboration with Cul de Sac , The Epiphany of Glenn Jones. The experimental art-rock band King Crimson , while not using gamelan instruments, used interlocking rhythmic paired guitars that were influenced by gamelan. [ 16 ] On the debut EP of Sonic Youth the track 'She's not Alone' has a gamelan timbre. gitaris rakyat Amerika John Fahey termasuk unsur gamelan di banyak suara akhir-60s kolase, dan lagi dalam kolaborasinya 1997 dengan Cul de Sac , The Epiphany Glenn Jones. Batuan eksperimental seni-band King Crimson , sementara tidak menggunakan instrumen gamelan , digunakan saling berpasangan gitar ritmis yang dipengaruhi oleh gamelan. [16] Pada debut EP Sonic Youth lagu 'Dia tidak Sendirian' memiliki timbre gamelan. Experimental pop groups The Residents , 23 Skidoo (whose 1984 album was even titled Urban Gamelan ), Mouse on Mars , His Name Is Alive , Xiu Xiu , Macha , Saudade , The Raincoats and the Sun City Girls have used gamelan percussion. Pop eksperimental kelompok ini Warga , 23 Skidoo (1984 album yang berjudul Urban bahkan Gamelan), Mouse di Mars , Namanya Juga Hidup , Xiu Xiu , Macha , Saudade , The jas hujan dan Sun City Girls telah menggunakan perkusi gamelan. The gamelan has also been used by British multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield at least three times, "Woodhenge" (1979), "The Wind Chimes (Part II)" (1987) and "Nightshade" (2005). Gamelan juga telah digunakan oleh British multi-instrumentalis Mike Oldfield setidaknya tiga kali, "Woodhenge" (1979), "The Wind Chimes (Bagian II)" (1987) dan "Terong" (2005). Avant-garde performance band Melted Men uses Balinese gamelan instruments as well as gamelan-influenced costumes and dance in their shows. Avant-garde penampilan band Pria meleleh menggunakan instrumen gamelan Bali serta kostum yang dipengaruhi gamelan dan tari dalam pameran mereka. The Moodswinger built by Yuri Landman gives gamelan–like clock and bell sounds, because of its 3rd bridge construction. Para Moodswinger dibangun oleh Yuri Landman memberikan-seperti jam gamelan dan suara bel, karena yang 3 jembatan konstruksi. Indonesian-Dutch composer Sinta Wullur has integrated Western music and gamelan for opera. Indonesia-Belanda komposer Sinta Wullur telah terintegrasi musik Barat dan gamelan untuk opera.
Recently, many Americans were first introduced to the sounds of gamelan by the popular anime film Akira . Baru-baru ini, banyak orang Amerika pertama kali diperkenalkan pada suara gamelan oleh populer film anime Akira . Gamelan elements are used in this film to punctuate several exciting fight scenes, as well as to symbolize the emerging psychic powers of the tragic hero, Tetsuo. elemen Gamelan digunakan dalam film ini untuk menekankan beberapa adegan bertarung menarik, serta untuk melambangkan kekuatan psikis muncul dari pahlawan tragis, Tetsuo. The gamelan in the film's score was performed by the members of the Japanese musical collective Geinoh Yamashirogumi . Gamelan di film skor dilakukan oleh anggota dari Jepang musik kolektif Geinoh Yamashirogumi . Gamelan and kecak are also used in the soundtrack to the video games Secret of Mana and Sonic Unleashed . Gamelan dan kecak juga digunakan dalam soundtrack untuk video game Rahasia Mana dan Sonic Unleashed . The musical soundtrack for the Sci Fi Channel series Battlestar Galactica features extensive use of the gamelan, particularly in the 3rd season, [ 17 ] as do Alexandre Desplat 's scores for Girl With A Pearl Earring and The Golden Compass . Soundtrack musik untuk seri Sci Fi Channel Battlestar Galactica menggunakan fitur-fitur ekstensif gamelan, terutama di musim 3, [17] seperti halnya Alexandre Desplat skor s 'untuk Girl Dengan A Pearl Earring dan The Golden Compass .
Loops of gamelan music appear in electronic music. Loop musik gamelan muncul dalam musik elektronik. An early example is the Texas band Drain 's album Offspeed and In There , which contains two tracks where trip-hop beats are matched with gamelan loops from Java and Bali and recent popular examples include the Sofa Surfers ' piece Gamelan , or EXEC_PURGER/.#AURICA extracting , a song sung by Haruka Shimotsuki as part of the Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia soundtracks. Contoh awal adalah band Texas Drain 's Offspeed album dan Di sana, yang berisi dua lagu dimana perjalanan-hop beats dicocokkan dengan loop gamelan dari Jawa dan Bali dan contoh populer baru-baru ini termasuk Sofa Surfers 'sepotong Gamelan, atau EXEC_PURGER /. # AURICA penggalian, lagu yang dinyanyikan oleh Haruka Shimotsuki sebagai bagian dari Ar Tonelico: Melody of Elemia soundtrack.

A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave in contrast to a heptatonic (seven note) scale such as the major scale. Pentatonic scales are very common and are found all over the world, including Celtic folk music, Hungarian folk music, West African music, African-American spirituals, Gospel music, American folk music, Jazz, American blues music, rock music, Sami joik singing, children's song, the music of ancient Greece[2][3] and the Greek traditional music and songs from Epirus, Northwest Greece, music of Southern Albania, the tuning of the Ethiopian krar and the Indonesian gamelan, Philippine Kulintang, Native American music, melodies of Korea, Malaysia, Japan, China, India and Vietnam (including the folk music of these countries), the Andean music, the Afro-Caribbean tradition, Polish highlanders from the Tatra Mountains, and Western Classical composers such as French composer Claude Debussy. The pentatonic scale is also used on the Great Highland Bagpipe.
The ubiquity of pentatonic scales, specifically anhemitonic modes, can be attributed to the total lack of the most dissonant intervals between any pitches; there are neither any minor seconds (and therefore also no complementary major sevenths) nor any tritones. This means any pitches of such a scale may be played in any order or combination without clashing.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Types of pentatonic scales

[edit] Hemitonic and anhemitonic

Ethnomusicology commonly classifies pentatonic scales as either hemitonic or anhemitonic. Hemitonic scales contain one or more semitones and anhemitonic scales do not contain semitones. For example, a hemitonic pentatonic scale common in some areas of North and West Africa contains flatted 2nd, 3rd, and 6th degrees (hence, if the scale begins in C, it will contain a D-flat, E-flat, and A-flat, plus a G-natural).

[edit] Major pentatonic scale

Anhemitonic pentatonic scales can be constructed in many ways. One construction takes five consecutive pitches from the circle of fifths; starting on C, these are C, G, D, A, and E. Transposing the pitches to fit into one octave rearranges the pitches into the major pentatonic scale: C, D, E, G, A, C.
C major pentatonic scale
About this sound play
Another construction works backward: It omits two pitches from a diatonic scale. If we were to begin with a C major scale, for example, we might omit the fourth and the seventh scale degrees, F and B. The remaining notes, C, D, E, G, and A, are transpositionally equivalent to the black keys on a piano keyboard: G-flat, A-flat, B-flat, D-flat, and E-flat.
G-flat major pentatonic scale
Omitting the third and seventh degrees of the C major scale obtains the notes for another transpositionally equivalent anhemitonic pentatonic scale: {F,G,A,C,D}. Omitting the first and fourth degrees of the C major scale gives a third anhemitonic pentatonic scale: {G,A,B,D,E}.

[edit] Minor pentatonic scale

Although various hemitonic pentatonic scales might be called minor, the term is most commonly applied to the relative minor pentatonic derived from the major pentatonic, using scale tones 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 of the natural minor scale. The C minor pentatonic would be C, E-flat, F, G, B-flat. The A minor pentatonic, the relative minor of C, would be the same tones as C major pentatonic, starting on A, giving A, C, D, E, G. This minor pentatonic contains all three tones of an A minor triad.
A minor pentatonic scale
About this sound play
Songs on the minor pentatonic scale include the popular[citation needed] Canadian folk song "Land of the Silver Birch". Because of their simplicity, pentatonic scales are often used to introduce children to music. Other popular children's songs are almost pentatonic. For example, the almost-pentatonic nature of the Gershwin lullaby "Summertime", is evident when it is played in the key of E-flat minor. In that key, the melody can be played almost entirely on the black keys of a piano, except just once per verse, where a white key is needed.

[edit] Five black-key pentatonic scales of the piano

Piano keyboard.
The five pentatonic scales found by running up the black keys on the piano are:
Mode Name(s) Black notes Intervals White key equivalent
(/transposition)
1 Minor Pentatonic E-G-A-B-D-E U, m3, P4, P5, m7, 8ve A C D E G
2 Major Pentatonic G-A-B-D-E-G U, M2, M3, P5, M6, 8ve C D E G A
3 Egyptian, Suspended A-B-D-E-G-A U, M2, P4, P5, m7, 8ve D E G A C
4 Blues Minor, Man Gong B-D-E-G-A-B U, m3, P4, m6, m7, 8ve E G A C D
5 Blues Major, Ritusen D-E-G-A-B-D U, M2, P4, P5, M6, 8ve G A C D E
(U = Unison; P = Perfect; m = Minor; M = Major; 8ve = Octave)

[edit] Tuning

Proceeding by the principle that historically gives the Pythagorean diatonic and chromatic scales, stacking perfect fifths with 3:2 frequency proportions, the anhemitonic pentatonic scale can be tuned thus: 1:9/8:81/64:3/2:27/16. Considering the anhemitonic scale as a subset of a just diatonic scale, it is tuned thus: 1:9/8:5/4:3/2:5/3. Assigning precise frequency proportions to the pentatonic scales of most cultures is problematic. The slendro anhemitonic scales of Java and Bali are said to approach, very roughly, an equally-tempered five note scale, but, in fact, their tunings vary dramatically from gamelan to gamelan. Specially trained musicians among the Gogo people of Tanzania sing the fourth through ninth (and occasionally tenth) harmonics above a fundamental, which do necessarily accurately correspond to the frequency proportions 4:5:6:7:8:9, but this is not a scale in the western sense because these pitches are not found within a single octave and could not be put into a single octave with this manner of performance. Composer Lou Harrison has been one of the most recent proponents and developers of new pentatonic scales based on historical models.

[edit] Further pentatonic musical traditions

The major pentatonic scale is the basic scale of the music of China and the music of Mongolia. The fundamental tones (without meri or kari techniques) rendered by the 5 holes of the Japanese shakuhachi flute play a minor pentatonic scale. The traditional Japanese song "Sakura" uses a hemitonic pentatonic scale of the notes A-B-C-E-F. The Yo scale used in Japanese shomyo Buddhist chants and gagaku imperial court music is an anhemitonic pentatonic scale[4][dead link] shown below, which is the fourth mode of the major pentatonic scale.
D Yo scale
About this sound play
The slendro scale used in Javanese gamelan music is pentatonic, with roughly equally spaced intervals (About this sound MIDI sample ). Another scale, pelog, has seven tones, but is generally played using one of several pentatonic subsets (known as pathets), which are roughly analogous to different keys or modes.
The pentatonic scale is very common in Scottish music. The Great Highland bagpipe scale is considered three interlaced pentatonic scales. This is especially true for Piobaireachd which typically uses one of the pentatonic scales out of the nine possible notes. It also features in Irish traditional music, either purely or almost so. The minor pentatonic is used in Appalachian folk music. Blackfoot music is most often pentatonic or hexatonic.
The pentatonic scale (substantially minor, sometimes major and seldom in scale) is used in Andean music which preserves and develops a rich heritage of Incas' musical culture.[citation needed] In the most ancient genres of Andean music being performed without string instruments (only with winds and percussion), pentatonic melody is often leaded with parallel fifths and fourths, so formally this music is hexatonic. Hear example: About this sound Pacha Siku .
Both the major and the minor pentatonic scales are commonly used in jazz (notably by jazz pianists Art Tatum, Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock), blues, and rock. Pentatonic scales are useful for improvisors in modern jazz, pop, and rock contexts because they work well over several chords diatonic to the same key, often better than the parent scale. For example, the blues scale is predominantly derived from the minor pentatonic scale, a very popular scale for improvisation in the realm of blues and rock alike[5]. About this sound Rock guitar solo almost all over B minor pentatonic For instance, over a C major triad (C, E, G) in the key of C major, the note F can be perceived as dissonant as it is a half step above the major third (E) of the chord. It is for this reason commonly avoided. Using the major pentatonic scale is an easy way out of this problem. The scale tones 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 (from the major pentatonic) are either major triad tones (1, 3, 5) or common consonant extensions (2, 6) of major triads. For the corresponding relative minor pentatonic, scale tones 1, ♭3, 4, 5, ♭7 work the same way, either as minor triad tones (1, ♭3, 5) or as common extensions (4, ♭7), as they all avoid being a half step from a chord tone.
The pentatonic scale occurs in the melodies of popular music: for example in "Ol' Man River" or "Sukiyaki". It is also a staple ingredient of film music, where it is used as a shorthand to signal primitive or exotic contexts. With suitable changes in orchestration it can be used to depict an Oriental setting, a scene with American Indians, or a rustic hoedown. An example of film music in which both the East-Asian and American-Western elements of the story are suggested in the melody is the title theme for The 7 Faces of Dr. Lao.
U.S. military cadences, or "jodies," used to keep soldiers in step while marching or running, also typically use pentatonic scales.[6].
The pentatonic scale also occurs in hymns and other religious music. The hymn "Amazing Grace", arguably the most famous of all pieces of religious music, has a melody set to the notes of the pentatonic major scale.
Composers of Western classical music have used pentatonic scales for special effects. Frédéric Chopin wrote the right hand piano part of his Etude Op. 10 no. 5 in the major G-flat pentatonic scale, and therefore, the melody is played using only the black keys. Antonín Dvořák, inspired by the native American music and African-American spirituals he heard in America, made extensive use of pentatonic themes in his "New World" Symphony and his "American" Quartet. Giacomo Puccini's Madama Butterfly and Turandot allude to the pentatonicism of Japan and China respectively. Maurice Ravel used a pentatonic scale as the basis for a melody in "Passacaille", the third movement of his Piano Trio, and as a pastiche of Chinese music in "Laideronette, Emperatrice des Pagodes", a movement from his Ma Mère l'Oye (Mother Goose). Béla Bartók's The Miraculous Mandarin and Igor Stravinsky's The Nightingale contain many pentatonic passages.
The common pentatonic major and minor scales (C-D-E-G-A and C-Eb-F-G-Bb, respectively) are useful in modal composing, as both scales allow a melody to be modally ambiguous between their respective major (Ionian, Lydian, Mixolydian) and minor (Aeolian, Phrygian, Dorian) modes (Locrian excluded). With either modal or non-modal writing, however, the harmonization of a pentatonic melody does not necessarily have to be derived from only the pentatonic pitches.

[edit] Use in education

The pentatonic scale plays a significant role in music education, particularly in Orff-based methodologies at the primary/elementary level. The Orff system places a heavy emphasis on developing creativity through improvisation in children, largely through use of the pentatonic scale. Orff instruments, such as xylophones, bells and other metallophones, use wooden bars, metal bars or bells which can be removed by the teacher leaving only those corresponding to the pentatonic scale, which Carl Orff himself believed to be children's native tonality.[7] Children begin improvising using only these bars, and over time, more bars are added at the teacher's discretion until the complete diatonic scale is being used. Orff believed that the use of the pentatonic scale at such a young age was appropriate to the development of each child, since the nature of the scale meant that it was impossible for the child to make any real harmonic mistakes.

No comments:

Post a Comment