syukur kepadamu Tuhan

Loading...

Tuesday, 1 February 2011

BLUES

Blues

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dari Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas
Jump to: navigation , search Langsung ke: navigasi , cari
Blues Blues
Stylistic origins Gaya asal African American folk music African American folk musik
Work song Lagu Pekerjaan
Spirituals Rohaniwan
Cultural origins Budaya asal Late 19th century, southern United States Akhir abad ke-19, bagian selatan Amerika Serikat
Typical instruments Khas instrumen Guitar · Piano · Harmonica · Double bass · Drums · Saxophone · Vocals · Trumpet · Trombone Guitar · Piano · Harmonika · Double bass · Drum · Saksofon · Vokal · Trumpet · Trombon
Mainstream popularity Mainstream popularitas Widespread since the early 20th century Luas sejak awal abad ke 20
Derivative forms Derivatif bentuk Bluegrass · Jazz · R&B · Rock and roll · Rock music Bluegrass · Jazz · R & B · Rock and roll · musik Rock
Subgenres Subgenre
Boogie-woogie · Classic female blues · Country blues · Delta blues · Electric blues · Fife and drum blues · Jump blues · Piano blues Boogie-woogie · Classic blues wanita · Country blues · Delta blues · Electric blues · Fife dan drum blues · Langsung blues · blues Piano
(complete list) (Daftar lengkap)
Fusion genres Genre Fusion
Blues-rock · Jazz blues · Punk blues · Soul blues Blues-rock · Jazz blues · blues Punk · Soul blues
Regional scenes Daerah adegan
British blues · Canadian blues · Chicago blues · Detroit blues · East Coast blues · Kansas City blues · Louisiana blues · Memphis blues · New Orleans blues · Piedmont blues · St. blues Inggris · blues Kanada · Chicago blues · Detroit blues · East Coast blues · Kansas City blues · Louisiana blues · Memphis blues · New Orleans blues · Piedmont blues · St Louis blues · Swamp blues · Texas blues · West Coast blues Louis blues · Rawa blues · Texas blues · West Coast blues
Other topics Topik lainnya
Blues genres · Blues musicians · Blues scale · Jug band · Origins Blues genre · Blues musisi · Blues skala · Jug band · Origins
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts and chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads . [ 1 ] The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz , rhythm and blues , and rock and roll , is characterized by specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues chord progression is the most common. Blues adalah nama yang diberikan untuk kedua bentuk musik dan genre musik yang berasal dari Afrika-Amerika komunitas terutama Deep South Amerika Serikat pada akhir abad ke-19 dari rohaniwan , lagu kerja , hollers lapangan , teriakan dan nyanyian , dan berirama narasi sederhana balada . [1] Bentuk blues, di mana-mana di jazz , rhythm and blues , dan rock and roll , dicirikan oleh progresi kord tertentu, di mana -bar blues dua belas akor adalah yang paling umum. The blue notes that, for expressive purposes are sung or played flattened or gradually bent (minor 3rd to major 3rd) in relation to the pitch of the major scale , are also an important part of the sound. Para catatan biru itu, untuk tujuan ekspresif yang dinyanyikan atau dimainkan secara bertahap rata atau bengkok (minor 3 untuk utama 3) sehubungan dengan lapangan dari skala besar , juga merupakan bagian penting dari suara.
The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other characteristics such as specific lyrics, bass lines and instruments. Genre blues adalah berdasarkan bentuk blues tetapi memiliki karakteristik lain seperti lirik tertentu, garis bass dan instrumen. Blues can be subdivided into several subgenres ranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century. Blues dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa subgenre mulai dari negara untuk blues perkotaan yang lebih atau kurang populer selama periode yang berbeda dari abad ke-20. Best known are the Delta , Piedmont , Jump and Chicago blues styles. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience. Paling dikenal adalah Delta , Piedmont , Langsung dan Chicago blues gaya. Perang Dunia II menandai transisi dari akustik ke blues listrik dan pembukaan progresif musik blues ke audiens yang lebih luas. In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues-rock evolved. Pada tahun 1960 dan 1970-an, suatu bentuk hibrida yang disebut blues-rock berevolusi.
The term "the blues" refers to the "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman 's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). [ 2 ] Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand 's " Dallas Blues " became the first copyrighted blues composition. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood . [ 5 ] Istilah "blues" mengacu pada "setan biru", makna dan kesedihan melankolis; penggunaan awal istilah ini dalam pengertian ini ditemukan dalam George Colman 's satu babak sandiwara Blue Devils (1798). [2] Meskipun penggunaan frase dalam musik Afrika-Amerika mungkin lebih tua, telah dibuktikan sejak tahun 1912, ketika Hart Wand s '" Dallas Blues "menjadi hak cipta pertama komposisi blues. [3] [4] lyrics frase sering digunakan untuk menggambarkan suasana hati tertekan . [5]

Contents Isi

[hide]

[ edit ] Form [ sunting ] Form

During the first decades of the 20th century, blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression . [ 6 ] With the popularity of early performers, such as Bessie Smith , use of the twelve-bar blues spread across the music industry during the 1920s and 30s. [ 7 ] Other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are still considered blues; examples include " How Long Blues ", " Trouble in Mind ", and Big Bill Broonzy 's " Key to the Highway ". Selama dekade pertama abad ke-20, musik blues itu tidak secara jelas didefinisikan dalam bentuk sebuah akor . [6] Dengan popularitas artis awal, seperti Bessie Smith , penggunaan -bar blues dua belas tersebar di industri musik selama 1920-an dan 30-an. yang [7] progresi akord lain, seperti 8-bar bentuk, masih blues dipertimbangkan; contoh termasuk " Berapa Lama Blues "," Trouble in Mind ", dan Big Bill Broonzy 's " Kunci untuk Highway " . There are also 16-bar blues , as in Ray Charles 's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and in Herbie Hancock 's " Watermelon Man ". Ada juga 16-bar blues , seperti dalam Ray Charles 's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bar" dan di Herbie Hancock 's " Watermelon Man ". Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are also encountered occasionally, as with the 9-bar progression in " Sitting on Top of the World " by Howlin Wolf. nomor aneh bar juga ditemukan kadang-kadang, seperti dengan kemajuan-bar 9 di " Duduk di Atas Dunia "oleh Howlin Wolf.
Chords played over a twelve-bar scheme: Chords dimainkan melalui skema dua belas-bar: Chords for a blues in C: Chords for a blues di C:
I Aku I or IV I atau IV I Aku I7 I7
IV IV IV IV I Aku I7 I7
V V V or IV V atau IV I Aku I or V Aku atau V
C C C or F C atau F C C C7 C7
F F F F C C C7 C7
G G G or F G atau F C C C or G C atau G
The basic twelve-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars in a 4/4 time signature . Bar dasar dua belas-lirik kerangka komposisi blues ini tercermin dari perkembangan harmonik standar dua belas bar dalam 4 kali tanda tangan / 4 . The blues chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are typically a set of three different chords played over a twelve-bar scheme. Blues chords terkait ke -bar blues dua belas biasanya satu set dari tiga akord yang berbeda bermain selama-bar skema dua belas. They are labeled by Roman numbers referring to the degrees of the progression. Mereka diberi label dengan angka Romawi mengacu pada derajat pengembangan tersebut. For instance, for a blues in the key of C, C is the tonic chord (I) and F is the subdominant (IV). Sebagai contoh, untuk blues di kunci C, C adalah chord tonik (I) dan F adalah subdominant (IV). The last chord is the dominant (V) turnaround , marking the transition to the beginning of the next progression. Akord terakhir adalah yang dominan (V) turnaround , menandai transisi ke awal perkembangan berikutnya. The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the eleventh bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. Lirik umumnya berakhir pada ketukan terakhir dari kesepuluh bar atau ketukan pertama dari bar kesebelas, dan dua bar terakhir yang diberikan kepada instrumentalis sebagai istirahat, harmoni ini istirahat dua-bar, turnaround, bisa sangat kompleks, kadang-kadang terdiri dari catatan tunggal yang menentang analisis dalam hal chord.
Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. Banyak waktu, beberapa atau semua akord yang dimainkan dalam tujuh harmonik 7) bentuk (. The use of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the "blues seven". [ 8 ] Blues seven chords add to the harmonic chord a note with a frequency in a 7:4 ratio to the fundamental note. Penggunaan interval harmonik ketujuh adalah karakteristik dari blues dan populer disebut "blues tujuh". [8] Blues tujuh chords menambah catatan akord harmonik dengan frekuensi dalam rasio 07:04 ke catatan yang mendasar. At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional Western diatonic scale . [ 9 ] For convenience or by necessity it is often approximated by a minor seventh interval or a dominant seventh chord. Pada rasio 7:04, tidak dekat dengan interval apapun pada konvensional Barat skala diatonis . [9] Untuk kenyamanan atau dengan kebutuhan sering didekati dengan ketujuh minor interval atau dominan ketujuh akord.

A minor pentatonic scale ; A minor pentatonis skala ; Tentang suara ini play bermain
In melody , blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third , fifth and seventh of the associated major scale . [ 10 ] These specialized notes are called the blue or bent notes . Dalam melodi , blues dibedakan dengan penggunaan rata ketiga , kelima dan ketujuh dari asosiasi skala besar . [10] Ini catatan khusus ini disebut atau bengkok catatan biru . These scale tones may replace the natural scale tones, or they may be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor blues scale, in which the flattened third replaces the natural third, the flattened seventh replaces the natural seventh and the flattened fifth is added between the natural fourth and natural fifth. Nada ini skala dapat mengganti nada skala alam, atau mereka dapat ditambahkan ke skala, seperti dalam kasus skala blues minor, di mana rata ketiga menggantikan ketiga alam, rata ketujuh menggantikan alami ketujuh dan kelima rata ditambahkan antara keempat dan kelima alami alam. While the twelve-bar harmonic progression had been intermittently used for centuries, the revolutionary aspect of blues was the frequent use of the flattened third, flattened seventh, and even flattened fifth in the melody, together with crushing —playing directly adjacent notes at the same time (ie, diminished second)—and sliding , similar to using grace notes . [ 11 ] The blue notes allow for key moments of expression during the cadences, melodies, and embellishments of the blues. Sementara-bar harmonik kemajuan dua belas telah digunakan selama berabad-abad sesekali, aspek revolusioner blues adalah sering menggunakan ketiga rata, rata ketujuh, dan bahkan rata kelima di melodi, bersama-sama dengan menghancurkan-catatan berbatasan langsung bermain pada saat yang sama waktu (yakni, kedua berkurang)-dan geser, mirip dengan menggunakan catatan rahmat . [11] Catatan biru memungkinkan untuk saat-saat penting ekspresi selama irama, melodi, dan hiasan dari blues.
Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove . Blues mengacak atau bass berjalan memperkuat seperti irama trance dan panggilan-dan-respons, dan mereka membentuk efek berulang-ulang disebut alur . Characteristic of the blues since its Afro-American origins, the shuffles played a central role in swing music . [ 12 ] The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R&B wave that started in the mid 1940s, [ 13 ] were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar. Karakteristik blues sejak Afro-Amerika asal-usulnya, yang mengaduk-aduk memainkan peran sentral dalam musik swing . [12] The mengacak sederhana, yang tanda tangan jelas dari & B gelombang R yang dimulai tahun 1940-an pertengahan, [13] adalah tiga -catatan riff pada string bass gitar. When this riff was played over the bass and the drums, the groove "feel" was created. Ketika riff ini dimainkan di atas bass dan drum, alur "merasa" telah dibuat. Shuffle rhythm is often vocalized as " dow , da dow , da dow , da" or " dump , da dump , da dump , da": [ 14 ] it consists of uneven, or "swung," eighth notes. Shuffle irama sering disuarakan sebagai "dow, dow da, dow da, da" atau "dump, dump da, da dump, da": [14] itu terdiri dari tidak merata, atau "berayun," catatan kedelapan. On a guitar this may be played as a simple steady bass or it may add to that stepwise quarter note motion from the fifth to the sixth of the chord and back. Pada gitar ini mungkin dimainkan sebagai bass yang mantap sederhana atau mungkin menambah catatan bahwa gerakan bertahap seperempat dari kelima ke keenam chord dan punggung. An example is provided by the following guitar tablature for the first four bars of a blues progression in E: [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Sebagai contoh adalah disediakan oleh gitar berikut tablature untuk bar pertama empat dari perkembangan blues di E: [15] [16]

Blues shuffle or boogie in E major ( Blues shuffle atau boogie dalam E mayor ( Tentang suara ini Play ). Play
E7 A7 E7 E7 E7 A7 E7 E7
E |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------| E |----------------|----------------|-------------- --|----------------|
B |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------| B |----------------|----------------|-------------- --|----------------|
G |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------| G |----------------|----------------|-------------- --|----------------|
D |----------------|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-|----------------|----------------| D |----------------| 2-2-4-2-5-2-4-2 -|-------------- --|----------------|
A |2—2-4-2-5-2-4—2-|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-| A | 2-2-4-2-5-2-4-2 - | 0-0-0-0-0-0-0-2 - | 2-2-4-2-5-2-4 - 2 - | 2-2-4-2-5-2-4-2 - |
E |0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|----------------|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-| E | 0-0-0-0-0-0-0-2 -|----------------| 0-0-0-0-0-0-0 - 2 - | 0-0-0-0-0-0-0-2 - |

[ edit ] Lyrics [ sunting ] Lyrics


Robert Johnson , an influential Delta blues musician Robert Johnson , seorang berpengaruh Delta blues musisi
The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times; it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. [ 17 ] Two of the first published blues songs, " Dallas Blues " (1912) and " St. Louis Blues " (1914), were 12-bar blues featuring the AAB structure. WC Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times. [ 18 ] The lines are often sung following a pattern closer to a rhythmic talk than to a melody. Lirik awal ayat blues tradisional mungkin sering terdiri dari satu baris diulang empat kali, melainkan hanya pada dekade pertama abad ke-20 yang saat ini struktur umum paling menjadi standar: AAB yang disebut pola-jadi, yang terdiri dari garis dinyanyikan selama empat bar pertama, yang pengulangan selama empat berikutnya, dan kemudian menyimpulkan garis lagi selama bar terakhir. [17] Dua dari lagu-lagu blues diterbitkan pertama kali, " Dallas Blues "(1912) dan" St Louis Blues "( 1914), adalah blues 12-bar yang menampilkan struktur AAB. WC Handy menulis bahwa ia mengadopsi konvensi ini untuk menghindari monoton garis diulang tiga kali. [18] Garis sering dinyanyikan mengikuti pola yang lebih dekat ke bicara berirama daripada sebuah melodi. Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative. Awal blues sering mengambil bentuk narasi longgar. The singer voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, [and] hard times." [ 19 ] This melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook to life when they were enslaved. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Penyanyi bersuara atau dia pribadi dalam kesengsaraan dunia yang keras: realitas "cinta yang hilang, kekejaman polisi, penindasan di tangan rakyat putih, [dan] masa sulit." [19] melankolis ini telah menyebabkan saran dari Igbo asal bagi blues karena reputasi Igbo telah seluruh perkebunan di Amerika untuk musik melankolis mereka dan pandangan hidup ketika mereka diperbudak. [20] [21]
The lyrics often relate troubles experienced within African American society. Lyrics sering berhubungan masalah mengalami dalam masyarakat African American. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson 's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells about the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 : Misalnya Blind Lemon Jefferson 's "Rising Tinggi Air Blues" (1927) bercerita tentang Mississippi Banjir Besar 1927 :
"Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time "Terpencil naik, orang Selatan tidak bisa membuat waktu
I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time Aku berkata, terpencil meningkat, Southern masyarakat tidak bisa membuat waktu
And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine." Dan aku tidak bisa tidak mendengar dari gadis Memphis saya. "
However, although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could also be humorous and raunchy as well: [ 22 ] Namun, meskipun blues diperoleh asosiasi dengan kesengsaraan dan penindasan, lirik juga bisa lucu dan vulgar juga: [22]
"Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, "Rebecca, Rebecca, Anda mendapatkan kaki besar dari saya,
Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, Rebecca, Anda mendapatkan kaki besar dari saya,
It may be sending you baby, but it's worrying the hell out of me." Ini mungkin pengiriman bayi, tapi mengkhawatirkan neraka keluar dari saya. "
From Big Joe Turner 's "Rebecca", a compilation of traditional blues lyrics Dari Big Joe Turner s '"Rebecca", sebuah kompilasi dari lirik blues tradisional
Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style. [ 23 ] Tampa Red 's classic "Tight Like That" (1928) is a sly wordplay with the double meaning of being "tight" with someone coupled with a more salacious physical familiarity. Hokum blues dirayakan baik konten liris komedi dan, kencang lucu gaya kinerja. [23] Tampa Red 's klasik "Ketat Seperti Itu" (1928) adalah sebuah permainan kata licik dengan makna ganda sebagai "ketat" dengan seseorang digabungkan dengan yang lebih cabul fisik keakraban. Lyrical content of music became slightly simpler in post war-blues which focused almost exclusively on relationship woes or sexual worries. Lyrical konten musik menjadi sedikit lebih sederhana dalam blues pasca-perang yang terfokus hampir secara eksklusif pada penderitaan atau kekhawatiran hubungan seksual. Many lyrical themes that frequently appeared in pre-war blues such as economic depression, farming, devils, gambling, magic, floods and dry periods were less common in post-war blues. [ 24 ] Liris Banyak tema yang sering muncul di-perang blues sebelum seperti depresi ekonomi, pertanian, setan, judi, sihir, banjir dan periode kering kurang umum di-blues pasca perang. [24]
Author Ed Morales has claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues " as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua , the orisha in charge of the crossroads". [ 25 ] However, the Christian influence was far more obvious. [ 26 ] Many seminal blues artists such as Charley Patton or Skip James had several religious songs or spirituals in their repertoires. [ 27 ] Reverend Gary Davis [ 28 ] and Blind Willie Johnson [ 29 ] are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to the spirituals. Pengarang Ed Morales telah menyatakan bahwa mitologi Yoruba berperan dalam blues awal, mengutip Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues "sebagai" terselubung referensi tipis untuk Eleggua , yang orisha yang bertanggung jawab atas persimpangan jalan ". [25] Namun, orang Kristen pengaruh jauh lebih jelas. [26] Banyak mani blues artis seperti Charley Patton atau Skip James telah beberapa lagu religius atau spiritual dalam repertoar mereka. [27] Pendeta Gary Davis [28] dan Blind Willie Johnson [29] adalah contoh seniman sering dikategorikan sebagai musisi blues untuk musik mereka, meskipun lirik mereka jelas milik spiritual.

[ edit ] History [ sunting ] Sejarah

[ edit ] Origins [ sunting ] Asal-usul

The first publication of blues sheet music was Hart Wand 's " Dallas Blues " in 1912; WC Handy 's " The Memphis Blues " followed in the same year. Publikasi pertama dari lembaran musik blues itu Hart Wand 's " Dallas Blues "pada tahun 1912; WC Handy 's " The Blues Memphis "diikuti pada tahun yang sama. The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith 's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford 's "Crazy Blues". Rekaman pertama oleh seorang penyanyi Amerika Afrika Mamie Smith 's 1920 rendition dari Perry Bradford 's "Crazy Blues". But the origins of the blues date back to some decades earlier, probably around 1890. [ 30 ] They are very poorly documented, due in part to racial discrimination within American society, including academic circles, [ 31 ] and to the low literacy rate of the rural African American community at the time. [ 32 ] Chroniclers began to report about blues music in Southern Texas and Deep South at the dawn of the 20th century. Tetapi asal-usul blues tanggal kembali ke beberapa dekade sebelumnya, mungkin sekitar 1890. [30] Mereka sangat buruk didokumentasikan, karena sebagian diskriminasi rasial dalam masyarakat Amerika, termasuk kalangan akademisi, [31] dan dengan tingkat melek huruf rendah Amerika masyarakat pedesaan Afrika pada saat itu. [32] penulis sejarah mulai melaporkan tentang musik blues di Selatan Texas dan Deep Selatan pada awal abad ke-20. In particular, Charles Peabody mentioned the appearance of blues music at Clarksdale, Mississippi and Gate Thomas reported very similar songs in southern Texas around 1901–1902. Secara khusus, Charles Peabody menyebutkan penampilan musik blues di Clarksdale, Mississippi dan Gate Thomas melaporkan sama lagu yang sangat di Texas selatan sekitar 1901-1902. These observations coincide more or less with the remembrance of Jelly Roll Morton , who declared having heard blues for the first time in New Orleans in 1902; Ma Rainey , who remembered her first blues experience the same year in Missouri ; and WC Handy , who first heard the blues in Tutwiler, Mississippi in 1903. Observasi ini kurang lebih bertepatan dengan mengingat Jelly Roll Morton , yang menyatakan telah mendengar blues untuk pertama kalinya di New Orleans tahun 1902; Ma Rainey , yang ingat blues pertama mengalami tahun yang sama di Missouri , dan WC Handy , pertama yang mendengar blues di Tutwiler, Mississippi pada tahun 1903. The first extensive research in the field was performed by Howard W. Odum , who published a large anthology of folk songs in the counties of Lafayette, Mississippi and Newton, Georgia between 1905 and 1908. [ 33 ] The first non-commercial recordings of blues music, termed "proto-blues" by Paul Oliver , were made by Odum at the very beginning of the 20th century for research purposes. Penelitian ekstensif pertama di lapangan dilakukan oleh Howard W. Odum , yang menerbitkan antologi besar lagu-lagu rakyat di kabupaten dari Lafayette, Mississippi dan Newton, Georgia antara 1905 dan 1908. [33] Rekaman non-komersial pertama blues musik, disebut "proto-blues" oleh Paul Oliver , dibuat oleh Odum pada awal abad ke-20 untuk tujuan penelitian. They are now utterly lost. [ 34 ] Other recordings that are still available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert . Mereka sekarang sama sekali hilang. [34] rekaman lain yang masih tersedia dibuat pada tahun 1924 oleh Lawrence Gellert . Later, several recordings were made by Robert W. Gordon , who became head of the Archive of American Folk Songs of the Library of Congress . Kemudian, beberapa rekaman yang dibuat oleh Robert W. Gordon , yang menjadi kepala Arsip Lagu Rakyat Amerika dari Perpustakaan Kongres . Gordon's successor at the Library was John Lomax . Gordon's penerus di Perpustakaan John Lomax . In the 1930s, together with his son Alan , Lomax made a large number of non-commercial blues recordings that testify to the huge variety of proto-blues styles, such as field hollers and ring shouts . [ 35 ] A record of blues music as it existed before the 1920s is also given by the recordings of artists such as Lead Belly [ 36 ] or Henry Thomas [ 37 ] who both performed archaic blues music. Pada 1930, bersama dengan anaknya Alan , Lomax membuat sejumlah besar komersial non-rekaman blues yang bersaksi dengan berbagai macam gaya proto-blues, seperti berteriak lapangan dan cincin berteriak . [35] Sebuah catatan musik blues sebagai itu ada sebelum tahun 1920 juga diberikan oleh seniman rekaman seperti Belly Lead [36] atau Thomas Henry [37] yang baik yang dilakukan blues musik kuno. All these sources show the existence of many different structures distinct from the twelve- , eight- , or sixteen-bar . [ 38 ] [ 39 ] Semua sumber ini menunjukkan adanya struktur yang berbeda berbeda dari dua belas , delapan , atau -bar enam belas . [38] [39]
The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known. [ 40 ] The first appearance of the blues is often dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863 , [ 31 ] between 1870 and 1900, a period that coincides with Emancipation and, later, the development of juke joints as places where Blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble after a hard day's work. [ 41 ] This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. Dan ekonomi alasan sosial untuk munculnya blues yang tidak sepenuhnya diketahui. [40] Penampilan pertama dari blues sering tertanggal setelah Undang-Undang Emansipasi 1863 , [31] antara 1870 dan 1900, jangka waktu yang bertepatan dengan Emansipasi dan , kemudian, pengembangan sendi juke sebagai tempat di mana Black pergi untuk mendengarkan musik, tari, atau berjudi setelah keras hari kerja. [41] Periode ini berhubungan dengan transisi dari perbudakan bagi hasil, skala produksi pertanian kecil, dan perluasan kereta api di Amerika Serikat bagian selatan. Several scholars characterize the early 1900s development of blues music as a move from group performances to a more individualized style. Beberapa sarjana ciri awal 1900-an perkembangan musik blues sebagai langkah dari pertunjukan grup ke gaya yang lebih individual. They argue that the development of the blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people. Mereka berpendapat bahwa perkembangan blues dikaitkan dengan kebebasan yang baru diperoleh rakyat diperbudak. According to Lawrence Levine , "there was a direct relationship between the national ideological emphasis upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington 's teachings, and the rise of the blues." Menurut Lawrence Levine , "ada hubungan langsung antara penekanan ideologi nasional pada individu, popularitas Booker T. Washington ajaran ', dan munculnya blues. " Levine states that "psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did." [ 42 ] Levine menyatakan bahwa "psikologis, sosial, dan ekonomi, Afrika-Amerika sedang terakulturasi dengan cara yang tidak mungkin selama perbudakan, dan ini tidak mengherankan bahwa musik sekuler mereka tercermin ini sebanyak musik keagamaan mereka lakukan." [42 ]
There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performances. [ 43 ] However, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues. Ada beberapa karakteristik umum untuk semua musik blues, karena genre mengambil bentuk dari keistimewaan kinerja individu. [43] Namun, ada beberapa karakteristik yang hadir jauh sebelum penciptaan blues modern. Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music; they were a "functional expression ... style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure." [ 44 ] A form of this pre-blues was heard in slave ring shouts and field hollers , expanded into "simple solo songs laden with emotional content". [ 45 ] Call-dan-respons teriakan itu merupakan bentuk awal seperti musik blues, mereka adalah "ekspresi fungsional ... gaya tanpa iringan atau kerukunan dan tak terbatas oleh formalitas dari struktur musik tertentu." [44] Suatu bentuk ini pra -blues terdengar di budak ring teriakan dan lapangan berteriak , berkembang menjadi "lagu-lagu solo sederhana sarat dengan isi emosional". [45]
Blues has evolved from the unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves imported from West Africa and rural blacks into a wide variety of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States. Blues telah berkembang dari musik vokal tanpa pendamping dan tradisi lisan dari budak didatangkan dari Afrika Barat dan kulit hitam pedesaan menjadi berbagai macam gaya dan subgenre, dengan variasi regional di seluruh Amerika Serikat. Though blues, as it is now known, can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the African call-and-response tradition, transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar, [ 46 ] [ 47 ] the blues form itself bears no resemblance to the melodic styles of the West African griots , and the influences are faint and tenuous. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] In particular, no specific African musical form can be identified as the single direct ancestor of the blues. [ 50 ] However many blues elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa . Meskipun blues, seperti yang sekarang dikenal, dapat dilihat sebagai gaya musik yang didasarkan pada kedua Eropa struktur yang harmonis dan tradisi panggilan-dan-respons Afrika, berubah menjadi saling keterkaitan antara suara dan gitar, [46] [47] blues bentuk sendiri tidak memiliki kemiripan dengan gaya melodi dari Afrika Barat griots , dan pengaruh yang samar-samar dan lemah. [48] [49] Secara khusus, tidak ada bentuk musik Afrika yang spesifik dapat diidentifikasi sebagai nenek moyang langsung tunggal dari blues. [50 ] Namun banyak elemen blues, seperti-dan-respons format panggilan dan penggunaan catatan biru, dapat ditelusuri kembali ke musik Afrika . That blue notes pre-date their use in blues and have an African origin is attested by English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor 's "A Negro Love Song", from his The African Suite for Piano composed in 1898, which contains blue third and seventh notes . [ 51 ] The Diddley bow (a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century) and the banjo are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of African performance techniques into the early blues instrumental vocabulary. [ 52 ] The banjo seems to be directly imported from western African music. Itu catatan biru pra-date penggunaannya dalam blues dan memiliki asal Afrika dibuktikan oleh komposer Inggris Samuel Taylor Coleridge- 's "A Negro Love Song", dari Suite nya Afrika ini untuk Piano disusun pada tahun 1898, yang berisi biru ketiga dan ketujuh catatan . [51] The busur Diddley (alat satu-senar buatan sendiri ditemukan di bagian Amerika Selatan pada awal abad kedua puluh) dan banjo adalah instrumen yang diturunkan dari Afrika yang mungkin telah membantu dalam transfer teknik kinerja Afrika ke awal blues kosakata instrumental. [52] banjo tampaknya langsung diimpor dari musik Afrika barat. It is similar to the musical instrument that griots and other Africans such as the Igbo [ 53 ] played (called halam or akonting by African peoples such as the Wolof , Fula and Madinka ). [ 54 ] However, in the 1920s, when country blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite marginal and limited to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon . [ 55 ] Hal ini mirip dengan alat musik yang griots dan Afrika lain seperti Igbo [53] memainkan (disebut Halam atau akonting oleh masyarakat Afrika seperti Wolof , Fula dan Madinka ). [54] Namun, pada tahun 1920, ketika negara blues mulai dicatat, penggunaan banjo dalam musik blues sangat marjinal dan terbatas kepada individu seperti Papa Charlie Jackson dan kemudian Gus Cannon . [55]
Blues music also adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals , including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment. [ 56 ] The style also was closely related to ragtime , which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music". [ 57 ] musik Blues juga mengadopsi unsur-unsur dari "mengudara Ethiopia", menunjukkan penyanyi dan rohaniwan Negro , termasuk dan harmonik iringan instrumental. [56] gaya ini juga terkait erat dengan ragtime , yang dikembangkan pada waktu yang sama, meskipun blues lebih baik diawetkan " asli pola melodi musik Afrika ". [57]

Charlie Patton , one of the originators of the Delta blues style, playing with a pick or a bottleneck slide . Charlie Patton , salah satu pencetus gaya blues Delta, bermain dengan memilih atau bottleneck slide .
The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern " country music " arose in the same regions during the nineteenth century in the southern United States. Bentuk dan gaya musik yang sekarang dianggap sebagai "blues" serta modern " musik country "muncul di daerah yang sama selama abad kesembilan belas di Amerika Serikat bagian selatan. Recorded blues and country can be found from as far back as the 1920s, when the popular record industry developed and created marketing categories called " race music " and " hillbilly music " to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. blues direkam dan negara dapat ditemukan dari sejauh 1920-an, ketika industri rekaman populer dikembangkan dan kategori pemasaran dibuat disebut " musik ras "dan" musik orang udik "untuk menjual musik dengan kulit hitam untuk orang kulit hitam dan putih untuk kulit putih, masing-masing. At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country," except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Though musicologists can now attempt to define “the blues” narrowly in terms of certain chord structures and lyric strategies thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences originally heard the music in a far more general way: it was simply the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta. Pada saat itu, tidak ada pembagian yang jelas antara musik "blues" dan "negara," kecuali untuk etnis dari pelaku, dan bahkan kadang-kadang salah didokumentasikan oleh perusahaan rekaman. [58] [59] Meskipun ahli musik sekarang dapat mencoba untuk mendefinisikan "blues" sempit dalam hal struktur chord tertentu dan strategi lirik diperkirakan berasal di Afrika Barat, penonton awalnya mendengar musik dengan cara yang jauh lebih umum: itu hanya musik dari selatan pedesaan, terutama Delta Mississippi. Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and thought of themselves as “ songsters ” rather than “blues musicians.” The notion of blues as a separate genre arose during the black migration from the countryside to urban areas in the 1920s and the simultaneous development of the recording industry. Hitam dan putih musisi berbagi repertoar yang sama dan menganggap diri mereka sebagai " songsters "daripada" musisi blues. "Gagasan blues sebagai genre yang terpisah muncul selama migrasi hitam dari pedesaan ke daerah perkotaan pada tahun 1920 dan pengembangan simultan industri rekaman. “Blues” became a code word for a record designed to sell to black listeners. [ 60 ] "Blues" menjadi sebuah kata kode untuk sebuah catatan yang dirancang untuk menjual kepada pendengar hitam. [60]
The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals . Asal-usul blues erat terkait dengan musik religius dari masyarakat Afro-Amerika, yang spiritual . The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, usually dating back to the middle of the 18th century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymns , in particular those of Isaac Watts , which were very popular. [ 61 ] Before the blues gained its formal definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. Asal-usul rohaniwan kembali lebih jauh dari blues, biasanya dating kembali ke pertengahan abad ke-18, ketika budak dikristenkan dan mulai menyanyi dan bermain Kristen himne , khususnya yang dari Isaac Watts , yang sangat populer. [ 61] Sebelum blues diperoleh definisi formal dalam hal progresi chord, itu didefinisikan sebagai mitra sekuler dari spiritual. It was the low-down music played by the rural Blacks. Itu adalah musik yang rendah-down yang dimainkan oleh Black pedesaan. Depending on the religious community a musician belonged to, it was more or less considered as a sin to play this low-down music: blues was the devil's music. Tergantung pada komunitas religius seorang musisi milik, itu lebih atau kurang dianggap sebagai suatu dosa untuk memainkan musik ini rendah-down: blues adalah musik setan. Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories: gospel and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters. Musisi karena itu dipisahkan menjadi dua kategori: penyanyi Injil dan blues, pengkhotbah gitar dan songsters. However, at the time rural Black music began to get recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used very similar techniques: call-and-response patterns, blue notes, and slide guitars. Namun, pada saat itu pedesaan musik Black mulai mendapatkan dicatat pada tahun 1920, kedua kategori musisi digunakan sangat teknik yang mirip: pola panggilan-dan-respons, catatan biru, dan gitar slide. Gospel music was nevertheless using musical forms that were compatible with Christian hymns and therefore less marked by the blues form than its secular counterpart. [ 62 ] musik Injil tetap menggunakan bentuk musik yang kompatibel dengan himne Kristen dan karena itu kurang ditandai dengan bentuk blues daripada rekan sekuler. [62]

[ edit ] Pre-war blues [ sunting ] Pra-perang blues

The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music. Amerika lembaran musik industri penerbitan menghasilkan banyak ragtime musik. By 1912, the sheet music industry had published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues" by "Baby" F. Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews ), "Dallas Blues" by Hart Wand and " The Memphis Blues " by WC Handy . [ 63 ] Pada 1912, industri musik lembaran telah menerbitkan tiga komposisi blues-seperti populer, mempercepat para Tin Pan Alley Penerapan elemen blues: "Baby Seal 'Blues" dengan "Baby" F. Stempel (diatur oleh Artie Matthews ), "Dallas Blues" oleh Hart Wand dan " The Blues Memphis "oleh WC Handy . [63]

Sheet music from " St. Louis Blues " (1914) Lembaran musik dari " St Louis Blues "(1914)
Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers. Handy adalah seorang musisi yang terlatih secara formal, komposer dan arranger yang membantu mempopulerkan blues dengan mencatat dan mendalangi blues dengan gaya hampir simfoni, dengan band dan penyanyi. He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime; [ 25 ] [ 64 ] Handy's signature work was the " St. Louis Blues ". Ia menjadi populer dan komposer produktif, dan ditagih dirinya sebagai "Bapak Blues", namun, komposisi dapat digambarkan sebagai perpaduan antara blues dengan ragtime dan jazz, merger difasilitasi menggunakan Kuba Habanera irama yang telah lama menjadi bagian dari ragtime; [25] [64] tanda tangan Handy karya tersebut adalah " St Louis Blues ".
In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of African American and American popular music, reaching white audiences via Handy's arrangements and the classic female blues performers. Pada 1920-an, blues menjadi elemen utama Amerika Afrika dan musik Amerika populer, menjangkau khalayak putih melalui pengaturan Handy dan perempuan klasik blues performer. The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Blues berkembang dari pertunjukan informal di bar untuk hiburan di bioskop. Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. pertunjukan Blues yang diselenggarakan oleh Teater Pemilik bookers Asosiasi di klub malam seperti Cotton Club dan sendi juke seperti bar di sepanjang Jalan Beale di Memphis. Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation , Okeh Records , and Paramount Records , began to record African American music. Beberapa perusahaan rekaman, seperti Amerika Record Corporation , Okeh Records , dan Paramount Records , mulai merekam musik African American.
As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Jimmie Rodgers (country singer) , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community. Sebagai industri rekaman tumbuh, negara blues performer seperti Bo Carter , Jimmie Rodgers (penyanyi country) , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Merah dan Blind Blake menjadi lebih populer di masyarakat African American. Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle. [ 65 ] The slide guitar became an important part of the Delta blues . [ 66 ] The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished 'city' or urban blues. Kelahiran Kentucky Sylvester Weaver adalah pada tahun 1923 yang pertama untuk merekam gitar slide gaya, di mana gitar adalah cemas dengan pisau pisau atau-off menggergaji leher dari botol. [65] The gitar slide menjadi bagian penting dari Delta blues . [66] The blues pertama rekaman dari tahun 1920 dikategorikan sebagai tradisional pedesaan blues negara dan kota 'lebih halus' atau blues perkotaan.
Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. Country blues performer sering improvisasi, baik tanpa iringan atau hanya dengan banjo atau gitar. Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century. gaya Daerah blues negara bervariasi secara luas di awal abad 20. The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. The (Mississippi) Delta blues adalah gaya tipis rootsy dengan vokal gairah disertai oleh slide gitar. The little-recorded Robert Johnson [ 67 ] combined elements of urban and rural blues. Kecil-dicatat Robert Johnson [67] unsur gabungan dari blues perkotaan dan pedesaan. In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House . Selain Robert Johnson, pemain berpengaruh gaya ini termasuk pendahulunya Charley Patton dan Anak House . Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique. Penyanyi seperti Blind Willie McTell dan Blind Boy Fuller dilakukan di tenggara "lembut dan liris" Piedmont blues tradisi, yang digunakan yang didasarkan rumit ragtime- fingerpicking teknik gitar. Georgia also had an early slide tradition, [ 68 ] with Curley Weaver , Tampa Red , "Barbecue Bob" Hicks and James "Kokomo" Arnold as representatives of this style. [ 69 ] Georgia juga memiliki tradisi slide awal, [68] dengan Curley Weaver , Tampa Red , "Barbecue Bob" Hicks dan James "Kokomo" Arnold sebagai perwakilan gaya ini. [69]
The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee , was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers . Yang meriah Memphis blues gaya, yang dikembangkan pada tahun 1920 dan 1930-an dekat Memphis, Tennessee , dipengaruhi oleh jug band seperti Memphis Jug Band atau Cannon Gus Jug Stompers . Performers such as Frank Stokes , Sleepy John Estes , Robert Wilkins , Joe McCoy , Casey Bill Weldon and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard , fiddle , kazoo or mandolin . Artis seperti Frank Stokes , Sleepy John Estes , Robert Wilkins , Joe McCoy , Casey Bill Weldon dan Memphis Minnie menggunakan berbagai instrumen yang tidak biasa seperti papan cuci , biola , kazoo atau mandolin . Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style. Memphis Minnie terkenal baginya virtuoso gitar gaya. Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his distinct style was smoother and had some swing elements. Pianis Memphis Slim memulai karirnya di Memphis, namun gaya yang berbeda-nya halus dan memiliki beberapa elemen ayunan. Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement, which blended country music and electric blues. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Banyak musisi blues yang berbasis di Memphis pindah ke Chicago pada akhir tahun 1930 atau awal 1940-an dan menjadi bagian dari gerakan blues perkotaan, negara mana dicampur musik blues dan listrik. [70] [71] [72]

Bessie Smith , an early blues singer, was known for her powerful voice. Bessie Smith , seorang penyanyi blues awal, dikenal karena suara yang kuat dia.
City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic. [ 73 ] Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them Mamie Smith , Gertrude "Ma" Rainey , Bessie Smith , and Victoria Spivey . Kota atau perkotaan blues gaya lebih dikodifikasi dan rumit sebagai artis tidak lagi di dalam, mereka langsung masyarakat setempat dan harus beradaptasi dengan yang lebih besar bervariasi lebih penonton, estetika suatu. [73] Classic perempuan perkotaan dan vaudeville blues penyanyi populer di tahun 1920 , di antara mereka Mamie Smith , Gertrude "Ma" Rainey , Bessie Smith , dan Victoria Spivey . Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first African-American to record a blues in 1920; her second record, "Crazy Blues", sold 75,000 copies in its first month. [ 74 ] Ma Rainey , the "Mother of Blues", and Bessie Smith each "[sang] around center tones, perhaps in order to project her voice more easily to the back of a room." Mamie Smith, lebih pemain vaudeville dari artis blues, adalah yang pertama Afrika-Amerika untuk merekam blues pada tahun 1920; catatan kedua, "Crazy Blues", terjual 75.000 eksemplar pada bulan pertama. [74] Ma Rainey , yang " Bunda Blues ", dan Bessie Smith masing-masing" [menyanyi] di sekitar pusat nada, mungkin dalam rangka proyek suaranya lebih mudah ke bagian belakang sebuah ruangan. " Smith would "...sing a song in an unusual key, and her artistry in bending and stretching notes with her beautiful, powerful contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed." [ 75 ] Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such Tampa Red , Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr . Smith akan "... menyanyikan sebuah lagu dalam kunci yang tidak biasa, dan kesenian di membungkuk dan peregangan catatan dengan dia, kuat kontralto indah untuk mengakomodasi interpretasi sendiri adalah tak tertandingi." [75] Urban penyanyi laki-laki termasuk musisi hitam populer era , seperti Tampa Red , Big Bill Broonzy dan Leroy Carr . A important label of this era was the chicagoean Bluebird label. Label penting dari era ini adalah chicagoean Bluebird label. Before WWII, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". Sebelum Perang Dunia II, Tampa Merah kadang-kadang disebut sebagai "Wizard Guitar". Carr accompanied himself on the piano with Scrapper Blackwell on guitar, a format that continued well into the 50s with people such as Charles Brown , and even Nat "King" Cole . [ 66 ] Carr disertai dirinya pada piano dengan Scrapper Blackwell pada gitar, sebuah format yang terus berlanjut ke dalam 50-an dengan orang-orang seperti Charles Brown , dan bahkan Nat "King" Cole . [66]

A typical boogie-woogie bassline Sebuah bassline boogie-woogie khas
Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. [ 76 ] While the style is often associated with solo piano, boogie-woogie was also used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and small combos. Boogie-woogie adalah gaya lain penting 1930-an dan awal 1940-an blues perkotaan. [76] Sementara gaya sering dikaitkan dengan solo piano, boogie-woogie juga dipakai untuk mengiringi penyanyi dan, sebagai bagian solo, di band dan combo kecil. Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or riff and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each chord and trills and decorations in the right hand. Boogie-Woogie gaya ditandai oleh seorang tokoh bass biasa, sebuah ostinato atau riff dan pergeseran tingkat di tangan kiri, menguraikan setiap chord dan trills dan dekorasi di tangan kanan. Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio ( Albert Ammons , Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis ). [ 77 ] Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines , who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand." [ 73 ] The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. Boogie-woogie dipelopori oleh berbasis di Chicago Yance Jimmy dan Boogie-Woogie Trio ( Albert Ammons , Pete Johnson dan Meade Lux Lewis ). [77] Chicago boogie-woogie artis termasuk Clarence "Pine Top" Smith dan Earl Hines , yang "mengaitkan irama propulsif kiri dari pianis ragtime dengan angka melodi mirip dengan Armstrong's sangkakala di tangan kanan." [73] Gaya Louisiana kelancaran Profesor penggemar musik klasik dan, baru-baru ini, Dr John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles. John memadukan irama klasik dan blues dengan gaya blues.
Another development in this period was big band blues. [ 78 ] The " territory bands " operating out of Kansas City , the Benny Moten orchestra, Jay McShann , and the Count Basie Orchestra were also concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie's " One O'Clock Jump " and " Jumpin' at the Woodside " and boisterous " blues shouting " by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as "Going to Chicago" and " Sent for You Yesterday ". Perkembangan lain dalam periode ini adalah big band blues. [78] The " band wilayah "beroperasi dari Kansas City , para Benny Moten orkestra, Jay McShann , dan Count Basie Orchestra juga berkonsentrasi pada blues, dengan bar blues instrumental-12 seperti Basie's " Satu o'Clock Langsung "dan" Jumpin 'di Woodside "dan riuh" blues berteriak "oleh Jimmy Rushing pada lagu seperti "Going to Chicago" dan " Sent untuk Anda Kemarin ". A well-known big band blues tune is Glenn Miller 's " In the Mood ". A-dikenal baik besar lagu blues band Glenn Miller s '" Dalam Mood ". In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. Pada 1940-an, blues melompat gaya dikembangkan. Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by big band music. blues Langsung dibesarkan dari gelombang woogie boogie dan itu sangat dipengaruhi oleh big band musik. It uses saxophone or other brass instruments and the guitar in the rhythm section to create a jazzy, up-tempo sound with declamatory vocals. Menggunakan saxophone atau instrumen kuningan dan gitar di bagian irama untuk membuat up, dengan tempo suara jazzy dengan vokal dgn rasa besar. Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner , based in Kansas City, Missouri , influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues . [ 79 ] Dallas-born T-Bone Walker , which is often associated to the California blues style, [ 80 ] performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à la Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the jump blues style and dominated the blues-jazz scene at Los Angeles during the 1940s. [ 81 ] Langsung lagu-lagu blues oleh Louis Jordan dan Big Joe Turner , yang berbasis di Kansas City, Missouri , mempengaruhi perkembangan gaya kemudian seperti rock and roll dan rhythm and blues . [79] kelahiran Dallas T-Bone Walker , yang sering diasosiasikan di California blues gaya, [80] melakukan transisi yang sukses dari awal blues perkotaan à la Lonnie Johnson dan Leroy Carr ke blues gaya melompat dan mendominasi blues-jazz scene di Los Angeles selama tahun 1940-an. [81]

[ edit ] 1950s [ sunting ] 1950

The transition from country to urban blues, that began in the 1920s, had always been driven by the successive waves of economic crisis and booms and the associated move of the rural Blacks to urban areas, the Great Migration . Transisi dari satu negara ke blues perkotaan, yang dimulai pada tahun 1920, selalu didorong oleh gelombang krisis ekonomi dan boom dan bergerak terkait keluarga Black pedesaan ke daerah perkotaan, Migrasi Besar . The long boom in the aftermath of World War II induced a massive migration of the African American population, the Second Great Migration , which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban Blacks. The boom panjang pada masa setelah Perang Dunia II memicu migrasi besar-besaran dari penduduk Amerika Afrika, Migrasi Besar Kedua , yang disertai dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari pendapatan riil keluarga Black perkotaan. The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry. Para migran baru merupakan pasar baru untuk industri musik. The name race record disappeared and was succeeded by Rhythm and Blues . Nama catatan ras menghilang dan digantikan oleh Rhythm dan Blues . This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by the Billboard Rhythm and Blues Chart . Ini berkembang pesat pasar telah dicerminkan oleh Billboard Rhythm dan Blues Chart . This marketing strategy reinforced trends within urban blues music such as the progressive electrification of the instruments, their amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, that became ubiquitous in R&B. Strategi pemasaran diperkuat tren dalam musik blues perkotaan seperti listrik progresif instrumen, amplifikasi mereka dan generalisasi dari blues beat, shuffle blues, yang menjadi mana-mana dalam R & B. This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music which, together with Jazz and Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave. [ 82 ] Aliran komersial ini memiliki konsekuensi penting terhadap musik blues yang bersama-sama dengan dan Injil musik Jazz, menjadi komponen dari gelombang R & B. [82]

Muddy Waters , described as "the guiding light of the modern blues school" [ 83 ] Muddy Waters , digambarkan sebagai "cahaya membimbing sekolah blues modern" [83]
After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , [ 84 ] Memphis , [ 85 ] Detroit [ 86 ] [ 87 ] and St. Setelah Perang Dunia II dan pada 1950-an, gaya baru blues listrik musik menjadi populer di kota-kota seperti Chicago , [84] Memphis , [85] Detroit [86] [87] dan St Louis . [ 88 ] Electric blues used electric guitars , double bass (slowly replaced by bass guitar ), drums, and harmonica played through a microphone and a PA system or a guitar amplifier . Louis . [88] Electric blues digunakan gitar listrik , double bass (perlahan-lahan digantikan oleh gitar bass ), drum, dan harmonika diputar melalui mikrofon dan sistem PA atau amplifier gitar . Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his first success: "I Can't Be Satisfied". [ 89 ] Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by the Mississippi blues style, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region. Howlin' Wolf , [ 90 ] Muddy Waters , [ 91 ] Willie Dixon , [ 92 ] and Jimmy Reed [ 93 ] were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration . Chicago menjadi pusat blues listrik dari tahun 1948, ketika Muddy Waters mencatat keberhasilan yang pertama: "Saya Tidak Dapat Puas". [89] blues Chicago dipengaruhi untuk sebagian besar oleh blues Mississippi gaya, karena pemain banyak yang bermigrasi dari Mississippi daerah. Howlin 'Wolf , [90] Muddy Waters , [91] Willie Dixon , [92] dan Jimmy Reed [93] semua lahir di Mississippi dan pindah ke Chicago selama Migrasi Besar . Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica , and a rhythm section of bass and drums. JT Brown who played in Elmore James 's bands, [ 94 ] or JB Lenoir 's [ 95 ] also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments. gaya mereka ditandai dengan menggunakan gitar listrik, kadang-kadang gitar slide, harmonika , dan sebuah seksi ritme bass dan drum. JT Brown yang bermain di Elmore James 'band s, [94] atau JB Lenoir 's [95] juga digunakan saksofon, tetapi ini digunakan lebih sebagai "backing" atau dukungan berirama daripada sebagai instrumen solo.
Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called " harp " by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. Little Walter dan Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) sangat terkenal harmonika (disebut " kecapi "oleh musisi blues) pemain dari Chicago blues scene awal. Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. pemain harpa lainnya seperti Big Walter Horton juga berpengaruh. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. Muddy Waters dan Elmore James dikenal untuk penggunaan inovatif mereka slide gitar listrik. Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices. Howlin 'Wolf dan Muddy Waters yang dikenal dengan mereka yang mendalam, "serak" suara.
Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. Bassist dan komposer Willie Dixon memainkan peran utama pada adegan blues Chicago. He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as " Hoochie Coochie Man ", " I Just Want to Make Love to You " (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, " Wang Dang Doodle " and " Back Door Man " for Howlin' Wolf. Ia terdiri dan menulis banyak standar blues lagu periode, seperti " Jalang Coochie Man "," I Just Wanna Make Love To You "(keduanya ditulis untuk Muddy Waters) dan," Wang Dang Doodle "dan" Back Door Man " untuk Wolf Howlin '. Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels. Kebanyakan seniman dari gaya blues Chicago dicatat untuk Chicago berbasis Chess Records dan Records Checker label. Smaller blues labels of this era included Vee-Jay Records and JOB Records . Kecil blues label era ini termasuk Vee-Jay Records dan JOB Records . During the early 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips ' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded BB King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960. [ 96 ] After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the rapidly expanding white audience and started recording mostly rock 'n' roll. [ 97 ] Pada awal 1950-an, Chicago mendominasi label ditantang oleh Sam Phillips ' Sun Records di Memphis perusahaan, yang dicatat BB King dan Howlin 'Wolf sebelum ia pindah ke Chicago pada tahun 1960. [96] Setelah Phillips menemukan Elvis Presley pada tahun 1954, Matahari label berpaling kepada penonton putih berkembang dengan cepat dan mulai merekam kebanyakan rock 'n' roll. [97]
In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music. Pada tahun 1950, blues memiliki pengaruh besar pada musik populer mainstream Amerika. While popular musicians like Bo Diddley [ 86 ] and Chuck Berry , [ 98 ] both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. Sementara musisi populer seperti Bo Diddley [86] dan Chuck Berry , [98] baik rekaman untuk Catur, dipengaruhi oleh blues Chicago, bermain antusias gaya mereka berangkat dari aspek melankolis blues. Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana 's zydeco music, [ 99 ] with Clifton Chenier [ 100 ] using blues accents. Chicago blues juga dipengaruhi Louisiana s ' zydeco musik, [99] dengan Clifton Chenier [100] blues menggunakan aksen. Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards. Zydeco digunakan musisi solo gitar listrik dan Cajun pengaturan standar blues.
Overseas, in England, electric blues took root there during a much acclaimed Muddy Waters tour. Luar negeri, di Inggris, blues listrik berakar di sana selama tur diakui banyak Muddy Waters. Waters, unsuspecting of his audience's tendency towards skiffle , an acoustic, softer brand of blues, turned up his amp and started to play his Chicago brand of electric blues. Waters, tidak curiga dari audiens kecenderungan ke arah skiffle , seorang lembut, merek akustik blues, muncul amp dan mulai untuk bermain di merek Chicago blues listrik. Although the audience was largely jolted by the performance, the performance influenced local musicians such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies to emulate this louder style, inspiring the British invasion of the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. [ 101 ] Meskipun sebagian besar penonton dikejutkan oleh kinerja, kinerja dipengaruhi musisi lokal seperti Alexis Korner dan Cyril Davies meniru gaya, lebih keras inspirasi invasi Inggris dari Rolling Stones dan Yardbirds. [101]

Otis Rush , a pioneer of the 'West Side Sound' Otis Rush , pelopor dari 'Sound West Side'
In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam , Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records . [ 102 ] The 'West Side Sound' had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as pefected by Guy, Freddie King , Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] Pada akhir 1950-an, gaya blues baru muncul di Chicago West Side dipelopori oleh Magic Sam , Buddy Guy dan Otis Rush pada Cobra Records . [102] The 'West Side Sound' mendapat dukungan berirama kuat dari gitar irama, gitar bass dan drum dan sebagai pefected oleh Guy, Freddie King , Magic Slim dan Luther Allison didominasi oleh timbal gitar listrik diperkuat. [103] [104]

John Lee Hooker created his own blues style and renewed it several times during his long career. John Lee Hooker menciptakan blues gaya sendiri dan diperpanjang beberapa kali selama karir yang panjang.
Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. Lain blues seniman, seperti John Lee Hooker berpengaruh tidak berkaitan langsung dengan gaya Chicago. John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. blues John Lee Hooker adalah lebih "pribadi", berdasarkan suara berat kasar Hooker's disertai dengan gitar listrik tunggal. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". Meskipun tidak langsung dipengaruhi oleh boogie woogie, "groovy" gayanya kadang-kadang disebut "gitar boogie". His first hit, " Boogie Chillen ", reached #1 on the R&B charts in 1949. [ 105 ] Hit pertamanya, " Boogie Chillen ", mencapai # 1 di tangga lagu R & B pada tahun 1949. [105]
By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge , with performers such as Lightnin' Slim , [ 106 ] Slim Harpo , [ 107 ] Sam Myers and Jerry McCain around the producer JD "Jay" Miller and the Excello label. Pada tahun 1950-an, blues rawa genre dikembangkan dekat Baton Rouge , dengan artis seperti petir 'Slim , [106] Slim Harpo , [107] Sam Myers dan Jerry McCain sekitar produser JD "Jay" Miller dan Excello label. Strongly influenced by Jimmy Reed , Swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters. Sangat dipengaruhi oleh Jimmy Reed , blues Rawa memiliki kecepatan lebih lambat dan penggunaan sederhana dari harmonika dari para pemain Chicago gaya blues seperti Little Walter atau Muddy Waters. Songs from this genre include "Scratch my Back", "She's Tough" and " I'm a King Bee ". Lagu-lagu dari genre ini termasuk "Scratch Kembali saya", "Dia Tough" dan " Saya Bee King ".

[ edit ] 1960s and 1970s [ sunting ] 1960-an dan 1970-an

By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music. Pada awal 1960-an, genre dipengaruhi oleh musik Amerika Afrika seperti rock and roll dan jiwa adalah bagian dari musik populer mainstream. White performers had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the US and abroad. artis White telah membawa musik Afrika-Amerika untuk pemirsa baru, baik di dalam AS dan luar negeri. However, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped. Namun, gelombang blues yang membawa artis seperti Muddy Waters untuk latar depan telah berhenti. Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe. Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad. Bluesmen seperti Big Bill Broonzy dan Willie Dixon mulai mencari pasar baru di Eropa. Dick Waterman dan festival blues ia diselenggarakan di Eropa memainkan peran utama dalam menyebarkan musik blues di luar negeri. In the UK, bands emulated US blues legends, and UK blues-rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s. [ 108 ] Di Inggris, band menyamai legenda blues AS, dan Inggris-rock band berbasis blues memiliki peran yang berpengaruh sepanjang tahun 1960-an. [108]

Blues legend BB King with his guitar, "Lucille". Legenda blues BB King dengan gitar nya, "Lucille".
Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York–born Taj Mahal . John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a musical style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie . BB King 's virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". artis Blues seperti John Lee Hooker dan Muddy Waters terus dilakukan untuk khalayak antusias, artis baru inspirasi mendalam dalam blues tradisional, seperti New York yang lahir di Taj Mahal . John Lee Hooker campuran gaya blues-nya dengan unsur rock dan bermain dengan musisi muda putih , menciptakan sebuah gaya musik yang dapat didengar pada album 1971 Endless Boogie. BB King 's teknik gitar virtuoso yang dia "eponymous judul" raja blues. In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp. Tennessee -born Bobby "Blue" Bland , like BB King, also straddled the blues and R&B genres. Berbeda dengan gaya Chicago,'s band Raja digunakan dukungan kuningan yang kuat dari saksofon, terompet, dan trombon, daripada menggunakan gitar slide atau kecapi. Tennessee kelahiran Bobby "Blue" Bland , seperti BB King, juga duduk blues dan & B genre R . During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton, Booker T & the MGs ) and had a major influence on those styles of music. Selama periode ini, Freddie King dan Albert King sering bermain dengan dan jiwa musisi rock (Eric Clapton, Booker T & the MGS ) dan memiliki pengaruh besar pada orang-orang gaya musik.
The music of the Civil Rights [ 109 ] and Free Speech movements in the US prompted a resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music . Musik dari Hak-Hak Sipil [109] dan Free Speech gerakan di AS mendorong kebangkitan kepentingan dalam akar musik Amerika dan musik Afrika Amerika awal . As well as Jimmi Bass Music festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival [ 110 ] brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House , Mississippi John Hurt , Skip James , and Reverend Gary Davis . [ 109 ] Many compilations of classic prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records . JB Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. Selain Jimmi Bass Musik festival seperti Newport Folk Festival [110] membawa blues tradisional untuk audiens baru, yang membantu untuk menghidupkan kembali minat blues akustik sebelum perang dan penyanyi seperti Anak House , Mississippi John Hurt , Skip James , dan Pendeta Gary Davis . [109] Banyak kompilasi blues sebelum perang klasik yang diterbitkan oleh Yazoo Records . JB Lenoir dari gerakan blues Chicago pada tahun 1950 tercatat beberapa piringan hitam dengan menggunakan gitar akustik, kadang-kadang disertai oleh Willie Dixon pada bass akustik atau drum. His songs, originally distributed in Europe only, [ 111 ] commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period. lagu-Nya, awalnya didistribusikan di Eropa saja, [111] Komentar tentang isu-isu politik seperti rasisme atau Perang Vietnam isu-isu, yang tidak biasa untuk periode ini. His Alabama Blues recording had a song that stated: Nya Alabama Blues rekaman memiliki sebuah lagu yang menyatakan:
I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me (2x) Aku tidak akan pernah kembali ke Alabama, yang tidak tempat untuk saya (2x)
You know they killed my sister and my brother, Kau tahu mereka membunuh adik saya dan adik saya,
and the whole world let them peoples go down there free dan seluruh dunia membiarkan mereka orang pergi ke sana gratis
White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band and the British blues movement. penonton kepentingan Putih di blues selama tahun 1960 meningkat karena berbasis di Chicago Paul Butterfield Blues Band dan blues Inggris gerakan. The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. [ 112 ] Many of Led Zeppelin 's earlier hits were renditions of traditional blues songs. Gaya blues Inggris yang dikembangkan di Inggris, ketika band-band seperti The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , dan Cream dan Irlandia musisi Rory Gallagher dilakukan blues lagu-lagu klasik dari Delta atau blues Chicago tradisi. [112] Banyak dari Led Zeppelin 's hits sebelumnya adalah renditions lagu-lagu blues tradisional.
The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including Canned Heat , the early Jefferson Airplane , Janis Joplin , Johnny Winter , The J. Geils Band , Ry Cooder , and The Allman Brothers Band . Dan blues musisi Inggris awal 1960-an mengilhami sejumlah Amerika rock blues fusi artis, termasuk Canned Heat , awal Jefferson Airplane , Janis Joplin , Johnny Winter , The J. Geils Band , Ry Cooder , dan The Allman Brothers Band . One blues rock performer, Jimi Hendrix , was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock . Satu blues rock artis, Jimi Hendrix , adalah jarang terjadi di lapangan pada saat itu: seorang pria kulit hitam yang bermain psychedelic rock . Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and feedback in his music. [ 113 ] Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music . [ 114 ] Hendrix adalah gitaris terampil, dan perintis dalam penggunaan inovatif distorsi dan umpan balik dalam musiknya. [113] Melalui seniman dan lain-lain, musik blues mempengaruhi perkembangan musik rock . [114]
Santana , which was originally called the Carlos Santana Blues Band , also experimented with Latin -influenced blues and blues-rock music around this time. Santana , yang semula disebut Carlos Santana Blues Band, juga bereksperimen dengan Latin -blues-rock dan dipengaruhi musik blues sekitar waktu ini. At the end of the 1950s appeared the very bluesy Tulsa Sound merging rock'n'roll, jazz and country influences. Pada akhir 1950-an muncul sangat bluesy Tulsa Sound penggabungan rock'n'roll, jazz dan pengaruh negara. This particular music style started to be broadly popularized within the 1970s by JJ Cale and the cover versions performed by Eric Clapton of " After Midnight " and " Cocaine ". Gaya musik tertentu mulai dipopulerkan secara luas dalam tahun 1970-an oleh JJ Cale dan versi cover yang dilakukan oleh Eric Clapton dari " Setelah Midnight "dan" Cocaine ".
In the early 1970s, The Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles. Pada awal 1970-an, The Texas gaya rock-blues muncul, yang digunakan gitar baik dan irama peran solo. In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement. Berbeda dengan blues West Side, gaya Texas sangat dipengaruhi oleh pergerakan rock-blues Inggris. Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter , Stevie Ray Vaughan , The Fabulous Thunderbirds , and ZZ Top . seniman utama dari gaya Texas adalah Johnny Winter , Stevie Ray Vaughan , The Fabulous Thunderbirds , dan ZZ Top . These artists all began their musical journey in the 1970s, but they did not achieve major international success until the next decade. [ 115 ] Para seniman ini semua memulai perjalanan musik mereka di tahun 1970, tetapi mereka tidak mencapai keberhasilan internasional utama sampai dekade berikutnya. [115]

[ edit ] 1980s to the 2000s [ sunting ] 1980 ke tahun 2000-an

Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions. Sejak 1980-an, telah ada kebangkitan kepentingan dalam blues antara bagian tertentu dari penduduk Afrika-Amerika, khususnya di sekitar Jackson, Mississippi dan mendalam Selatan daerah. Often termed " soul blues " or " Southern soul ", the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: [ 116 ] ZZ Hill 's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton 's The Blues is Alright (1984). Sering disebut " blues jiwa "atau" jiwa Selatan ", musik di jantung gerakan ini diberikan kehidupan baru oleh keberhasilan tak terduga dari dua rekaman khusus pada Jackson berbasis Malaco label: [116] ZZ Hill s 'Down Home Blues (1982) dan Milton Little 's The Blues adalah Alright (1984). Contemporary African-American performers who work this vein of the blues include Bobby Rush , Denise LaSalle , Sir Charles Jones , Bettye LaVette , Marvin Sease and Peggy Scott-Adams . Afrika-Amerika artis Kontemporer yang bekerja ini pembuluh darah blues termasuk Bobby Rush , Denise LaSalle , Sir Charles Jones , Bettye LaVette , Marvin Sease dan Peggy Scott-Adams .

Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan Texas gitaris blues Stevie Ray Vaughan
During the 1980s, blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. Selama tahun 1980-an, blues juga terus baik dalam bentuk tradisional dan baru. In 1986, the album Strong Persuader revealed Robert Cray as a major blues artist. [ 117 ] The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording, Texas Flood , was released in 1983, and the Texas-based guitarist exploded onto the international stage. Pada tahun 1986, album pembujuk Kuat mengungkapkan Robert Cray sebagai artis blues utama. [117] Yang pertama Stevie Ray Vaughan rekaman, Texas Banjir , dirilis pada tahun 1983, dan berbasis gitaris Texas meledak ke panggung internasional. 1989 saw a revival of John Lee Hooker 's popularity with the album The Healer . Eric Clapton , known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream , made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged , in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. 1989 melihat kebangkitan John Lee Hooker popularitas 'dengan album The Penyembuh . Eric Clapton , dikenal karena penampilannya dengan para Breakers Blues dan Cream , membuat kembali pada 1990-an dengan album Unplugged , di mana ia memainkan beberapa nomor standar blues pada gitar akustik. However, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack recording and other technological advances and new marketing strategies that include video clip production have increased costs, and challenge the spontaneity and improvisation that are an important component of blues music. [ 118 ] Namun diawal tahun 1990-an, rekaman multitrack digital dan kemajuan teknologi lainnya dan strategi pemasaran baru yang termasuk klip video mengalami peningkatan biaya produksi, dan menantang spontanitas dan improvisasi yang merupakan komponen penting dari musik blues. [118]
In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue began to be distributed, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and [ 119 ] more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged. [ 120 ] Pada 1980-an dan 1990-an, blues publikasi seperti Hidup Blues dan Blues Revue mulai didistribusikan, kota-kota besar mulai membentuk masyarakat blues, outdoor blues festival menjadi lebih umum, dan [119] lebih klub malam dan tempat-tempat untuk blues muncul. [120]
In the 1990s, blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for example, from the broad array of nominees of the yearly Blues Music Awards , previously named WC Handy Awards [ 121 ] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album . Pada 1990-an, blues performer mengeksplorasi berbagai genre musik, seperti dapat dilihat, misalnya, dari array yang luas dari calon dari tahunan Musik Blues Awards , yang semula bernama WC Handy Awards [121] atau dari Grammy Awards untuk Best Kontemporer dan Tradisional Blues Album . The Bilboard Blues Album chart monitors and therefore provides an overview over the current blues production. The Blues Bilboard chart Album monitor dan oleh karena itu memberikan gambaran atas produksi blues saat ini. Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records , Ruf Records , Chess Records ( MCA ), Delmark Records , NorthernBlues Music , and Vanguard Records ( Artemis Records ). blues kontemporer musik blues dipupuk oleh label antara lain: Alligator Records , Ruf Records , Chess Records ( MCA ), Delmark Records , NorthernBlues Musik , dan Vanguard Records ( Artemis Records ). Some labels are famous for their rediscovering and remastering of blues rarities such as Arhoolie Records , Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (heir of Folkways Records ) and Yazoo Records ( Shanachie Records ). [ 122 ] Beberapa label terkenal karena mereka menemukan kembali dan remastering dari blues langka seperti Arhoolie Records , Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (pewaris Folkways Records ) dan Yazoo Records ( Shanachie Records ). [122]

[ edit ] Musical impact [ sunting ] Musik dampak

Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. [ 123 ] Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong , Duke Ellington , Miles Davis , and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings. gaya musik Blues, bentuk (-bar blues 12), melodi, dan skala blues telah mempengaruhi banyak genre musik, seperti rock and roll, jazz, dan musik populer. [123] Tokoh jazz, folk atau batu artis, seperti sebagai Louis Armstrong , Duke Ellington , Miles Davis , dan Bob Dylan telah melakukan rekaman blues signifikan. The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen 's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin 's " Rhapsody in Blue " and "Concerto in F". Skala blues itu sering digunakan dalam lagu-lagu populer seperti Harold Arlen s '"Blues Night", blues balada seperti "Karena saya Fell for You" dan "Harap Send Me Seseorang untuk Cinta", dan bahkan dalam karya-karya orkestra seperti George Gershwin 's " Rhapsody in Blue "dan" Concerto dalam F ". Gershwin's second "Prelude" for solo piano is an interesting example of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic strictness. kedua Gershwin "Prelude" untuk piano solo adalah contoh menarik dari blues klasik, mempertahankan formulir dengan ketat akademik. The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames , especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (eg, in " A Hard Day's Night "). Skala blues itu di mana-mana dalam musik populer modern dan memberitahu banyak frame modal , terutama tangga pertiga digunakan dalam musik rock (misalnya, dalam " A Hard Day's Night "). Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman , teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers ' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman 's hit "Give Me One Reason". Blues bentuk digunakan dalam tema ke televisi Batman , idola remaja Fabian hit, "Turn Me Loose", musik country bintang Jimmie Rodgers 'musik, dan gitaris / vokalis Tracy Chapman 's hit "Berikan Aku Satu Alasan".
R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. R & B musik dapat ditelusuri kembali ke spiritual dan blues. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts 's hymns , mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms. Musik, rohaniwan adalah keturunan New England tradisi paduan suara, dan khususnya Isaac Watts s ' himne , dicampur dengan irama Afrika dan-dan-respons bentuk panggilan. Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues. Rohaniwan atau nyanyian agama dalam komunitas Afrika-Amerika jauh lebih baik didokumentasikan dari "low-down" blues. Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings . bernyanyi Spiritual dikembangkan karena masyarakat Afrika-Amerika bisa mengumpulkan untuk atau ibadah pertemuan massa, yang disebut pertemuan kamp .
Early country bluesmen such as Skip James , Charley Patton , Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing. bluesmen negara awal seperti Skip James , Charley Patton , Georgia Tom Dorsey bermain dan perkotaan blues negara dan memiliki pengaruh dari bernyanyi rohani. Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music . [ 124 ] Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet . Dorsey membantu mempopulerkan musik Injil . [124] musik Injil dikembangkan di tahun 1930-an, dengan Golden Gate Quartet . In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke , Ray Charles and James Brown used gospel and blues music elements. Pada tahun 1950, jiwa musik oleh Sam Cooke , Ray Charles dan James Brown yang digunakan Injil dan unsur-unsur musik blues. In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were these merged in soul blues music. Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R&B. Pada tahun 1960 dan 1970-an, Injil dan blues yang ini disatukan dalam jiwa blues musik. Funk musik tahun 1970-an dipengaruhi oleh jiwa; funk dapat dilihat sebagai suatu pendahuluan hip-hop dan R & B. kontemporer

Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Duke Ellington duduk di band besar dan bebop genre. Ellington extensively used the blues form. [ 125 ] Ellington ekstensif digunakan bentuk blues. [125]
Before World War II , the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear. Sebelum Perang Dunia II , batas-batas antara blues dan jazz kurang jelas. Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands , whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. Biasanya jazz memiliki struktur harmonik berasal dari band kuningan , sedangkan blues blues memiliki bentuk seperti-bar blues 12. However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles. Namun, melompat blues tahun 1940-an gaya campuran keduanya. After WWII, blues had a substantial influence on jazz. Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker 's "Now's the Time", used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes. Setelah Perang Dunia II, blues memiliki pengaruh besar pada jazz. Bebop klasik, seperti Charlie Parker 's "Sekarang adalah Waktu", digunakan bentuk blues dengan skala pentatonis dan catatan biru. Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art," less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". Bebop menandai perubahan besar dalam peran jazz, dari gaya populer musik untuk menari, ke "seni tinggi," kurang-diakses, cerebral "musik musisi". The audience for both blues and jazz split, and the border between blues and jazz became more defined. Penonton untuk kedua blues dan jazz split, dan perbatasan antara blues dan jazz menjadi lebih pasti. Artists straddling the boundary between jazz and blues are categorized into the jazz blues sub-genre. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] Seniman mengangkangi batas antara jazz dan blues dikategorikan ke dalam jazz blues sub-genre. [125] [126]
The blues' twelve-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock and roll music. Struktur-bar blues 'dua belas dan skala blues adalah pengaruh besar terhadap rock and roll musik. Rock and roll has been called "blues with a backbeat "; Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". Rock and roll telah disebut "blues dengan backbeat "; Carl Perkins menyebut rockabilly "blues dengan negara mengalahkan ". Rockabillies were also said to be twelve-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. Rockabillies juga dikatakan dua belas-bar blues dimainkan dengan bluegrass mengalahkan. " Hound Dog ", with its unmodified twelve-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock and roll song. Jerry Lee Lewis 's style of rock and roll was heavily influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie woogie. " Hound Dog ", dengan struktur dua belas-bar yang tidak dimodifikasi (baik harmoni dan lirik) dan melodi berpusat pada ketiga datar dari tonik (dan datar ketujuh subdominant itu), adalah sebuah lagu blues berubah menjadi lagu rock and roll. Jerry Lee Lewis gaya 's rock and roll sangat dipengaruhi oleh boogie woogie blues dan turunannya. His style of music was not exactly rockabilly but it has been often called real rock and roll (this is a label he shares with several African American rock and roll performers). [ 127 ] [ 128 ] Gaya musik tidak benar-benar rockabilly tetapi telah sering disebut rock and roll nyata (ini adalah label dia saham dengan American rock beberapa Afrika dan penyanyi rol). [127] [128]
Early country music was infused with the blues. [ 129 ] Jimmie Rodgers , Moon Mullican , Bob Wills , Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different to the country pop of Eddy Arnold . Awal musik country yang diresapi dengan blues. [129] Jimmie Rodgers , Moon Mullican , Bob Wills , Bill Monroe dan Hank Williams memiliki semua menggambarkan diri mereka sebagai penyanyi blues dan musik mereka memiliki blues merasa bahwa berbeda dengan pop negara Eddy Arnold . A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues. Banyak tahun 1970-an-negara "penjahat" musik era oleh Willie Nelson dan Waylon Jennings juga dipinjam dari blues. When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to country after the decline of 1950s style rock and roll, he sang his country with a blues feel and often included blues standards on his albums. Ketika Jerry Lee Lewis kembali ke negara setelah penurunan tahun 1950-an gaya rock and roll, ia bernyanyi negaranya dengan blues merasa dan sering termasuk standar blues di album nya. Many early rock and roll songs are based on blues: " That's All Right Mama ", " Johnny B. Goode ", " Blue Suede Shoes ", " Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On ", " Shake, Rattle, and Roll ", and " Long Tall Sally ". awal rock and roll Banyak lagu didasarkan pada blues: " Itu Semua Mama Right "," Johnny B. Goode "," Blue Suede Shoes "," Whole Lotta Shakin 'Goin On "," Shake, Rattle, and Roll ", dan " Long Tall Sally ". The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" (" Tutti Frutti ", Little Richard ) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" (" What'd I Say ", Ray Charles ). Afrika awal musisi rock Amerika mempertahankan tema seksual dan sindiran-sindiran musik blues: "Punya seorang gadis bernama Sue, tahu apa yang harus dilakukan" (" Tutti frutti ", Little Richard ) atau "Lihat gadis itu dengan gaun merah pada, Dia dapat melakukan Birdland sepanjang malam "(" Apa yang saya Katakanlah ", Ray Charles ). The twelve-bar blues structure can be found even in novelty pop songs, such as Bob Dylan 's " Obviously Five Believers " and Esther and Abi Ofarim 's " Cinderella Rockefella ". Bar blues struktur-dua belas dapat ditemukan bahkan dalam lagu-lagu pop kebaruan, seperti Bob Dylan 's " Jelas Lima Orang-orang percaya "dan Ester dan Abi Band 's " Cinderella Rockefella ".

[ edit ] In popular culture [ sunting ] Dalam budaya populer


The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues. Musik dari Taj Mahal untuk film tahun 1972 Sounder menandai kebangkitan kepentingan dalam blues akustik.
Like jazz , rock and roll , heavy metal music , hip hop music , reggae , country music , and pop music , blues has been accused of being the " devil 's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. [ 130 ] In the early 20th century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s. [ 64 ] In the early twentieth century, WC Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans. Seperti jazz , rock and roll , musik heavy metal , musik hip hop , reggae , musik country , dan musik pop , blues ini telah dituduh sebagai " setan "musik" dan menghasut kekerasan dan perilaku buruk lainnya. [130] Pada awal abad 20, blues dianggap jelek, terutama sebagai khalayak putih mulai mendengarkan blues selama tahun 1920. [64] Pada awal abad kedua puluh, WC Handy adalah orang pertama yang mempopulerkan blues-dipengaruhi musik di antara-hitam Amerika non.
During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film Sounder (1972). Selama kebangkitan blues tahun 1960-an dan 70-an, akustik blues artis Taj Mahal dan bluesman legendaris Texas petir 'Hopkins menulis dan dilakukan musik yang menonjol dalam film populer dan kritis diakui Sounder (1972). The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination. [ 131 ] Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release " Songcatcher ", which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia . Film ini memperoleh Mahal sebuah Grammy nominasi untuk Best Original Score Ditulis untuk Motion Picture dan BAFTA nominasi. [131] Hampir 30 tahun kemudian, Mahal blues untuk menulis, dan melakukan komposisi banjo, cakar-palu gaya, dalam rilis film 2001 " Songcatcher ", yang berfokus pada kisah tentang pelestarian musik akar Appalachia .
Perhaps the most visible example of the blues style of music in the late 20th century came in 1980, when Dan Aykroyd and John Landis released the film The Blues Brothers . Mungkin contoh yang paling terlihat dari gaya blues musik di akhir abad 20 datang pada tahun 1980, ketika Dan Aykroyd dan John Landis merilis film The Blues Brothers . The film drew many of the biggest living influenciers of the Rhythm and blues genre together, such as Ray Charles , James Brown , Cab Calloway , Aretha Franklin , and John Lee Hooker . Film ini menarik banyak influenciers hidup terbesar dari Rhythm dan blues genre bersama-sama, seperti Ray Charles , James Brown , Cab Calloway , Aretha Franklin , dan John Lee Hooker . The band formed also began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers marquee. Band ini terbentuk juga memulai sebuah tur yang sukses di bawah Blues Brothers tenda. 1998 brought a sequel, Blues Brothers 2000 that, while not holding as great a critical and financial success, featured a much larger number of blues artists, such as BB King , Bo Diddley , Erykah Badu , Eric Clapton , Steve Winwood , Charlie Musselwhite , Blues Traveller , Jimmy Vaughn , Jeff Baxter . 1998 membawa sekuel, Blues Brothers 2000 bahwa, sementara tidak memegang sebagai besar dan keuangan keberhasilan kritis, menampilkan sejumlah besar banyak artis blues seperti BB King , Bo Diddley , Erykah Badu , Eric Clapton , Steve Winwood , Charlie Musselwhite , Blues Traveller , Jimmy Vaughn , Jeff Baxter .
In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience. Pada tahun 2003, Martin Scorsese melakukan upaya yang signifikan untuk mempromosikan blues ke audiens yang lebih besar. He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues . [ 132 ] He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. Dia bertanya direksi beberapa yang terkenal seperti Clint Eastwood dan Wim Wenders untuk berpartisipasi dalam serangkaian film dokumenter PBS yang disebut The Blues . [132] Ia juga berpartisipasi dalam membawakan kompilasi seniman blues utama dalam serangkaian CD berkualitas tinggi. Blues guitarist and vocalist Keb' Mo' performed his blues rendition of " America, the Beautiful " in 2006 to close out the final season of the television series The West Wing . Blues gitaris dan vokalis Keb 'Mo' dilakukan membawakan blues nya " Amerika, Beautiful "di tahun 2006 untuk menutup musim akhir dari serial televisi The West Wing .

No comments:

Post a Comment